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Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

124 posts in this topic

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Am scris despre discul zburator RFZ (Rund Flug Zeug = Avion Rotund) BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke = Fabrica de Motoare din Bayer) Flugelrad (Aripa Rotativa) III, clopotul zburator electrohidrodinamic Repulsin 2, Vril 9 si Haunebu IV (120 metri diametru), cat si nava cilindrica Andromeda (139 metri lungime), purtatoare de doua giroscoape electrogravitationale Vril 1, doua Vril 2 si un Haunebu II (9-11 metri inaltime si 25 metri diametru), aerodina lenticulara a lui Henri Marie Coanda si multe alte sisteme de propulsie ale farfuriilor zburatoare.

 

“Iubirea mea eterna

                                                                     

             poezie scrisa de Vladimir Stoica in 1987 la Bacau, U. M. 01184,  artilerie terestra, dupa admiterea la facultate, in timpul stagiului militar obligatoriu de 9 luni de dinainte de a incepe facultatea de ingineria instalatiilor

 

                            “Privesc al Universului nemarginit ocean,

                             Prin care, de fildes roiuri de galaxii spirale,

                             Rotindu-se-n abisul sideral, de-obsidian,

                             Refac de-a lungul timpului etern, aceeasi cale.

 

                            Privesc adanc angelicii tai ochi, de chihlimbar,

                            Prin care, ale Iubirii coloane infinite,

                            Rotindu-se-n sufletele noastre, turbionar,

                            Refac de-a lungul timpului etern, viata si moarte.”

 

"Având în vedere milioanele de miliarde de planete asemănătoare Pământului, viața în altă parte în Univers, fără îndoială, există. În vastitatea Universului nu suntem singuri." Albert Einstein (1880 - 1955)

 

 

"Oricine se implică serios în căutarea de știință este convins că există un spirit care se manifestă în legile universului, o constiinta net superioară celei a omului." Albert Einstein

 

"Un nou mod de gandire. Este esential pentru supravietuire si trecerea la o noua faza a evolutiei." Albert Einstein

 

Toată materia are originea și există doar în virtutea unei forțe. Trebuie să acceptam ca în spatele acestei forțe se manifesta existența unei minți conştiente și inteligente. Această minte este matricea intregii materii." Max Planck - Tatăl fizii cuantice (1858 - 1947)

"Tot adevarul trece prin trei etape. In primul rand , este ridiculizat, in al doilea rand este violent opus, si in al treilea rand, este acceptat ca de la sine inteles." Arthur Shopenhauer (1788 - 1860)

 

"Cea mai frumoasă şi mai profundă trăire omenească este misterul."  Albert Einstein

"Adevăratul semn de inteligență nu este cunoașterea, ci imaginația." Albert Einstein

 

„Mi-e teama de ziua in care tehnologia va depasi interactiunea umana. Lumea va avea o generatie de idioti” Albert Einstein

 

"Paris Hilton: celebritate talent. Are o avere de 100 milioane dolari. Nikola Tesla: Unul dintre cei mai importanti inventatori din istorie. A murit sărac și în datorii. Pentru că capitalismul asigură că numai si numai cei mai buni și mai strălucitori devin bogati și de succes. "

"În măsura în care legile matematicii se refera la realitate, ele nu sunt sigure, și în măsura în care acestea sunt sigure, ele nu se referă la realitate." Albert Einstein (1880 - 1955)

 

 

"Nu incerca sa devii o persoana de succes, ci mai degraba incearca sa devii o persoana de valoare." Albert Einstein

 

"Daca albinele ar disparea de pe pamant, oamenii ar mai avea 4 ani de trait." Albert Einstein

 

"Al patrulea razboi mondial se va desfasura cu bate." Albert Einstein

 

„Ai un creier. Foloseste-l. E gratis!” Dr. Gregory House (interpretat de actorul britanic Hugh Laurie)

 

"Când un geniu adevărat apare în lume, îl poţi cunoaşte după acest semn, că toate întâmplarile sunt în confederație împotriva lui." Jonathan Swift

 

 

"Era de amânare, de jumătăți de măsură, de expediente liniștitoare și derutante de întârziere se apropie de sfârșit. În locul ei, intrăm într-o perioadă de consecințe." Winston Churchill

 

"Nimic nu este imposibil, cu excepția faptului că starea minţii tale face acest lucru." Profesorul John R. R. Searl

 

„Numai cu inima poți vedea bine, lucrurile esențiale rămân ascunse ochilor“ (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Micul prinț1943)

“Pentru a fi fericit ajunge să te gândești că undeva, printre milioane de stele, există ființa iubită“ (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Micul prinț1943)

“Ceea ce conferă un sens existenței sunt relațiile dintre oameni, care implică și responsabilitatea fiecăruia pentru soarta celorlalți.” (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Micul prinț1943)

„Un individ trebuie să se sacrifice pentru salvarea unei colectivități. Nu este vorba aici de o aritmetică stupidă. E vorba de respectarea omului ca individ.“ (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Pilot de război“, 1942)

„O persoană știe când atinge perfecțiunea în design, nu când nu mai are ceva de adăugat, ci când nimic nu mai poate fi scos“ Antoine de Saint-Exupéry  (1900 - 1944)

 

"Noi nu moștenim Pământul de la părinții noștri, îl împrumutăm de la copiii noștri." Antoine-Marie Roger, viconte de Saint-Exupéry (n. 29 iunie 1900Lyon - d. 31 iulie 1944, deasupra Mării Mediterane)

 

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
250px-Antoine_de_Saint-Exup%C3%A9ry.jpg
 
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, în cursul unei excursii cu vaporul, pe un lac, în apropiere de Montréal (Canada), mai în 1942
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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
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Antoine-Marie Roger, viconte de Saint-Exupéry (n. 29 iunie 1900Lyon - d. 31 iulie 1944, deasupra Mării Mediterane) a fost romanciereseist și reporterfrancez, aviator căzut pe frontul antifascist. S-a făcut cunoscut unui cerc larg de cititori în special datorită povestirii „Le Petit Prince“ („Micul Prinț“, 1943), una din cele mai răspândite cărți din lume, tradusă în circa 110 limbi.

 

 

Viața[modificare | modificare sursă]

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry s-a născut la 29 iunie 1900 în Lyon. În 1910 intră în colegiul din Mansși își continuă studiile la Fribourg (Elveția) . În 1921 intră în aviația franceză și, în 1926, devine pilot de linie al unei companii particulare. La începutul celui de al doilea război mondial se înrolează în aviația militară franceză și, după armistițiul din 1940, părăsește Franța și se stabilește la New York. În toamna anului 1942, odată cu debarcarea trupelor aliate în Africa de nord, Saint-Exupéry părăsește America și își reia activitatea de pilot de război.

După o perioadă de instructaj în Statele Unite ale Americii, participă, începând din 1943, la mai multe misiuni în AfricaSardinia și Corsica. În timpul unui zbor de recunoaștere deasupra Mării Mediterane la 31 iulie 1944, avionul său este doborît și Antoine de Saint-Exupéry este considerat de atunci dispărut. În 1998 s-a găsit în Marea Mediterană o brățară cu gravura numelui său și bucăți din avionul Lightning P38, cu care decolase din Corsica. În octombrie 2003, din largul mării în fața Marsiliei au fost scoase la suprafață fragmente ale avionului, care au putut să fie identificate fără îndoială ca aparținând avionului cu care zburase Saint-Exupéry.

Opera[modificare | modificare sursă]

Primele sale romane, „Courier Sud“ („Curierul de Sud“, 1929) și „Vol de nuit“ („Zbor de noapte“, distins în 1931 cu Premiul Femina), tematizează experiența sa de aviator și se remarcă prin descrierea unor situații periculoase (risc de prăbușire, singurătatea la mare înălțime etc.). Operele ulterioare, „Terre des Hommes“ („Pământul oamenilor“, premiat în1939 de Academia Franceză cu Marele Premiu al Romanului) și „Pilote de guerre“ („Pilot de război“, 1942) redau filosofia de viață împregnată de umanism a lui Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.

Povestirea modernă „Le Petit Prince“ („Micul prinț“, 1943), având deviza: „Numai cu inima poți vedea bine, lucrurile esențiale rămân ascunse ochilor“, s-a bucurat în epoca de după război de o mare popularitate. Micul locuitor al unei planete minuscule pornește într-o lungă călătorie prin lume ca să caute adevăratul sens al vieții. În cursul peregrinărilor sale ajunge să-și dea seama că pentru a fi fericit „ajunge să te gândești că undeva, printre milioane de stele, există ființa iubită“ iar ceea ce conferă un sens existenței sunt relațiile dintre oameni, care implică și responsabilitatea fiecăruia pentru soarta celorlalți.

Notițele sale făcute cu ocazia misiunilor de luptă în timpul războiului au fost reunite și publicate postum cu titlul „La Citadelle“(„Citadela“, 1948).Alte opere ale lui Antoine de Saint-Exupéry sunt: „Lettre à un otage“ („Scrisori către un ostatec“, 1943),„Un sens à la vie“ („Să dai un sens vieții“, postum 1956). Toți biografii săi arată că aviatorul și scriitorul era pasionat și de știință. Aprofunda teoria cuantică, principiile entropiei. Citea filosofie, cu sentimentul că este învecinată cu știința.

În 2008 editura Gallimard a editat Lettre a l'inconnue(“Scrisoare catre necunoscut”, publicată în România la editura RAO în anul 2009, în traducerea Ilenei Cantuniari).
Citat[modificare | modificare sursă]

„Un individ trebuie să se sacrifice pentru salvarea unei colectivități. Nu este vorba aici de o aritmetică stupidă. E vorba de respectarea omului ca individ.“ (A. de Saint-Exupéry: „Pilote de Guerre“)

„O persoană știe când atinge perfecțiunea în design, nu când nu mai are ceva de adăugat, ci când nimic nu mai poate fi scos“ (A. de Saint-Exupéry)

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In continuare, tot despre antigravitatie prin levitatie electromagnetica:


 

Energy Research

The online journal of Alexander S. Petty

« Comparison of Numeric Polarity in Pyramids and Torus

Geometric Derivations of the Transcendentals »

The Secrets of Edward Leedskalnin
The following was written by Michael Lawrence Morton in 1998:
There is only one man in the world who, by demonstration, has supported the claim, “I know the secret of how the pyramids of Egypt were built!” That man is now deceased and took the secret with him into the grave. Always sickly, he died at the age of 64 from malnutrition. And this man have magnetize rocks – Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati v8TbqZa8li4.










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leedskalnin and his antigravity device

Coral Castle was originally located in the town of Florida City. The site was later moved to Homestead, FL. The site consists of 10 acres completely surrounded by 8′ high coral blocks, tightly constructed without the use of cement between them. Each of these blocks weigh over 20 tons,
Edward Leedskalnin the engineer/builder did this work all by himself even though he was a very small man – 5 feet tall, weighing only 100 pounds. He did not own tall, heavy cranes which engineers use today to construct buildings. He was asked: Why did you do it? ‘Someday, my Sweet 16 will come,’ was always his response. Leedskalnin eventually quarried and sculpted over 1,100 tons of coral into a monument that would later be known as the Coral Castle. Leedskalnin gave polite, but cryptic answers to visitors’ questions regarding his construction methods, which to this day remain a mystery. In spite of his private nature, he eventually opened his monument to the public, offering tours for 10 cents. He was a surprisingly accommodating host, even cooking hot dogs for visiting children in a pressure-cooker of his own invention.
Coral Castle has attracted the international attention of professional construction engineers, astounded and mystified by the apparently impossible achievement of this diminutive wonder-worker. In the mid-1970s, for example, a large bulldozer was hired to manipulate a coral block equivalent to the Castle’s 30-ton monolith; the bulldozer could not even lift it.

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30 ton monolith at coral castle

Alternative science investigators suggest that Leedskalnin somehow learned the secret of the “world grid,” an invisible pattern of energy lines surrounding the Earth which concentrates points of telluric power where they intersect. It was here, at one of these intersections of Earth energy, that he was supposedly able to move his prodigious stone blocks using the unseen power of our planet. In fact, in The Enigma of Coral Castle, Ray Stoner suggests that Leedskalnin moved the Castle not because it was threatened by an encroaching subdivision, but because a surveying error misplaced the site ten miles from an Earth energy vortex or focal point. In order for the structures to maximize this energy, the entire complex needed to be relocated in Homestead, where the telluric forces were focused.
Bruce Cathie, in The Energy Grid, one of the most credible books on the subject, says “the site of Coral Castle is mathematically related to the world energy grid, as are the other remarkable structures which, however, date from ancient times. Ed Leedskalnin had not moved on to the Florida site by chance. This geometric position was extremely close to one that would be ideal for setting up harmonics related to gravity and light harmonics. The fact that [he] had access to secret knowledge is much more evident in the relationship of Coral Castle to the world energy grid system.”
Stoner says some fundamental conditions must be met before a structure like Coral Castle can be made to function as intended. It must be exactly situated over an energy vortex, aligned with a celestial event or events sufficiently precise to predict their recurrence, constructed in a specific shape, and built with certain materials. Finally, activities at the site may be successfully undertaken only at the moment the celestial events to which it is oriented take place.
Stoner’s prerequisites for particular shapes and building materials are reminiscent of experiments in pyramid power in the mid-1970s, when the precise angles (variants of 15.2 degrees) of the pyramid and its special construction elements (crystalline granite and non-conducting limestone) determined their success. In Using Pyramid Power, James Wyckoff writes,”The ancient Egyptians knew that the shape and angle of pyramids contained a mystical energy force.”
I think this “lot,” upon which Edward Leedskalnin built his wonders, is a sort of “Grid Point Nest” . . . with many ‘Matrix-valid’ Grid Points in relatively-close proximity. This might have something to do with Leedskalnin’s mysterious ability to lift and to precisely place those gigantic stones on the property.
Also; I found in doing the calculations above, that I initially figured the latitude as VERY close to 1/16th of an inch (on the USGS Topo map) below the ‘predicted 1983 NAD’ latitude parallel of 25 deg 30 min 00 sec, which is in fact the precise northern border of this Quad. This initial latitude figure, in terms of seconds, showed on my calculator as 1.234567901 seconds south of the 1983 NAD parallel of 25 30 00. Notice that the figure of 1.234567901 is the Square of 1.111111111 . . . to nine decimal places.
[Note also, here, that I am using a 'scale' of 0.050625 map inches per second of latitude]. The figure 1.234567901 precisely matches my calculated Grid Point Value for Dr. Bruce Cornet’s “Cydonia Face II” on the “Middletown” (New York) USGS 7.5-minute Topographical Quadrangle.
The calculated figure above for the number of W.Giza longitude seconds . . . 41.23807207 . . . is VERY close to a decimal harmonic of the Surface Area On A Sphere (formula) . . . 41.25296125.
I’m thinking that the more “nodal points of resonance” one can find, within relative proximity (of space and time), then the more that can be potentially “done” in that ‘area’ with respect to “tapping or using” that geometry. These “nodal points” would be, for example, decimal harmonics of ‘Matrix-valid’ numbers, including gematrian and gematria-related numbers. Possibly, this would ‘enable’ such things as lifting tremendous weights, or other seemingly “superhuman” feats.
After his death, a nephew living in Michigan, inherited the Castle. In 1953, shortly before his death, he sold the Castle to a family from Chicago. During the take-over, a box of Ed’s effects were found and examined. It contained a set of instructions which led to the discovery of 35 – $100 bills – his life savings.
This amazing claim to know the secret of how the pyramids of Egypt was built was made by a Latvian man named Edward Leedskalnin. He was an immigrant to the United States of America. He devised a way to single-handedly lift and move blocks of coral weighing up to 30 tons each. In Homestead, Florida, he used his closely guarded secret, and was able to quarry and construct an entire complex of monolithic blocks of coral. The weight of a single block used in the Coral Castle was greater than those that were used to build the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt. It took him 28 years to complete his work, which equaled about 1,100 tons of rock.
In the 1930s, a gang of thugs thought Ed had hidden riches. They beat him up and tried to rob him. Ed was shocked at this invasion into his private world. The attack motivated Leedskalnin to move Coral Castle! He picked up every megalith (some stones weighed up to 30 tons) and transported his entire castle. He hired a local trucker, but the driver was always directed to look away as Ed loaded the truck. All 3 million pounds of hard coral was moved 10 miles to its present location near Homestead Florida.
How did Ed move all of these carvings a distance of 10 miles? Ed had the chassis of an old Republic truck on which he laid two rails. He had a friend with a tractor who moved the loaded trailer from Florida City to Homestead. Many people saw the coral carvings being moved along the old Dixie Highway, but no one ever saw Ed loading or unloading the trailer. Ed did much of his work at night by lantern light. He seemed to have a sixth sense which told him when some one was trying to spy on him. The numerous lookouts along the Castle walls will attest to his suspicious nature.
Leedskalnin, had within his castle walls, coral blocks weighing approximately 15 tons each. He built a 22-ton obelisk, a 22-ton moon block, a 23-ton Jupiter block, a Saturn block, a 9-ton gate, a rocking chair that weighed 3-tons, and numerous puzzles, all made of coral. A huge, 9-ton rock that functions as a door and gate is perfectly balanced. One push from a small child can open it. On top of a huge 30-ton block, which he considered to be his major achievement, he crowned it with a gable-shaped rock.
Leedskalnin received attention not only from engineers and technologists, but from the U.S. government, who paid him a visit hoping to be enlightened. None ever were given the secret. In 1952, falling ill, Leedskalnin checked himself into the hospital and died, taking his secret with him.

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Leedskalnin's Flywheel

Leedskalnin flatly stated that all matter consists of individual magnets and it is the movement of these magnets within materials and through space that produces measurable phenomena, i.e., magnetism and electricity.
If all matter consists of individual magnets, we know that like poles repel and unlike poles attract. We also know that we can suspend one magnet above another as long as we don’t allow either of them to flip over so that the opposite poles attract each other. Magnets seek to attract and, left to themselves, will align their opposite poles to each other.
If a large magnet is suspended over a smaller magnet, depending on the ratio between them, the distance between the magnets would be diminished to the point that the smaller magnet wouldn’t be able to exert enough force to elevate it. The earth, being the largest magnet, issues forth streams of magnetic energy which follow lines of force that have been noted for centuries. If we assume, as Leedskalnin did, that all objects consist of individual magnets, we can also assume that an attraction exists between these objects due to the inherent nature of a magnet seeking to align an opposite pole to another. Perhaps Leedskalnin’s means of working with the Earth’s gravitational pull was nothing more complicated than devising a means by which the alignment of magnetic elements within his coral blocks was adjusted to face the streams of individual magnets he claims are issuing forth from the Earth with a like repelling pole.
A known method for creating magnetism in an iron bar is to align the bar with the Earth’s magnetic field and strike the bar with a hammer. This vibrates the elements in the bar and allows them to be influenced by the magnetic field they are in. The result is that when the vibration stops, a significant number of the atoms have aligned themselves within this magnetic field.
Christopher Dunn asks: “Was this the method that Leedskalnin was using? It’s a simple concept, but looking at the devices in Leedskalnin’s workshop, I can easily imagine the application of vibration and electromagnetism. His fly-wheel for creating electricity remains motionless, for the most part, until inquisitive tourists like me come along and give it a spin. After a few revolutions, I realized that something was missing. The narrative I had heard, while browsing around the castle, described Leedskalnin as using this device to create electricity to power his electric light bulbs. It was claimed that Leedskalnin didn’t have electricity, but I couldn’t imagine this device being a useful and continuing source of power, using only Leedskalnin’s right arm to turn the wheel. On closer examination of this piece, I found that the whole assembly was actually an old 4-cylinder crank case. His flywheel was mounted on the front end of the crankshaft and consisted of bar magnets that were sandwiched between two plates, the upper plate being a ring gear. Giving it weight and solidifying the entire assembly, Leedskalnin had encased the bar magnets with cement. It then occurred to me that the photo of Leedskalnin with his hand on the crank handle, which is attached to the end of the shaft, may not accurately represent his entire operation. It is possible that Leedskalnin was using the crank handle to start a reciprocating engine, now missing, which attached to one of the throws on the crankshaft. He would then be able to walk away and leave his flywheel running.
I was now mystified. I had developed a notion that the bars attached to the flywheel were actually being used to develop vibration in the piece Leedskalnin was trying to lift. This idea didn’t make sense after looking at the type of material, size and weight of the entire assembly. The crankcase was firmly attached to the coral block in his workshop, and even if it wasn’t attached, it would be quite a feat to keep moving it about. There was one factor I needed to check out, though, before I headed back to Illinois. I had tested the bar magnet with a pocket knife. The knife was attracted to each bar. I needed to know, conclusively, the arrangement of the poles in the wheel, to see, indeed, whether the assembly was capable of creating electricity.
Leaving the workshop and absorbing the penetrating rays of the Florida sunshine, I headed for the nearest strip mall to look for a hardware store so that I could buy a bar magnet. North on Route1 I found a Radio Shack. They had just what I needed, and for only $1.75. Feeling rather pleased, I swung back onto Route 1 and returned to Coral Castle.
Once there, I headed back into Leedskalnin’s workshop and put the magnet to the test. I held the magnet a short distance away from the spokes of the flywheel while giving it a spin. Sure enough, I found out what I had come for. The magnet pushed and pulled in my grasp as the wheel rotated. Looking around the room, I gazed at a jumble of various devices, lying, hanging and leaning about the room. There were radio tuners, bottles with copper wire wrapped around them, spools of copper wire and other various and sundry plastic and metal pieces that looked like they had fallen out of an old radio set.
Leedskalnin’s workshop also contained chains, blocks and tackle and other items that one might find lying around a junkyard. Some items are missing, though. Photographs of Leedskalnin at work show three tripods, made of telephone poles, that have boxes attached to the top. These objects, however, are not to be found at Coral Castle. What is striking here, is that the block of coral being moved is seen off to the side of the tripod. Perhaps Leedskalnin had moved the tripod after raising the block out of the bedrock. Though another interesting observation is that the block and tackle that can be found inside his workshop are nowhere to be seen in this photograph. There are spools of copper wire in his workshop, and there were also two wrappings of copper wire. One was round copper and the other flat copper. In a narrative that visitors can hear at various recording stations around the compound, it is stated that at one time Leedskalnin had a grid of copper wire suspended in the air. Looking at the photograph, again, one can see that there is a cable draped around the tripod and running down to the ground. Perhaps the arrangement of tripods was more related to the suspension of his copper grid than the suspension of block and tackle.
I have no doubt that Leedskalnin told the truth when he said he knew the secrets of the ancient Egyptians. Unlike those who have sought publicity for their own inadequate, though politically correct, theories, he proved it by his actions. I believe, also, that these techniques can be rediscovered and put to use for the benefit of mankind. Edward Leedskalnin, right or wrong, had a little bit of a problem with trust. This modus operandi was not unusual for a craftsman of his day. Proprietary techniques without patent disclosure assure continued employment and, therefore, it was perfectly normal that he would protect his secret from prying eyes that might steal and profit from it. I believe there are enough pieces there to put together and replicate his technique. It’s been done once (sorry, twice), and I am sure that it can be done again!”

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the unusual accomplishment of coral castle

Leedskalnin demonstrated to neighbors his strange machines. He was able to generate his own electricity. Ed wrote a total of 5 pamphlets; one called ‘Magnetic Current’ is as incomprehensible as Einstein’s Unified Field Theory. He admitted that he could produce anti-gravity and knew how the ancient pyramids were built. He wrote: “A Book In Every Home”, “Sweet Sixteen, Domestic and Political Views” . His “Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Life” contains his beliefs on life’s cycle. He also wrote 3 pamphlets on “Magnetic Current”.
A plaque was found in Ed’s bedroom after he died. It read: THE SECRET TO THE UNIVERSE IS 7129 / 6105195.
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49 Responses to “The Secrets of Edward Leedskalnin”

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1. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmAt says:

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January 6, 2010 at 5:34 pm

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It’s like you’re answering some of my most important questions……
Please allow me some time to think about it all, and I’ll probably get back to you with more questions.
THANKS!

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2. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifEllen Kamhi PhD RN says:

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April 11, 2010 at 8:32 pm

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Can you grant me permission to use information in the paper written by Michael Morton that is posted on your website? I will be doing a presetation about the Coral Castle at the United States Psychotronic Association Conference in July 2010, and am preparing slides. I would like to promote your work.
Thank you,
ELLEN KAMHI PHD RN

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3. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.jpgAlex says:

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April 11, 2010 at 9:37 pm

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You have my permission to re-produce content from my website in your upcoming conference.
Let me know how your presentation is received!
All the best,
Alex

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4. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifPedro says:

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May 6, 2010 at 11:15 pm

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Alex, I live in Miami for the past 15 years and planning to visit Coral Castle for the first time soon sometime this month. I never heard about Edward Leedskalnin up until recently when I began doing some research on in magnetic fields for one of my projects.
Most papers I read about the working habits of Edward described his preference for working at night to avoid been seen by other people. One of the reason I believed he might preferred working at night is because heat weakens magnetic fields.
I had just read the book he wrote “A Book in Every Home” what seems strange to me is how people that knew him described a person that does not correspond to the thoughts he expresses.
The book’s content in my opinion was written as a metaphor. I found some of his description on human behavior so meticulous and mechanical, that most likely he was referring to his work.
Some of the things I found interesting were; the similarities between boy, girl to the south and north poles; the meticulous “symmetry of a smile” to the V shape magnet of his alternator. Even his “16” page book, when you think about each page left-text and right-empty you even think on both north and south poles.
Thanks for posting this article and would appreciate if you let me know a group or site that studies his work.
best wishes, Pedro.

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5. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.jpgLeslie Schwartz says:

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June 21, 2010 at 12:48 pm

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Very interesting material.
I scanned thru Ed’s book on Magnetism, which is an attempt to understand and explain magnetism thru practical experiments, and he extends ‘magnetism’ thru to forces acting on the surface of the earth, due to the earths magnetic field. He pointed out that the magnetic direction of flow and concentration of force were not equal everywhere on the surface of the earth.
It seems he somehow used magnetic forces which he transfered from his generator to the blocks he wanted to move using induction of what we normally call alternating current, and he also made use of the earth’s ‘magnetic’ forces available at his location(s) in Florida. He used a copper or other metal distribution of energy from the generator, and he also used the normal block and tackle, chains, hoists to move the blocks in conjunction with the magnetic forces.
Ed considered magnetism and electric current as equivalent phenomena, in terms of how he applied it, he transformed one into the other.
And also in his book he seemed to carefully consider how an imbalance in these forces occurred at some particular point in the magnetic / induction current circuit.
That is we (our science of electricity and magnetism) mostly think of the entire set of electrical and magnetic forces in a complete circuit, and that there is a net conservation of force and energy.
But Ed, somehow knew how to create an imbalance of the magnetic force thru simple electrical machines, relative to the flow of energy thru the earth and this is how he moved the huge blocks.
That is (I believe) if he found that a particular point on the surface of earth was predominantly north or south, he then used his induction generator to apply the opposing force thru the block, somehow this was enough force plus his block and tackle to move the blocks.
This defies the common view of the amount of energy flowing thru any bit of non-ferromagnetic mass situated at some point on the surface of the earth.
But somehow he did it.

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6. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifrichard barnette says:

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July 12, 2010 at 12:12 pm

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more than interesting there are toys on the market that do some of the same things vectron air hog and lifter it would be very interesting to know if leedskalnin ever met tesla

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7. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifJonnyDeath says:

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September 4, 2010 at 8:31 pm

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I do get annoyed by the suggestions of magical science and using the scalar grid of the earth. It has everyone ignoring more obvious and logical answers that are still very impressive and far more believable.
It can and should be speculated that Ed found a way to produce electricity far more efficiently and, he was generating a frequency or band of frequencies that tapped into the electrical and magnetic properties of all matter.
Establish this more logical train of thought and then it’s quite believable that he was able to use coils, radio waves and other basic force principles of science to build coral castle as well as cure his tuberculosis.
Rife scope anyone?
I believe the answers are far simpler than proposed and, not nearly as extraordinary as they are effective and unconventional.

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8. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifbob ruhoy says:

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November 7, 2010 at 11:31 pm

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Forget coral castle at the site in Homestead. He moved all the giant stone carvings from his previous site in Florida City (approx 10 miles away). There is one picture from Florida City showing his crumbling home built of cinder block size stones. Next to it are all of the largest stone carvings lined up in a row. He moved them all to the new site at Homestead. The block & tackle was given to him by a farmer at the Homestead site. My Point — He had nothing at the old site !!!!!!!!!!!!!
Contact me if you have more questions, I’ll have the answers.

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9. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBen B says:

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November 18, 2010 at 3:18 pm

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Hi Bob,
It would be good to understand how ED.L. accomplished his feat of carving just even the Well.
Thanks for your help in advance – peace.
B

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10. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifPotugal, Jon says:

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November 24, 2010 at 11:58 am

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7129 / 6105195
this as already been solved and explained.
what i only need to know is if anyone as ever reproduced a 10ton lifting using this method.
the explanation derives from prime numbers ,prime quadruplets, angles, north and south poles of mgnetism,and the pyramidal force field, i have the knowledge about all this, but i repeat, i only know the theorys, i have not seen it put to pratice, should i be the one doing it???

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11. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifJonathan Bollefer says:

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January 1, 2011 at 7:22 pm

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Thank you for all the wonderful information. It is astounding to thing what magnetic forces might be at work here. I am doing some investigative research on the rock gate and am interested in the original papers that Edward wrote on magnetic current. Is it possible to have you send me the copies of these works for research purposes.
Thanks if you think there is any other pertinent information please email me and I will get back with you asap.

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12. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifRobert says:

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February 15, 2011 at 1:20 am

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Gentlemen
I would like to say some of the remarks and theories made in this articial are not far from the truth. Ed Leedskalnin did in fact discover a form of anti gravity. I’ve been able to duplicate his feat with ease and I’m amazed at how simple his device was. What Ed discovered has always been known, only science has never paid any attention to it and still doesn’t. I understand why Ed never released his discovery and while I play with my device,( and it is fun) I have no intention of releasing my discovery. All I want to say is…. My hat goes off to you Mr. Leedskalnin. Your discovery is so simple and easy to understand.

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13. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifRobert says:

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February 15, 2011 at 1:35 am

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leslie
You are so close to what Ed discovered only look at it this way. What Ed produced was an absence of magnetism. When you cancel magnetism, attach that device to an object, that object becomes part of the void. A void netural to both north and south poles. Eds device was magnificent yet simple, and by applying or shifting magnetism from one part of the machine to another it enabled him to move large heavy objects from one place to another. I know this to be true because I’ve done it.

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14. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBowen says:

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February 27, 2011 at 2:11 pm

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I think I have something new on this Ed Leedskalnin accomplishment. I’ve noticed a relationship between his work and Marko Rodin’s. Used Marko’s math and Ed’s clues… I found a 16 bundle Rrodin coil could be made by putting 144 pins around a torus. 144/16 = 9 as far as I’ve found this 144 is the only workable multiple in this way… 144, 288 ect. Maybe Ed had a rodin coil in that magic box of his that he powered with his fly wheel… It seems to make the best sense to me as the Rodin coil is a man made black hole and black holes are gravity wells.

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15. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBowen says:

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February 27, 2011 at 2:21 pm

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Also, I’d like to suggest that matter is just light trapped in a singularity that we call an atom… umm… The inverse square law is a neat one… I don’t think that energy moves in straight lines but rather voxtacies. And since it would be propagating out a force must be propagating in to infinity. This strikes me as a chicken and egg situation, the answer is a simple question. How did the chicken or egg come to be without a rooster? Or in postmodern philosophy how can you define things externally with out an internal definition. both these things are non-sense. you cant have one without the other. It’s called duality.

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16. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifL.Ron says:

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April 11, 2011 at 12:35 pm

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Can anyone give an example on how to create an experiment to demonstrate ED’s principles?

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17. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifgabe says:

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April 14, 2011 at 3:16 pm

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this is very interesting, has anyone reconstruction his antigravity machine?

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18. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifgabe says:

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April 14, 2011 at 3:22 pm

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i’m only 17 but i plan for this to be my life’s work intill i understand and created edward’s device

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19. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifChris Hefti says:

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May 5, 2011 at 8:39 pm

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Hi there,
All of the above statements are somewhat true, I think the answer to all questions is a combination of factors. Wow, i really kicked-in that open door, didn’t i ? I think we have to consider the following: nothing is impossible unless our mind makes it so! For example: in moments of need, despair or if you’re threatened by something bigger than yourself, you will discover that you have much bigger powers than you ever could have imagined (your mind sets the boundries of what is possible) In an emergency you don’t pay attention to those boundries and therefore they don’t exist !) In that state of mind we all can lift a car, we weren’t able to lift before.
I think we have to combine the technical knowledge with an altered state of mind, get rid of our constricting boundries and matters will become possible !
And sure I immediatly aknowledge the fact that it is much easier said than done. We all are conditioned to be inadequate, because our teachers are inadequate! We have to leave that state of mind behind and realize we are only using 10 % of our potential !
We can do anything if we only could set our minds to it!
Thanks for your inspiring ideas !
bye,
chris

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20. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifPatrick says:

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May 14, 2011 at 11:51 am

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Robert,
You say you have produced the same machine that Ed built and that you can manipulate the same anti-gravity effects due to canelling out the magnetism of an object, how long did it take you to discover this and howcome, if it is so easy, none of us here are able to figure it out with all the time we’ve put in to researching it. Could you please give some sort of a clue as to where to start or what sort of materials are all necessary so that as not revealing your secret but still helping others out on the right path?

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21. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifwilson says:

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May 17, 2011 at 12:23 am

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I would like to get my hands on the original documents that he wrote.

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22. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifquestions says:

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July 4, 2011 at 6:37 pm

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ok Robert, not to say prove it but really. You can’t just make claims and expect people to believe you. How bout some proof or a pic or plans that would help create such a device or devices. We are in a world where oil is king and dammit I want free energy that I can create. So you dont have to prove it to me becuase I know I will build one of these generators and have fun, but seriously any extra information will help. if not then your loss. Sharing is caring.

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23. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifTrevon says:

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July 19, 2011 at 5:04 am

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0 also means nothing or “Void. I punched in 7129/6105195 and it equals zero or “Nothing” which could also mean Neutrons file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.gif

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24. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.jpgAlex says:

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July 19, 2011 at 12:35 pm

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@ Trevon
The value for the ratio is 7129 / 6105195 is
0.0011676940703777684414666525803
but i take your point that neutrality is where vectors cancel

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25. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifVIKRAM says:

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October 14, 2011 at 10:42 am

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All the above are only talking about Ed using supposodely anti-gravity.But
more important – is to query, cut ,lift and carve these rocks.To cut the rock from ground and more importantly the bottom- how did he cut the bottom portion from the ground? One man with those primitive tools -how did he do it? After he has cut the rock and separated from the ground- then comes the lifting of rocks.Which we all think might be an anti gravity technique.But equally mysterious is the preparation of the rock. Carving,knowing centre ogf gravity of the rotating door.
Salutes to Ed .

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26. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifDennis says:

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October 21, 2011 at 6:41 am

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Does anyone know if his generator has a ground rod connection under it? It would only link it to Henry T. Moray’s device in so far as to where the power comes from but not how it was used to move the coral. It seems to me that the coral’s properties are linked to tapping the negative energy. I think the pyramids are made of stone for this reason also. It also seems odd to have concrete in the generator -tuning properties?
Robert – if you do know how to do this and plan to keep it to yourself, I would like to know your reason, out of curiousity. I can think of a few myself.

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27. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifZach says:

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October 25, 2011 at 10:57 am

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I am absolutely fascinated by Ed and his ability to construct Coral castle all by himself. One thing i noticed is Ed incorporated the stars into his construruction (including the moon). He also only worked at night. Could this have any relevance to his secrets? He seemed to have a vast knowledge not only of physics, and magnetism, but of the stars. Many ancient cultures such as the egyptians, inca, and mayans constantly go back to the stars, and they had a vast knowledge of the universe. It just intrigues me that so many different cultures around the world were able to build such large structures using primitive tools. also despite the fact that they are so far away from each other, they still have a similar structure in the pyramid. If Ed claimed to know the secrets of the pyramids, did he not only find a lost form of energy (considering he made his own electricity) but he figured out a major secret of the universe? Im just speculating and know nothing of magnetism and physic (though i wish i did) but cant we go beyond the thought that the constructions are more than just coincidence?

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28. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifAaron says:

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January 6, 2012 at 2:55 am

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Forget about Robert, he’s just lying to get our attention. If he found the secret, he would be famous already.
Forget about Ed. He’s smart but such a selfish person deserve no respect from me. However I’ll continue to study, research about these antigravity electromagnetic subjects.
I feel sorry for mankind. Still very ignorant, very selfish, very greedy. If anyone ever found any solution, it’s best to share because your children, and/or grandchildren might not live to tell the tales. 1/4 trees left, 7 billions population, continue polluting atmosphere w/ old fashion combustion engine, increase of radiation, increase sea level, increase disaster. Still using primative material and technique that doesn’t withstand disasters.

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29. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmuzza says:

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January 16, 2012 at 11:06 pm

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I know why ed and robert (if his claim is true) would keep it to themselves. Its because its one of those things that are ‘easy when you know how’ and if the secret got out everyone would build one because one thing for sure, whatever he did was very inexpensive. So robert if you just tell me I won’t tell anyone either lol ps the key to the universe is -1, 0, +1

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30. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.jpgAlex says:

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January 18, 2012 at 9:51 am

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@muzz
You my friend are a born Foundational Mathematician.
-1, 0, +1 — exactly right. (simpler to even say 0,1 since distance and direction are ultimately illusory)

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31. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmad mike says:

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February 18, 2012 at 8:04 am

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WHAT IF
what if the box contained steel wool, to atract magnet flow
what if the wire was steel not copper running from the box to the wheel
what if he gathered magnet flow from the ground and ran it to the wheel
what if he reveresed the flow of magnetrisity
what if the wheel ran at 7.129 Hz

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32. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifLouis says:

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March 18, 2012 at 8:14 pm

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Dear Alex,
The photo you are posting is a rotor carrying the magnets, then the missing part is the stator. Also the overall equipment is an electric generator, using a gas engine as a prime mover. Then Ed fixed a rotor carrying the magnets on the flywheel of an engine and he has destroyed completely the stator. Because all the secret is in the stator.
My assumption is: the stator consists out of 24 coils corresponding to the 24 protruding and fixed magnets. The secret will be the material of the core of these 24 coils.
According to Ed, he mentioned that all materials consists of magnets. Today we know from NMR, that what he said is true, and there is a frequency typical for each material at which each material will reach resonance.
Now let us assume that he was rotating his engine at 2100 rpm, while having 24 magnets: it means that he was working at the frequency of 24 * 2100 / 60 = 840 Hz, while his magnets are ferrite magnets having an intensity of about 0.4 Tesla. Then the core of his coils corresponds to a material which is having its resonant frequency of 840 Hz when subject to a magnetic field of 0.4 Tesla.
This is the real secret of Ed Leedskalnin: the material of the core of his coils. Some materials when subject to their resonant frequency, they will release a high energy level as we have now LASER (Light Amplification by Simulated Emission Radiation), that is we are amplifying light energy when we subject some material to their resonant frequency.

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33. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifYellow says:

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March 19, 2012 at 12:12 am

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What if he used the massive crane, pulley, levers and gears he poses for photographs with.
Nah it couldn’t be that logical…. Must be alien technology from the Bermuda Triangle and Atlantis. Really people?

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34. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifVic says:

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March 25, 2012 at 2:07 am

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Its a shame he couldn’t share his secrets, wonder why, selfish grumpy old man.
If you have the secrets pleases share with others its our duty as humans.
If people Like Robert had worked it out whats with the arrogance?

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35. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBoyGenius says:

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April 12, 2012 at 4:14 am

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The gentleman that said he reproduced Ed machine is a fraud, because anyone who could reproduce the machine would be an instant billionaire. I know I would be, human nature is not to seek technology for fun, however to improve their specific quality of life. In short people are selfish by nature and would exploit this technology for financial gain, as it does not exist in our modern day society

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36. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmikefromspace says:

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April 17, 2012 at 12:50 am

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I have explained this entire device in sufficient enough detail so that any common person can assemble one with a little patience… it’s on youtube. Just google “mikefromspace”. The answer is a matter of tricking massive particles of magnetic current away from the energetic ones that can rerun through the copper and brass parts.
MASS is the only thing that will displace mass. I explain it all, detailed particle physics that even a child can understand. Yes you can use this tech to lift itself… make a craft.

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37. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmikefromspace says:

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April 17, 2012 at 1:05 am

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Vic; he left all important parts there when he left for the hospital but people looted copper. I explain what parts on youtube… user mikefromspace. Short version here; fw.makes 3 cycle sinewave before shorting energy through a 4 contact distributor that gives a carrier pump z wave. Two seperate iron masses continually build field charge.. one neg bias one pos bias monopolar storage of slower current particles like the theoretical bosons. Momentum comes of their charging which becomes a positronic or pos ion field that is physically heavy but without matter. Anyway… long story short; you want to make a craft that runs itself; I explain how in the videos… short of small details like number of windings on the magneto block etc… or you can just use it to play with blocks like ole’ Ed.

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38. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifJarrod says:

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April 19, 2012 at 5:45 pm

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Edward Leedskalnin may have been either a genius or a prankster where is the black box did he hide it or did someone take it so we wouldn’t know the secrets to anti-gravity these are all good questions to keep in mind but the thought that he did what Egyptians did is pure hogwash. If the Egyptians moved stones with electricity then there would be evidence such as magnets or wire or any of the other evidence like the evidence that he left behind. Stuff like iron magnets don’t just disappear or erode that fast.

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39. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifConceilia says:

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April 21, 2012 at 7:08 am

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Hi,
when I have gone through the story of Edward,even before getting into the secrets lying behind his construction,I felt his story to be very pathetic and even heart touching.How unlucky was the girl who lost his love!!!!I don’t want to see its electronic and mechanical sides but I just want to see it in his own angle of how specially he has constructed the most beautiful house to his beloved.what a commitment and what a dedication to his love!!!!really heart touching!!!

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40. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifAntanas says:

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June 25, 2012 at 4:57 pm

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Interestingly threre are so many details missing in this whole thing. And the whole thing I found very intriguing. Although advice to GABE – do not waist your time on finding gone devices which might never egsisted. I think everything in Eds writings. If I was 17 I would start rewriting magnetic and electricity theories, discover new things based on the theory rather. This would be more important. It is strange how many things learned in the school and uni were in fact not right. Even simple explanation about the seasons of the year. All people talking about climate change. but acording to my teachers explanation – inpossible. And I believe otherwise. And where to get those magnets for generator?

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41. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifAntanas says:

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June 25, 2012 at 5:15 pm

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Talking about Eds work, I can say I am very tempted to lift at least 1Kg using Eds theory. It would be so interesting! l believe there is less seacrets then we think in there. I think Eds magnetic theory is revolutional and as the whole world turned to comercional science (since sir Edison was kiling himself 2000 or so times to find only 1 way to lit the lamp); another thing – allmighty mathematics everywhere want to frame everything in formulas, so nobody interested much and the funy thing I think one day the world will have to say sorry we’ve got it wrong.
PS any current ideas about the magnets? I live in UK old Ford engine might be too expensive to get from States.

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42. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifC.C. Low says:

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July 6, 2012 at 3:26 am

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If any of you guys care to read what I have to add on here, you may be surprised to learn that vibrations and magnetism (as theorised by Leedskalnin) do have some connection. And I have proof of this. Many years back when I was doing national service for my country I discovered a secret mystifying force at work. While I was attending a Section Leader Course at Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute, one of my section mate trainees told us of a “skill” which his Shaolin master had taught him in earlier years. He said that four persons located at four ends of a square could have the ability to lift a person sitting on a chair using only one finger each (effectively meaning by the effort of 4 fingers lifting the subject at four separate points at the four corners of the chair. However, there have firstly to place (or tap) the top side of the person’s head by, firstly using the right hand of each person placing in succession (without break) and then immediately removing them (after the 4th person has done so) to be followed by the left hand of each of the participants and so forth rotating the hands each time. This can be done as many times, the more times the stronger the resultant “effect” to be produced. At an instruction given all 4 participants should remove their hands and with his right index finger only place it under each end of the chair. At the command “go” all should lift up their end of the corner of the chair up as high as possible.
Well, me and my section mates did try it on one of our guys who weighed about 70 lbs with only one finger each (index finger) and it worked, although he was about 4 feet in the air for about one or 2 seconds before earth’s gravity brought back the reality. I tried to analyse this in later years when I was in varsity, and I have come to the conclusion that by hitting the head of the subject continuously we probably had disturbed the order of magnetic fluidity in the person (probably the part affected most being his brain), creating some vibration or resonance which affected his weight (the magnetic field in his body may have been temporarily affected making him slightly “weightless”).

25]
43. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifC.C. Low says:

7]
July 6, 2012 at 3:37 am

7]
Following my narration above, there is another example you may want to experiment as well.
Stand upright about 2 feet from the wall with your arms hanging straight down in natural standing position. Curl your palm inwards towards your thigh. Then lean against the wall using the outside of your curled palm to balance against the wall. Stay in this position for about 10 minutes then return your body posture to upright position again. You will find that your subject arm will raise itself upwards without any effort or command from your brain for a temporary period. This temporal independent movement of your body part, although being part of a biological effect involving muscles, does also involve gravity, or magnetism (as defined by Leedskalnin).

25]
44. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifEric says:

7]
July 10, 2012 at 9:29 pm

7]
Suppose the crank mechanism mounted inside of the flywheel
contained another magnet from an old generator armature that
was somehow geared to generate a magnetic field opposing the one
created by the magnets on the flywheel. I don’t know if counter rotating fields could be tapped by Ed to help him accomplish such a difficult task
or if they would just cancel one another out. Perhaps it’s something to
ponder by minds much smarter than mine. You have an interesting site.
Keep up the good work.

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45. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifGil says:

7]
July 19, 2012 at 2:29 am

7]
It seems fairly certain that Leedskalnin had some secret to moving large stones. The pyramids also had large stones, that we have severe problems moving with modern equipment.
Several somewhat unsubstantiated reports I have read on the internet, seem to suggest that sound is the key to moving large stones, and some other objects.
I am moving toward the opinion that sound is the key.
If I get a chance to do some testing, I think I will try sound, first.
That’s what I think at this point.

25]
46. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifGil says:

7]
July 19, 2012 at 10:51 am

7]
I have finally found a website that proves as well as can be shown,
the secret of how the Coral Castle was constructed.
If concerned people want to know for sure, the solution can be verified with very reliable accuracy.
The only reason for not letting the proof be shown, is that people want to keep a deception alive.
They wish to believe a lie, rather then know the truth.
They wish to spread a lie, rather then understand the truth.
Either way, it can be proved.
The only question is – Will those who have the authority to
let the truth be proved either way, do so ?
http://www.world-mys...onstruction.htm
.

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47. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifbigal says:

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August 19, 2012 at 6:53 am

7]
Well… I was really enjoying the intrigue of Eds story and was fascinated with the possibilities, I still am open to levitation theories etc… But now i will get back to some real work after reading the article Gil has referenced above… it is very compelling! Cheers for the reality check…

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48. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifCoil says:

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August 31, 2012 at 5:08 pm

7]
This guy is selling a Flyweel replica in ebay –http://www.ebay.com/...=item2321a76ac7
And this man have magnetize rocks – Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati v8TbqZa8li4.

25]
49. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmatyelle says:

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September 17, 2012 at 2:21 pm

7]
as I stumbled upon leedskalnins coral castle through searching for information on magnetic fields, i have been humbled by such a magnificent and truely awe inspiring feat.
this redirection of energy and the manor of wich it was achieved for the period of time each instance leeds me to believe that it will be acheived again and again.
unfortunatly, for all of us who lack imagination and the drive to set such magnifincent feats for all to wonder “how did they do that”, the human condition will always prevent the progress of less formarly educated men and women, especially those who think freely and outside the box. after all it would be hard to put into text today for all manors of authoritative bodies that what we have believed for the past 4 centries is only a tenth of what we had infront of us the whole time.
i would like to add an observation, a “what if”, so to speak, what if the generator was actually energizing the coral on in the ground to create a feild and then the tripods were used to energize the stones to be moved.
to the guy who claims that he has fun with a working model of leedskalnins generator congradulation and well done. please for future refrence keep your acomplishment to your self unless you would be will to use it to create another world wonder that the world will be astonished by. to think that a person has the ability to reshape the world and sits in a garage playing with it, is as unbearible as knowing that a single man took this secret to his grave.

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file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image016.jpgCastelul de Coral, Monument pentru Dragostea Pierduta



Cum a reusit un om de 1.5 m si 50 kg sa construiasca o gradina de stanca folosind bucati de coral ce cantaresc cateva tone fiecare? Castelul de Coral, aflat in Homestead, Florida, a fost construit de un emigrant lituanian pe nume Ed Leedskalnin in cinstea unei iubiri pierdute. A inceput sa-l construiasca in 1923 dupa ce a fost parasit de logodnica lui in Lituania cu doar cateva zile inaintea nuntii, si si-a dedicat viata finalizarii acetui monument. Constructia a continuat si dupa moartea lui in 1951.


Expertii sunt uimiti cum de a putut Leedskalnin, care avea o educatie de numai 4 clase, sa construiasca un Castel de Coral de unul singur. Un inginer sustine ca nici Albert Einstein nu si-a putut da seama.

Review:Magnetic Current by Edward Leedskalnin

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Page first featured April 22, 2009

Coral_Castle_Magnet_aparatus_250.jpg




Resources and reviews of Edward Leedskalnin's book: "Magnetic Current", Rock Gate, October 1945.

Ed Leedckalnin is famous for the Coral Castle he built in Florida in the 1920's, which contains similar mystique to the pyramids in terms of the question of how such a small man could build such a large structure by himself. The lovesick inventor said he discovered secrets of gravity. The castle was constructed of ~30 ton blocks.
Leedskalnin is also famous for his unusual theories on magnetism. The castle featured an unusual motor contraption that may have ran on magnetic forces alone, though T Lee Buyea wrote: "I have seen this motor a couple times in person. It is only 20 miles from me. It looks more like it was a hand-cranked or windmill-powered generator than a motor."
Al Witherspoon says that Leedskalnin apparently was a neighbor to Howard Johnson for a while, and may have strongly influenced Johnson's thinking about magnetism.
This book, Magnetic Current, by Leedskalnin may help explain the workings of Mylow's replication of Howard Johnson's all-magnet motor, as well as other magnet motor claims.
Wes Crosiar thinks that once people understand how Mylow's motor works, they will be able to get John Searl's anti-gravity generators to work as well, inasmuch as it works off the same core principle, involving pole switching in the magnets, or spintronics.

Contents
[hide]

Sources for Obtaining the Book

  • Magnetic Current (pdf; 3 Mb) - download from FreeEnergyNews.com
  • Magnetic Current - Book transcribed, without any images. (Keelynet)
  • Mangetic Current - Amazon.com

Paperback
Publisher: Mokelumne Hill Pr (June 1988)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0787305499
ISBN-13: 978-0787305499
Product Dimensions: 8.3 x 5.4 x 0.3 inches
Shipping Weight: 3.2 ounces (View shipping rates and policies)

Book Excerpt

The following is the commencement of reproducing Ed's book here at PESWiki, complete with text and images. Feel free to assist in the task if you are so inclined:
[Preface]
This writing is lined up so when you read it you look East, and all the description you will read about magnetic current, it will be just as good for your electricity.
Following is the result of my two years experiment with magnets at Rock Gate, seventeen miles Southwest from Miami, Florida. Between Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Latitude and Eightieth and Eighty-first Longitude West.
- - - -
Now I will tell you what magnetic current is.
Magnetic current is the same as electric current. Current is a wrong expression.
Really it is not one current, they are two currents, one current is composed of North Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams and the other is composed of South Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams, and they are running one stream against the other stream in whirling, screwlike fashion, and with high speed.
One current alone if it be North Pole magnet current or South Pole magnet current it cannot run alone.
To run one current will have to run against the other.
Leedskalnin_Mangetic_Current-diagram-spi
Reviews

  • Spintronics & Mylows magnet motor - Wes Crosiar came up with the idea that magnet polarity flipping in the magnet is part of what makes magnet motors and electromagnetic overunity systems work, such as what Bedini has in his motor. Wes also conjectured that the reason the MIB are trying to trip up Mylow is that once people understand how his motor works, they will be able to get John Searl's anti-gravity generators to work as well, inasmuch as it works off the same core principle. Al Witherspoon wonders if maybe lay lines might be part of the equation here -- that the motor would work better in some places than others, or perhaps not at all in others. (Mylow_Magmo; Apr 22, 2009)

Leedskalnin_Boneur_95x95.jpg

Experiments
Ed Leedskalnin Magnet

Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Bwws-LlBGNU.

(2:49 minutes)

  • "This is one of the experements the book says to play with. Here we are making an electromagnet into some kind of permanant magnet and then turning that back into electricity. Dont ask me how this works, i find it interesting." (
    by codygillespie; March 19, 2009)


Ed Leedskalnin Magnet 2

Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Js-zdIWRlXs.

(3:24 minutes)

  • Thank you sepheroth for that double LED idea, it has proven usefull for many things. (

Ed Leedskalnin 3


Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Wxw3QQfW79o.
(3:41 minutes)

  • Showing another way to opperate the device without a battery by using a magnet. Also showing a strange effect where supplying a flip flop dc signal(ac) and pulling off the steel bar between each phase appears to use less energy going in(turn on switch) than what is coming out(pull bar off). The led dosnt light when i turn it on, suggesting that little power is going through the circuit, however the led lights when i pull the bar off, suggesting that energy is still coming out. Strange (

Resources

See also

BEST

ENERGY TYPES

DEVICE TYPES

Edward Leedskalnin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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350px-Coral_Castle_2.jpg

magnify-clip.pngA view from within Leedskalnin's Coral Castle.
Edward Leedskalnin (Latvian: Edvards Liedskalniņš) (January 12, 1887, Stāmeriena parish, Livonia; December 7, 1951, Miami) was an eccentric Latvian emigrant to the United States and amateur sculptor who single-handedly built the monument known as Coral Castle in Florida. He was also known for his unusual theories on magnetism.


Contents
[hide]

[edit] Life

Edward Leedskalnin was born January 12, 1887, according to World War I draft registration records, in Stāmeriena parish, Latvia. Little is known of his childhood, aside from the fact that he was not wealthy and achieved only a fourth-grade education. However Edward was a sickly boy, and often spent his time inside reading books — eventually leading him to discontinue his schooling as it "bored him". For Ed, his development of a yearning to obtain knowledge became a passionate and potent driving force in many endeavours throughout his later life.[1] At the age of 26, he was engaged to marry Agnes Scuffs, a girl ten years younger.[2] However, the girl that Leedskalnin referred to as his "Sweet Sixteen" broke the engagement the night before their wedding, so he emigrated to North America[3] where he found work in various lumber camps in Canada, California, and Texas.
Then, after contracting a case of tuberculosis, Leedskalnin moved to the warmer climate of Florida around 1919, where he purchased a small piece of land in Florida City. Over the next 20 years, Leedskalnin putatively constructed and lived within a massive coral monument he called "Rock Gate Park", dedicated to the girl who had left him years before. Working alone at night, Leedskalnin eventually quarried and sculpted over 1,100 short tons (997,903 kg) of coral into a monument that would later be known as the Coral Castle. He used various basic tools, several made from timber and parts of an old Ford; first he built a house out of coral and timber, then he gradually built the monuments for which he is famous.[3] In spite of his private nature, he eventually opened his monument to the public, offering tours for 10 cents. He was a surprisingly accommodating host, even cooking hot dogs for visiting children in a pressure cooker of his own invention.[citation needed]
When people asked Leedskalnin how he had moved all of the stone by himself, he refused to give over his method and would only reply to whoever was asking with the same statement: "I understand the laws of weight and leverage and I know the secrets of the people who built the pyramids (being those at the site at Giza in Egypt)."[citation needed]
This building was originally located in Florida City in the 1920s; then in the mid-1930s Leedskalnin hired a truck and driver[3] to move it to its present location on a 10-acre (4.0 ha) site near Homestead, Florida. On November 9, 1951, he checked himself into Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami. Leedskalnin suffered a stroke at one point, either before he left for the hospital or at the hospital. He died twenty-eight days later of pyleonephritis (a kidney infection) at the age of 64. His death certificate noted that his death was a result of "uremia; failure of kidneys, as a result of the infection and abscess."[4]
[edit] Writings

During his lifetime, Leedskalnin published five pamphlets, advertising them in local newspapers.
[edit] Moral education

His first and longest booklet, a treatise on moral education, is printed on only the left-hand pages, and begins with the following preface:





Reader, if for any reason you do not like the things I say in the little book, I left just as much space as I used, so you can write your own opinion opposite it and see if you can do better.
The Author

In the first section, Leedskalnin vents his anger at his "Sweet Sixteen", arguing that girls should be kept pure, and that boys are primarily a soiling influence upon them. On page 4 of A Book in Every Home, Leedskalnin writes:


Everything we do should be for some good purpose but as everybody knows there is nothing good that can come to a girl from a fresh boy. When a girl is sixteen or seventeen years old, she is as good as she ever will be, but when a boy is sixteen years old, he is then fresher than in all his stages of development. He is then not big enough to work but he is too big to be kept in a nursery and then to allow such a fresh thing to soil a girl — it could not work on my girl. Now I will tell you about soiling. Anything that is done, if it is done with the right party it is all right, but when it is done with the wrong party, it is soiling, and concerning those fresh boys with the girls, it is wrong every time.

The second section continues along the theme of moral education, with several aphorisms aimed at parents regarding the proper way to raise children. The last, "Political" section, reveals that the reclusive Leedskalnin had strong political views. He advocates voting for property owners only (and in proportion to their holdings), and argues that "Anyone who is too weak to make his own living is not strong enough to vote."
Some writers[who?] have suggested that Leedskalnin's booklet contains further information on his electromagnetic research and philosophies encoded in its pages, and the blank pages are provided for the reader to fill in their decrypted solutions. It has also been suggested that Leedskalnin's frequent referral to his "Sweet Sixteen" may in fact refer to the numerological and/or scientific relevance of the number sixteen to his research and theories.[5]
Leedskalnin's ideas may appear unusual. He wrote that a mother's most important task is to ensure that her daughter remains "chaste and faithful":[3]


In case a girl's mamma thinks that there is a boy somewhere who needs experience then she, herself, could pose as an experimental station for that fresh boy to practise on and so save the girl. Nothing can hurt her any more. She has already gone through all the experience that can be gone through and so in her case it would be all right

[edit] Magnetism

Leedskalnin's other four pamphlets addressed his theories on the interaction of electricity, magnetism and the body; Leedskalnin also included a number of simple experiments to validate his theories.
Leedskalnin claimed that all matter was being acted upon by what he called "individual magnets". He also claimed that scientists of his time were looking in the wrong place for their understanding of electricity and that they were only observing "one half of the whole concept" with "one sided tools of measurement". For instance:






Magnets in general are indestructible. For instance you can burn wood and flesh. You can destroy the body, but you cannot destroy the magnets that hold together the body. They go somewhere else. Iron has more magnets than wood, and every different substance has a different number of magnets that hold the substance together. If I make a battery with copper for positive terminal and beef for negative terminal I get more magnets out of it than when I used copper for positive terminal and sweet potato for negative terminal. From this you can see that no two things are alike.[3]

[edit] Bibliography


[edit] Other media

Ed Leedskalnin, Coral Castle and the mystery surrounding how he built it are plot foundations of the novel Cincinnatus.
The Brooklyn-based history band, Piñataland, recorded a song about Leedskalnin entitled "Latvian Bride" for their 2003 album Songs for the Forgotten Future Vol. 1.
Billy Idol recorded the song Sweet Sixteen for his Whiplash Smile album. It was based on the love story of Leedskalnin and his runaway girl. The video was recorded in the Coral Castle of Florida. He also wrote this song there.[citation needed]
[edit] See also

[edit] References


[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

 

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Posted · Report post

Dormeam pe mine! :D

A revenit vladisto

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Ca bine zici :biggrin:

Din pacate nu imi ajunge timpul sa citesc un post de marimea celui de mai sus. Cred ca poate concura cu succes la categoria cel mai lung post intr-un forum. Din toate tipurile sa fie clar :laugh:

Altfel Vladisto ce mai zici cu ce te mai lauzi?

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ok templierule! ilumineaza-ma! dar varianta scurta!ms chiar sant curios!

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Tehnica germană uitată: nemţii au uitat cum se asamblează motoare...

The new G650GS is essentially the 2007 single-cylinder F650GS brought back into production with some minor modifications and with the engine assembled by Loncin in China instead of Rotax in Austria, but still using parts manufactured by Rotax in Europe.[1][7][8] The finished engines are shipped back to BMW in Germany where the bikes are assembled. G650GS models with the Chinese-assembled engines can be easily identified as the engines are painted black while in the earlier European-assembled engines were finished in silver. For a short period prior to discontinuation of the bike in 2007 the engines were assembled by Kymco in Taiwan.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BMW_F800S

1 person likes this

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Mda e cam de cacat dar daca se respecta indicatiile probabil ca e ok nu? :)

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:-))))) genial post, Penetru! :-))))))

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Catre R1der: pai suna-ma la 0730490165 sau 0770979487 sa mai vorbim. :to_keep_order:

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Vladisto nu stiu cand o sa am timp sa ne mai conversam sincer sa fiu. Ma astept sa fii mai activ pe forum, ca altadata de exemplu

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De dragul profitului acţionariatul BMW preferă să dea de mâncare asiaticilor şi să-şi bage conaţionalii în şomaj, probal forţaţi şi de concurenţă.

Recurgerea la forţa de muncă ieftină din Asia e la rădăcina actualei crize economice.

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Varianta simpla (despre tehnologia farfuriilor zburatoare germane din Al Doilea Razboi Mondial (in engleza, World War II (cifra 2 roman) = W. W. II = WWII) pe baza de energie libera, levitatie si curbarea continuumului spatiu-timp a scris si gen. de brigada arma radiolocatie Emil Strainu in colectia Secret Stranger Files (Dosare secrete stranii), editura Triumf, spre exemplu nr. 17: Baze extraterestre si OZN pe Luna, Pamant si Marte, carte aparuta in 2013, deci dupa 5 ani dupa ce am initiat aceasta tema pe pro-bike, mai inainte, in 2012, la aceeasi editura a publicat cartea Radarul vaneaza OZN-uri; Radarul, un martor incomod in dosarul OZN):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3swu_lC-7zc

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2giFGsGLft4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwUpPwyyvLw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tydvDgVNiA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgfwJzAvQNE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gc0menDzaUE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3VWmNm6J09M

 

Nemtii au ajuns pe Luna si pe Marte, in 1945, unde au baze subterane, ca si in N-NE Antarcticii, cu ajutorul giroscoapelor electrogravitationale Hauneburg (prescurtat Haunebu) III de 71 m diametru si Haunebu IV de 120 m diametru (construite in fabricile subterane din Germania si Cehoslovacia), cat si navei-mama cilindrice Andromeda de 139 m lungime (construita in hangarul in care a fost construit si zepelinul Hindenburg), care continea doua discuri zburatoare Vril 1 de 11,5 m diametru, doua Vril 2 si unul Haunebu II de 23 m diametru si inaltime intre 9 si 11 m, in domul clopotului zburator sau clopotul llui Schumann fiind amplasate generatoare electromagnetice care produc rezonanta Schumann si deplasarea instantanee intre 2 puncte fixate in continumuul spatiu-timp, dar si prin intermediul rachetei in trepte al carei principiu a fost inventat in evul mediu de romanul de nationalitate svab Conrad Hass din Sibiu si dezvoltat de romanul de nationalitate svab Hermann Oberth tot din Sibiu, al carui invatacel a fost germanul Wernher von Braun, care a proiectat racheta balistica V2 cu care nemtii au bombardat Londra in WWII, si a condus proiectul rachetei Saturn, care a dus primul american pe Luna in 1969, Hermann Oberth si Wernher von Braun fiind cooptati de americani imediat dupa razboi prin Operatiunea Agrafa (Paperclip) si pusi la treaba, ca si pe romanul Henri Marie Coanda, care a inventat avionul cu reactie si aerodina lenticulara pe efect Coanda, dupa care s-a construit avionul de vanatoare cu reactie Me 109 si farfuria zburatoare cu propulsie clasica germana BMW Flugelrad (Aripa rotativa) II, avand 12 turboagregate BMW 028 si farfuria zburatoare Skoda a germanului Rudolph Schriever in Cehia.

 

Rezonanţa Schumann pe înţelesul tuturor ori de ce anul 2012 nu va aduce sfârşitul lumii printButton.png emailButton.png Scepticus: graniţele gândirii Scris de Paul Dolea    Marţi, 22 Februarie 2011 23:20

Circulă pe internet ideea cum că ziua nu mai are 24 de ore, ci doar 16 ore. Cum că timpul trece aşadar mai repede acum pe Pământ decât în trecut, iar aceasta, zice-se, din cauză că frecvenţa de rezonanţă Schumann a Pământului a crescut. Mai mult, se zice ca pe 21 decembrie 2012, frecvenţa aceasta va avea valoare infinită, iar prin urmare timpul va înceta să mai curgă! De aceea, vă invităm să explorăm împreună ce este rezonanţa Schumann din punct de vedere ştiinţific şi ce poate spune ea despre cele de mai sus.

 

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Rezonanţa Schumann pe înţelesul tuturor şi de ce nu aduce sfârşitul timpului şi lumii în 2012

Citind acest articol veţi înţelege că între sol şi atmosfera ionizată se formează o cutie rezonantă, unde undele electromagnetice de frecvenţă foarte foarte joasă rezonează la frecvenţe de cam 8 Hertzi sau multipli ai lor. Aceasta mai ales în timpul furtunilor tropicale din Asia, Africa sau America. Această rezonanţă este un fapt natural, prezis teoretic şi observat experimental. Însă nu s-a măsurat o creştere în timp a acestei frecvenţe de rezonanţă. Dar şi dacă s-ar fi observat, nu ar fi însemnat că durata zilei scade de la 24 de ore la 16 ore şi că ar continua să scadă pană la ... zero, când timpul s-ar opri şi ar veni sfârşitul lumii. Acestea sunt doar fabulaţii pseudoştiinţifice despre falsul sfârşit al lumii în 2012. Despre ce este vorba de fapt la radiaţia Schumann, vă rugăm să descoperiţi citind cele ce urmează.

 

1. Introducere

Nu demult, un zvon cutremurător dar absolut neştiinţific s-a răspândit prin intermediul mass-media pe întreg globul pământesc: că timpul a luat-o razna, că ar fi început să alunece din ce în ce mai repede, pe un tobogan imaginar al cărui sfârşit este  anul 2012. Data de 21  decembrie 2012 este prezentată în multe scrieri apocaliptice drept data în care, dintr-un motiv sau altul, civilizaţia umană va dispărea. Lăsându-i la o parte pe “vizionarii  ce prevăd viitorul” cu dispozitive bazate pe boabe de cafea sau  fasole,  să ne oprim puţin la cei ce aduc argumente pseudoştiinţifice unor astfel de afirmaţii.  Unii prognozează o posibilă coliziune catastrofală a planetei noastre cu un obiect ceresc de mari dimensiuni, alţii prevăd schimbări catastrofale datorate unei conjuncţii planetare. Toţi aceşti “vizionari” pornesc de la ideea că data de 21 decembrie 2012 este ultima dată menţionată  în calendarul maya.

Dar cea mai ciudată motivare a “sfârşitului lumii” este ipoteza că timpul, ce mai demult bătea ţăruşi alene,  pe marginea unui drum fără întoarcere, măreşte acum ritmul în mod asimptotic  spre o apropiată  dată limită: 21 decembrie 2012,  iar după această dată, totul dispare în neant.

Într-un  articol  anterior m-am referit la previziunile actuale,  fundamentate ştiinţific, referitoare la o posibilă extincţiei a civilizaţiei  în urma unei coliziuni catastrofale şi nu voi reveni acum  la acest subiect. În schimb, voi încerca să explic, pe înţelesul tuturor,  fenomenul de “rezonanţă Schumann”, mecanismul prin care se produce acest fenomen, modul în care poate fi pus în evidenţă şi efectele pe care le poate avea asupra fiinţelor vii.

Pentru început, vom discuta despre partea inferioară  a spectrului undelor electromagnetice, undele de foarte joasă frecvenţă.

 

 

 

 

 

2. Definiţii şi terminologie despre unde electromagnetice de frecvenţă foarte joasă

Conform Administraţiei Naţionale de Telecomunicaţii şi Informare a Statelor Unite ale Americii , undele electromagnetice ale căror frecvenţe sunt mai mici decât 30 kHz sunt denumite unde electromagnetice de foarte joasă  frecvenţă  (very low frequency), iar cele a căror frecvenţă  este mai mică decât 3 kHz nici nu sunt atribuite vreunei activităţi civile.

Terminologia utilizată  în lucrările ştiinţifice ce se referă la undele electromagnetice de joasă frecvenţă (şi pe care o voi folosi în cele ce urmează) le clasifică  în modul următor:

- unde electromagnetice de foarte joasă frecvenţă (very low frequency sau pe scurt, VLF), cu frecvenţe cuprinse între 30 kHz şi 3 kHz;

- unde electromagnetice de ultra joasă frecvenţă (ultra low frequency sau ULF), cu frecvenţe cuprinse între 3 kHz şi 300 Hz;

- unde electromagnetice de super joasă frecvenţă (super low frequency sau SLF), cu frecvenţe cuprinse între 300 Hz şi 30 Hz;

- unde electromagnetice de extrem de joasă frecvenţă (extreme low frequency sau ELF), ale căror frecvenţe au valori sub 30 Hz.

După cum se ştie, materialele conductoare sunt opace pentru undele electromagnetice şi din acest motiv, comunicarea între două puncte aflate în medii conductoare (de exemplu apa sărată din mări şi oceane sau subsolul Pământului) nu se poate realiza cu echipamentele uzuale şi folosind metodele clasice de comunicare radio.

Acest fenomen de "ecranare" împiedică comunicarea  radio clasică  între  o bază terestră şi submarinele aflate în submersiune. Într-o astfel de situaţie, doar undele electromagnetice din gama SLF  pot asigura legătura radio.

Pe de altă parte, în cazul unor accidente miniere, când echipamentele de telecomunicaţii prin cablu sunt distruse, apare necesitatea unei căi de comunicaţie "fără fir" între minerii blocaţi în subteran şi echipele de salvare aflate la suprafaţă sau tot în subteran. Undele electromagnetice din gama ULF pot penetra solul la adâncimi de ordinul zecilor sau  sutelor de metri, fiind singurele care  pot fi folosite în astfel de situaţii.

Undele electromagnetice de joasă frecvenţă  sunt generate şi de fenomene naturale ce au efecte la scară mare şi foarte mare. Astfel, apariţia unor unde electromagnetice de joasă frecvenţă (ULF sau ELF) poate anunţa un cutremur iminent, cu câteva zeci de minute înaintea unor mişcări telurice de suprafaţă.

De asemenea. aşa-zisele "fenomene meteorologice din spaţiul extraatmosferic" cum sunt exploziile solare, ploile de meteoriţi, fluxurile importante de particule elementare, sau radiaţiile  generate de surse extraterestre, sau chiar extragalactice, generează unde electromagnetice din domeniile ULF, SLF sau ELF. Acestea pot produce furtuni electromagnetice, perturbări ale comunicaţiilor radio sau chiar scoaterea din funcţiune a unor sateliţi artificiali ai Pământului sau a unor echipamente de radiocomunicaţii aflate pe sol. Deoarece frecvenţa undelor cerebrale este de ordinul hertzilor, există probabil şi o influenţă asupra psihicului uman cauzată de undele din aceeaşi gamă, produse natural sau artificial.

Importanţa acordată de NASA acestor aspecte ştiinţifice, tehnice sau militare legate de  generarea şi propagarea undelor electromagnetice de foarte joasă frecvenţă este subliniată  prin lansarea proiectului "INSPIRE"  (Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments).

 

3. Rezonanţa Schumann explicată simplu şi ... natural

Furtunile tropicale (care sunt caracterizate prin descărcări electrice intense şi frecvente) generează unde electromagnetice cu spectru foarte larg, iar pentru cele de foarte joasă frecvenţă spaţiul format între suprafaţa Pământului şi ionosferă devine un adevărat ghid de undă prin care acestea se propagă pe distanţe foarte mari, ajungând uneori chiar să înconjoare Pământul. Analizarea acestor unde este importantă  în climatologie deoarece se poate obţine o imagine la nivel global  a fenomenelor meteorologice locale.

Frecventele descărcări electrice ce apar în timpul unor furtuni puternice creează unde electromagnetice din domeniul ULF şi ELF care, în cavitatea rezonantă formată (la nivel global) între Pământ şi ionosferă, pot produce o rezonanţă electromagnetică ce a fost  verificată  în mod experimental. Fenomenul este cunoscut în literatură sub denumirea de "Rezonanţă Schumann" şi a fost prezis de fizicianul Winfried Otto Schumann în 1952. Prin metode experimentale, au fost puse în evidenţă frecvenţele de rezonanţă Schumann la valori de 7,83 Hz, 14,3 Hz, 20,8 Hz, 27,3 Hz şi 33,8 Hz.

Aceste valori ale frecvenţelor de rezonanţă  nu sunt fixe. Ele sunt influenţate de condiţiile atmosferice ce duc la modificarea înălţimii ionosferei şi implicit, la modificarea volumului  “cutiei de rezonanţa”. De asemenea, amplitudinea undei electromagnetice rezonante se modifică în funcţie de numărul de descărcări electrice din atmosferă în intervalul  de timp analizat. S-a constatat că în decursul unei zile pot fi puse în evidenţă trei maxime: unul corespunzător  furtunilor tropicale din Asia de sud-est, după 5 ore un maxim datorat furtunilor din Africa, iar după încă 6 ore, un maxim corespunzător  furtunilor din America de Sud. Analiza ştiinţifică a acestui fenomen poate oferi date importante referitoare la modificări climatice la nivel global, temporare sau definitive. Punând  în evidenţă descărcările atmosferice (fulgere şi trăsnete) şi analizând frecvenţa şi localizarea lor, se poate obţine o imagine globală, de real folos în climatologie.

Undele electromagnetice din gama ELF pot fi recepţionate doar cu antene şi receptoare special concepute, având în vedere că lungimea lor de undă este extrem de mare şi nivelurile de câmp extrem de mici. Un alt impediment legat de punerea lor în evidenţă este imediata lor apropiere (ca interval de  frecvenţe) de câmpurile create de reţelele de distribuţie a energiei electrice care în Europa operează pe o frecvenţă de 50 Hz iar în multe alte ţări ale lumii, pe o frecvenţă de 60 Hz. De aceea, de multe ori cercetătorii sunt obligaţi să extragă informaţiile utile din semnale ce sunt practic “înecate în zgomot”.

 

4. Fabulaţiile din presă despre "rezonanţa Schumann"

Acum voi reveni la fabulaţiile răspândite în mass-media legate de “Rezonanţa Schumann” şi aşa-zisul sfârşit iminent al lumii datorat unui colaps temporal. Promotorii unei astfel de ipoteze afirmă că frecvenţa de rezonanţă Schumann este un fel de orologiu planetar, iar organismele vii sunt influenţate de acest orologiu electromagnetic. Până aici, nimic ieşit din comun, undele cerebrale sunt de frecvenţă foarte joasă şi pot fi influenţate sau perturbate de stimuli electromagnetici externi.

Dar următoarele afirmaţii sunt total lipsite de baze reale sau motivare logică: “Frecvenţa de rezonanţă Schumann creşte neîncetat, astfel încât o zi nu mai are 24 de ore, ci doar 16 sau mai puţin. În anul 2012, frecvenţa acestui fenomen va fi atât de mare, încât natura nu va mai putea ţine pasul şi va veni sfârşitul lumii, prin dispariţia noţiunii de timp.”

Alţii, care au auzit de găuri negre, afirmă că de fapt, Pământul şi tot ce ne înconjoară este pe cale de a fi “înghiţit” de o gaură neagră iar fenomenele neliniare asociate unui astfel de eveniment pot “distorsiona” timpul fără că noi să ne dăm seama.

 

5. Concluzii

Determinările experimentale infirmă modificări ale frecvenţelor de rezonanţă  Schumann în sensul unei creşteri continue ce poate fi pusă în evidenţă. Organisme ale căror posibilităţi tehnice şi credibilitate ştiinţifică nu poate fi pusă la îndoială (vezi NASA şi altele de calibru asemănător) nu au semnalat o modificare a frecvenţei de rezonanţă Schumann. Iar dacă Pământul şi tot ce ne înconjoară este pe cale de a fi “înghiţit” de o gaură neagră, şi noi nu putem observa acest lucru, înseamnă că nu ne deranjează şi nici nu ne va deranja acest lucru.

Analizând problema din punct de vedere logic, este absurd să afirmi că ziua nu mai are 24 ore, ci doar 16, pentru că dacă ar fi aşa, ceasul meu de pe perete ar trebui să “sară” de la orele 16, direct la 24 şi aş cumpăra  alt ceas cu doar opt sau şaisprezece diviziuni orare.

Iar pentru cei ce aduc, ca argument ştiinţific, faptul că  “nu le mai ajunge timpul”, le voi spune că de fapt, cantitatea de informaţie pe care creierul nostru trebuie  să o proceseze creşte neîncetat, iar dezvoltarea societăţii şi a posibilităţilor de comunicare ne fac tot mai dependenţi unii de alţii.“Procesarea” tuturor acestor acestor informaţii şi conexiuni necesită din ce în ce mai mult timp, rămânând din ce în ce mai puţin pentru activităţile curente. Cred că această explicaţie este mai simplă şi mai aproape de adevăr.

 

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Manipuland si folosind Rezonanta Schumann – partea I  1

BY RAZVAN ON 24/11/2012STIRI

Brian David Andersen

teslapic.jpgEste oare o relaţie între Frecvenţa Fundamentală de Rezonanţă a Pământului (Rezonanţa Schumann) de aproximativ 7 şi jumătate bătăi pe secundă (7,5 Hertz), fenomenul natural al fulgerului şi un aparat simplu şi ieftin ce crează destulă electricitate pentru a alimenta o casă?

Experimentele lui Nikola Tesla de la Colorado Springs, Colorado, la sfârşitul secolului 19 l-au ajutat să facă aceste descoperiri importante şi să tragă aceste concluzii despre valurile de energii electromagnetice ce curg prin Pământ. Tesla nu a arătat exact detaliile descoperirilor sale dar acestea au fost fundaţia pentru construirea marii structuri de tip turn de la Wardenclyffe lângă Shoreham, New York în 1908. Tesla a anunţat că putea să producă electricitate gratis pentru întrega lume cu acest turn al său ce prezenta nişte mari discuri la partea superioară a structurii. Există o legendă cum că J.P. Morgan, omul care a finaţat construcţia turnului, nu a fost anunţat de intenţiile lui Tesla până când structura nu a fost aproape terminată.  Când a aflat declaraţia lui Tesla, Morgan a ordonat imediat demolarea turnului pentru a-şi proteja interesele financiare ale lui şi ale asociaţilor lui care investiseră masiv în curentul aleternativ pe care Tesla îl descoperise la sfârşitul anilor 1890.tesla.tower_.jpg

 Legenda continuă cu Tesla care pornise Turnul Wardenclyffe numai cu câteva ore înainte de a sosi echipa ce urma să îl demoleze. Totuşi, în loc de a produce electricitate pentru lume, maşinăria sa a perturbat rezonanţa Schumann pe o distanţă de mile astfel încât acestea au fost distruse într-o clipă. Cu aproximativ 10 ani înainte autorul acestui articol a scris un articol în revista Fate (Credinţă) ce a fost publicat în 1960. Autorul articolului şi sursele sale au conectat momentul experimentului lui Tesla cu turnul Wardenclyffe şi o explozie similară unei bombe atomice în Siberia cunoscut drept Misterul Tunguska. Atât experimentul lui Tesla cu Turnul Wardenclyffe care mai mult decât sigur a creat câmpurile electromagnetice perturbate, şi explozia din Tunguska, Rusia s-au întâmplat în acelaşi timp şi în aceiaşi zi conform autorului şi surselor lui. Azi, sălbăticia din Tunguska, Rusia, pare a fi o zonă afectată de o armă nucleară (vezi Raza Morţii a lui Tesla de pe viewzone).

tesla.tungusta.jpgMulte explozii neexplicate şi intense ce au creat nori de tip ciupercă similari exploziei de la Hiroshima s-au petrecut înainte, în timpul şi după cel de-al doilea război mondial. Martori oculari ai unei masive explozii similare uneia atomice pe 17 iulie 1944 în portul Chicago din Golful San Francisco au declarat că au văzut o strălucire puternică albă şi un nor de tip ciupercă ce a format un crater de 20 m adâncime, 90 m lăţime şi 210 m lungime – un fenomen care nu poate avea loc cu una sau cu o serie de bombe convenţionale explodând simultan. Portul Chicago era un loc unde se încărcau şi se transferau bombe şi muniţie şi ar fi fost locul perfect pentru testarea unei versiuni mici a unei arme de disrupere electromagnetică şi apoi să dea vina pe afro-americanii care încărcau navele şi care urmau să sufere de radiaţii ca suferinţă după explozie.

Ar putea Proiectul Manhatan şi avionul ce a cărat bomba atomică pe bază de plutoniu ce a fost aruncată asupra Japoniei în cel de-al doilea război mondial să fie un truc şi o faţadă de 60 de ani pentru publicul larg şi pentru aviatorii care au aruncat cutii de metal goale, asta ascunzând cauzele reale ale exploziilor atomice – o formă sofisticată a bruiatorului de câmp a lui Tesla ce manipulează rezonanţa Schumann? A fost Tesla primul care să manipuleze sau să controleze rezonanţa Schumann? Probabil că nu.

Venus, Pirmaidele şi Frecevenţa de Rezonanţă a Pământului

În 1950, Immanuel Velikosky a dedus logic că planeta Venus a fost o lună aruncată de către Jupiter sau Saturn, fiind aruncată acum 10,000 de ani. În timp ce capricioasa lună traversa sistemul solar, apa şi aerul de pe Marte au fost absorbite de către Venus. Apoi o planetă dintre Marte şi Jupiter s-a dezintegrat în centura de asteroizi şi schimbări geografice masive au avut loc pe Pământ. S-au întâmplat toate aceste cataclisme pentru că plimbăreaţa lună a intereferat cu Frecvenţa Fundamentală de Rezonanţă şi armonicile de pe Marte, Pământ şi alte planete?

Dar au fost schimbările geografice de pe Pământ controlate sau atenuate  de prezenţa marii Piramide din Egipt şi de o altă structură masivă construită la o altă interesecţie de longitudine şi latitudine crucială şi fundamentală de pe Pământ? Geologii ştiu că longitudinea şi latitudinea exactă a punctului marii piramide este un punct de pivotare pentru toate continentele de pe Pământ. Au funcţionat cele două piramide de pe Pământ ca nişte cardane pentru stabilizarea Frecvenţei Fundamentale de Rezonanţă şi a frecvenţelor armonice aferente? Au stabilizat Pământul de-a lungul erelor alte piramide construite pe Pământ?

Longitudinea şi latitudinea punctelor de intersecţie ale celor două piramide (sau ale unei piramide, de la Gizeh şi un dom sau obelisc) pentru a echilibra Pământul cât timp sistemul rolar era în dezechilibru creat de luna buclucaşă au fost determinate de întâmplări geologice evidente şi de traiectoria Lunii.

Întâmplările geologice specifice şi locaţia exactă a marii piramide ne oferă o hartă a unui punct exact de pe Pământ care ste o locaţie logică pentru cel de-al doilea set de pirmaide. Dacă sunt piramide mari, domuri sau obeliscuri în acea locaţie, atunci teoriile şi munca de o viaţă a lui Velikovsky ar fi demonstrate şi întregul nostru concept despre istorie, ştiinţă şi conştiinţă ar fi modificate şi înălţate.

Există veşti bune şi vesti mai puţin bune despre a doua locaţie. Vestea bună e că pentru a investiga această locaţie nu e nevoie nici de sateliţi, bocanci sau jeep-uri pentru ca echipa de cercetare să ajungă, dar trebuie să navigheze pe apă până acolo. Vestea proastă e că nivelul de călcare e mult sub apă şi ar fi nevoie de un submarin şi probabil o navă de suprafaţă. Nu numai că Tesla şi Luna plimbăreaţă au manipulat Frecvenţa de Rezonanţă a Pământului dar natura influenţează frecvenţa de 7,5 Hz şi frecvenţa armonicilor rezonante în fiecare secundă.

 Influenţa naturii

Autorul şi alţi cercetători postulează că fiecare grad şi temperatură atmosferică ridică sau coboară amplitudinea frecvenţelor  şi armonicilor rezonante ale Pământului cu cel puţin 100%. De ceea, atunci când aer rece cu amplitudine mică rezonantă vine în contact cu aerul fierbinte cu amplitudine mare, se crează spirale intense.

De exemplu un bolovan de 2,25 kg şi unul de 9kg aruncate la capete diferite într-o piscină cu adâncime constantă crează două valuri. Atunci când valurile mai mici create de bolovanul de 2,25 kg se interesectează cu cele create de bolovanul de 9 kg, se crează o trecere intensă, sau spirală la punctul de intersecţie.

Spiralele din atmosferă sunt intensificate de particulele încărcate negativ de la suprafaţa Pământului şi de cele încărate pozitiv din ionosferă pot dura o nanosecundă sau câteva minute, ore sau zile. Autorul propune logic faptul că spiralele ce ţin nanosecunde excită nitrogenul atmosferic şi ionii de hidrogn/heliu ce vin e la Soare şi saturează Pământul. Pornirea provoacă energizarea nitrogenului şi a ionilor de hidrogen/heliu, fenomen cuniscut sub numele de fulger. Spiralele de durată lungă sunt tornadele şi furtunile.

Ar putea diagrame cu forme “opuse” şi frecvenţe cu amplitudini “opuse” conţinute într-un cilindru cu domuri să reproducă ceea ce se întâmplă în natură? Ar putea oare cilindrul cu dom să fie cheia unui aparat ieftin şi  eficace pentru producerea electricităţii şi cu efecte benefice pe termen lung? În loc ca energia electrică să circule ca descărcare, scânteie sau fulger, poate energia poate fi capturată cu condensatori şi baterii ca electricitate.

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Manipuland si folosind Rezonanta Schumann – partea a II a  1
BY RAZVAN ON 26/11/2012STIRI

 

 

Din lac în puţ

Au fost nenumărate poveşti ale unor oameni care au fost foarte aproape de a fi loviţi de fulger. Afecţiuni ca de exmeplu cancer, diabet sau boli de inimă sau plămâni, care existau îniante de experienţa cu fulgerul au fost permanent şi instantaneu vindecate după lovitaura acestuia. Persoanele care nu aveau afecţiuni şi care au fost în apropierea unei lovituri de fulger au experimentat niveluri foarte mari de energie pe termen lung. Din păcate aceste rapoarte trebuie să rămână la nivel de poveşti pentru că nu există un mod de a experimenta şi reproduce un fulger în laborator.  Poate că vindecările pretinse şi energizările pe termen lung  nu au fost cauzate de curentul de voltaj înalt ale fulgerului, dar de către canalul de spirale intense cauzate de temperaturile foarte joase şi înalte ce crează amplitudini în Frecvenţa de Rezonanţă a Pământului.

Nu numai frecvenţa de rezonanţă de 7,8 şi amplitudinea frecvenţei de rezonanţă de 7,8, dar şi faza frecvenţei de rezonanţă de 7,8 şi frecveneţele armonice sunt la fel de critice. (Figura 1). Determinarea fazei Frecvenţei de Rezonanţă a Pământului a fost relevată de către zidurile marii piramide ce sunt “înclinate” (converg pe una din feţe către un punct). Cerectătorii Bill Schul şi Ed Petit au făcut experimente importante folosind lasere şi oglinzi  pe modele la scară ale marii piramide cu feţe lise şi cu feţe “concave”. Raza laser trimisă către piramida cu feţe drepte nu a avut vreo direcţie sau scop dar cea cu feţele concave a condus raza exact în camera regelui.

schuman1.gifFundaţia pentru tehnologia Tri-vortexului

Folosind un software numit Auto-Cad autorul determină formula exactă ce a fost folosită la “curbura” zidului marii piramide astfel încât structura să funcţioneze ca o prismă ce concentrează şi organizează tahionii şi particulele luminoase în elemente chimice. Formula poate fi aplicată structurilor geometrice compuse din 3 până la 288 de feţe sau ziduri astfel încât aceste modele geometrice să funcţioneze ca prisme.

Un alt experiment semnificativ a fost să aplice formula brevetată armonicilor sau frecvenţelor electromagnetice. Folosind un alt software numit Cool Edit Pro, cunoscut şi sub numele de Adobe Audition, o structură tridimensională cu un număr de “ziduri” poate fi “creată” în timp şi spaţiu folosind faze şi amplitudini precise ce au anumite faze şi amplitudini. Folosirea unei anume succesiuni de faze şi amplitudini determină dacă particula de lumină se învârte la stânga sau la dreapta. Experimentele cerecetătorilor tradiţionali demonstrează că viaţa biologică funcţionează cel mai bine într-o mişcare dextrogină (spre stânga). Ce ar fi realizat Nikola Tesla dacă avea programe precum Auto-Cad şi Adobe Audition, oferindu-i un control precis asupra fazei şi amplitudinii?

Proiectul în desfăşurare

Autorul a creat desene  cu dimensiuni diferite şi frecvenţe cu faze apecifice ce au amplitudini joase şi înalte ce crează rotaţii individuale şi colective ce “blochează” constant mişcarea particulelor luminoase. După multe experimente autorul a descoperit că cele mai intense spirale erau create de figuri cu trei şi patru laturi. Orice figură cu mai mult de patru laturi nu produce intensitatea maximă şi rezultatele ce sunt indicate de către miros, gust, întindere şi eliberare de dureri.

Noile desene cu 120 de nuanţe de culori sunt folosite pentru tratarea produselor Tri-vortex. În trecut, numai de la 6 la 8 nuanţe de culori erau folosite pentru a trata obiectele pentru a le face să ajute la absorbţia lichidelor şi solidelor şi la eliberarea rapidă a durerii. Folosirea desenelor multicolorate cu trei sau patru laturi a fost inspirată de către cercetători care au pisat elemente chimice precum cupru, argint şi aur cu un obiect bont. După 24 de ore de pisat, cuprul devine verde deschis, argintul bleu deschis şi aurul purpuriu. Culorile rezultate nu s-au datorat oxidării pentru că după şase ore de la încetarea operaţiunii metalele revin la culoarea lor normală iar aurul nu se combină cu niciun element, inclusiv oxigenul.

Acest experiment arată că fiecărui element chimic îi corespunde o particulă luminoasă cu o anumită culoare. Folosind diverse dimensiuni de grafică şi folosind cât de multe nuanţe şi culori posibil, indivizii expuşi la spirale rotitoare către stânga îşi vor alinia corect chimicalele din corp. O combinaţie de triungiuri şi pătrate întrepătrunse şi “concave” are efectul maxim faţă de o singură formă “concavă.”

schuman2.gif

Bazându-se pe aceste descoperiri, şi pe studiul piramidelor a lui Dean şi Mary Hardy, mulţi dintre noi au dedus în mod logic că marea piramidă este o piramidă “concavă” cu trei laturi închisă într-o piramidă “concavă” cu patru laturi. Camera regelui şi a reginei nu erau camere roiale de înmormântare ci funcţionau ca laboratoare ultr-sofisticate pentru prosperitate şi studiu pentru proiectele de alchimie cu mii de ani înainte ca faraonii morţi să fie introduşi în aceste camere. Laboratorul Unu (camera regelui) este punctul focal al particulelor de lumină al piramidei cu patru laturi şi Laboratorul Doi (camera reginei) este punctul focal al piramidei cu trei laturi (Figura 2). Dacă se crea aur în Laboratorul 1 atunci cel mai uşor mod de a scoate şi transporta bucăţile brute afară din piramidă ar fi fost prin împingerea acestora peste multele podele de lemn înclinate, prezente şi azi în Laboratorul 1.

Frecvenţele fundamentale ale Elementelor Chimice

Prin teste şi analize multiple, autorul a concluzionat că există un element chimic înantea hidrogenului ce are nouă feţe sau faze. Acest element chimic a fost denumit Clevebacksterum (Cb). Hidrogenul are 18 feţe sau faze. Carbonul are 144. Frecvenţa de rezonanţă a elementelor chimice se află în plaja dintre 2,000 şi 5,000 de herţi, cunsocută şi ca zgomot de fond. Totuşi, toate aceste armonici multiple ale elementelor chimicce sunt ţinute la un loc de către frecvenţa cu fază şi amplitudine precisă vibrând la Rezonanţa Schumann, la aproximativ 7,5 Hz. Diviziunea şi multiplii lui 18 aplicaţi elementelor chimice, Cb-ul şi importanţa hidratării cu apă sunt detaliate în articolele publicat la www.trivortex.com.

 

 

 

 

Winfried Otto Schumann
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
Winfried Otto Schumann 225px-Winfried_Otto_Schumann.jpeg
Winfried Otto Schumann în 1974 Născut 20 mai 1888
22px-Flagge_K%C3%B6nigreich_W%C3%BCrttem TübingenRegatul Württemberg Decedat 22 septembrie 1974
22px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png MünchenGermania Naționalitate 22px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png German Domeniu Electrodinamicăgeofizică modifică 12px-Gtk-dialog-info.svg.png

Winfried Otto Schumann (n. 20 mai 1888, TübingenRegatul Württemberg - d. 22 septembrie 1974, München, Germania) a fost un fizician german care a presupus că existărezonanța Schumann, o serie de rezonanțe de frecvență joasă cauzate de descărcările electrice din atmosferă.

Viața[modificare | modificare sursă]

Copilăria și-a petrecut-o în Kassel și în Berndorf lângă Viena. A studiat Electrotehnica la Universitatea din Karlsruhe. A promovat în 1912 cu tema Tehnologie de Înaltă tensiune.

Înainte de Primul Război Mondial a fost șeful laboratorului de Înaltă Tensiune la Brown, Boveri & CieÎn 1920 a fost profesor la Universitatea din Stuttgart, unde a fost asistent[necesită citare]. Apoi a fost profesor de fizică la Universitatea din Jena. A fost profesor în 1924 la laboratorul de electrofizică al Universității tehnice din München, unde a rămas până la pensionare, în 1961. În 1947 i s-a decernat titlul de Membru a Academiei Bavareze pentru Stiință.

Winfried Otto Schumann a murit la vârsta de 86 de ani.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] Informații bibliotecare

 

Rezonanță Schumann
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
magnify-clip.png
Animaţie reprezentând rezonanța Schumann în atmosfera Pământului.

Rezonanța Schumann (RS) este un set de vârfuri de spectru în frecvența extrem de redusă a spectrului de câmp electromagnetic a Pământului(CEP). Rezonanțele Schumann sunt rezonanțele electromagentice globale, exercitate de descărcările fulgerelor în cavitatea formată de suprafața Pământului și ionosferă.

Acest fenomen global este numit dupa fizicianul Winfried Otto Schumann, care a prezis-o matematic în 1952. Rezonanța Schumann apare datorită faptului că spațiul dintre suprafața Pământului și ionosferă acționează ca un spațiu închis.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]
30px-Nuvola_apps_kalzium.png Acest articol din domeniul științei este un ciot. Puteți ajuta Wikipedia prin completarea sa

 

Schumann resonances
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
magnify-clip.png
Animation of Schumann resonance in Earth's atmosphere.

The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic fieldspectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere.

 

 

Description[edit]

This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonances occur because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide. The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by electric currents in lightning. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the electromagnetic spectrum[1] beginning at 3 Hz and extend to 60 Hz,[2] and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.83 (fundamental),[3] 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.[1][4]

In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. This lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz, but this frequency can vary slightly from a variety of factors, such as solar-induced perturbations to the ionosphere, which comprises the upper wall of the closed cavity.[citation needed] The higher resonance modes are spaced at approximately 6.5 Hz intervals,[citation needed] a characteristic attributed to the atmosphere's spherical geometry. The peaks exhibit a spectral width of approximately 20% on account of the damping of the respective modes in the dissipative cavity. The 8th partial lies at approximately 60 Hz.[citation needed]

Observations of Schumann resonances have been used to track global lightning activity. Owing to the connection between lightning activity and the Earth's climate it has been suggested that they may also be used to monitor global temperature variations and variations of water vapor in the upper troposphere. It has been speculated that extraterrestrial lightning (on other planets) may also be detected and studied by means of their Schumann resonance signatures. Schumann resonances have been used to study the lower ionosphere on Earth and it has been suggested as one way to explore the lower ionosphere on celestial bodies. Effects on Schumann resonances have been reported following geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances. More recently, discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous events – spriteselvesjets, and other upper-atmospheric lightning. A new field of interest using Schumann resonances is related to short-term earthquake prediction.

History[edit]

In 1893, George Francis FitzGerald noted that the upper layers of the atmosphere must be fairly good conductors. Assuming that the height of these layers is about 100 km above ground, he estimated that oscillations (in this case the lowest mode of the Schumann resonances) would have a period of 0.1 second.[5] Because of this contribution, it has been suggested to rename these resonances as Schumann–FitzGerald resonances.[6] However FitzGerald's findings were not widely known as they were only presented at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, followed by a brief mention in a column in Nature.

Hence the first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, is attributed to Heaviside and Kennelly (1902).[7][8] It took another twenty years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925,[9]were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere.

Although some of the most important mathematical tools for dealing with spherical waveguides were developed by G. N. Watson in 1918,[10] it was Winfried Otto Schumann who first studied the theoretical aspects of the global resonances of the earth–ionosphere waveguide system, known today as the Schumann resonances. In 1952–1954 Schumann, together with H. L. König, attempted to measure the resonant frequencies.[11][12][13][14] However, it was not until measurements made by Balser and Wagner in 1960–1963[15][16][17][18][19] that adequate analysis techniques were available to extract the resonance information from the background noise. Since then there has been an increasing interest in Schumann resonances in a wide variety of fields.

Basic theory[edit]

Lightning discharges are considered to be the primary natural source of Schumann resonance excitation; lightning channels behave like huge antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy at frequencies below about 100 kHz.[20]These signals are very weak at large distances from the lightning source, but the Earth–ionosphere waveguide behaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies.[20]

In an ideal cavity, the resonant frequency of the 7b8b965ad4bca0e41ab51de7b31363a1.png-th mode db78f660ef1b6fccc6fe6cbd73974bd1.png is determined by the Earth radius 0cc175b9c0f1b6a831c399e269772661.png and the speed of light 4a8a08f09d37b73795649038408b5f33.png.[11]

a51a5c916b907118b62e89810550c077.png

The real Earth–ionosphere waveguide is not a perfect electromagnetic resonant cavity. Losses due to finite ionosphere electrical conductivity lower the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in the cavity, resulting in a resonance frequency that is lower than would be expected in an ideal case, and the observed peaks are wide. In addition, there are a number of horizontal asymmetries – day-night difference in the height of the ionosphere, latitudinal changes in the Earth's magnetic field, sudden ionospheric disturbances, polar cap absorption, variation in the Earth radius of +/- 11 km from equator to geographic poles, etc. that produce other effects in the Schumann resonance power spectra.

Measurements[edit]

Today Schumann resonances are recorded at many separate research stations around the world. The sensors used to measure Schumann resonances typically consist of two horizontal magnetic inductive coils for measuring the north-south and east-west components of the magnetic field, and a vertical electric dipole antenna for measuring the vertical component of the electric field. A typical passband of the instruments is 3–100 Hz. The Schumann resonance electric field amplitude (~300 microvolts per meter) is much smaller than the static fair-weather electric field (~150 V/m) in the atmosphere. Similarly, the amplitude of the Schumann resonance magnetic field (~1 picotesla) is many orders of magnitude smaller than the Earth's magnetic field (~30–50 microteslas).[21] Specialized receivers and antennas are needed to detect and record Schumann resonances. The electric component is commonly measured with a ball antenna, suggested by Ogawa et al., in 1966,[22] connected to a high-impedance amplifier. The magnetic induction coils typically consist of tens- to hundreds-of-thousands of turns of wire wound around a core of very high magnetic permeability.

Dependence on global lightning activity[edit]

From the very beginning of Schumann resonance studies, it was known that they could be used to monitor global lightning activity. At any given time there are about 2000 thunderstorms around the globe.[23] Producing ~50 lightning events per second,[24] these thunderstorms create the background Schumann resonance signal.

Determining the spatial lightning distribution from Schumann resonance records is a complex problem: in order to estimate the lightning intensity from Schumann resonance records it is necessary to account for both the distance to lightning sources as well as the wave propagation between the source and the observer. The common approach is to make a preliminary assumption on the spatial lightning distribution, based on the known properties of lightning climatology. An alternative approach is placing the receiver at the North or South Pole, which remain approximately equidistant from the main thunderstorm centers during the day.[25] One method not requiring preliminary assumptions on the lightning distribution[26] is based on the decomposition of the average background Schumann resonance spectra, utilizing ratios between the average electric and magnetic spectra and between their linear combination. This technique assumes the cavity is spherically symmetric and therefore does not include known cavity asymmetries that are believed to affect the resonance and propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in the system.

Diurnal variations[edit]

The best documented and the most debated features of the Schumann resonance phenomenon are the diurnal variations of the background Schumann resonance power spectrum.

A characteristic Schumann resonance diurnal record reflects the properties of both global lightning activity and the state of the Earth–ionosphere cavity between the source region and the observer. The vertical electric field is independent of the direction of the source relative to the observer, and is therefore a measure of global lightning. The diurnal behavior of the vertical electric field shows three distinct maxima, associated with the three "hot spots" of planetary lightning activity: 9 UT (Universal Time) peak, linked to the increased thunderstorm activity from Southeast Asia; 14 UT peak associated with the peak in African lightning activity; and the 20 UT peak resulting for the increase in lightning activity in South America. The time and amplitude of the peaks vary throughout the year, reflecting the seasonal changes in lightning activity.

"Chimney" ranking[edit]

In general, the African peak is the strongest, reflecting the major contribution of the African "chimney" to the global lightning activity. The ranking of the two other peaks – Asian and American – is the subject of a vigorous dispute among Schumann resonance scientists. Schumann resonance observations made from Europe show a greater contribution from Asia than from South America. This contradicts optical satellite and climatological lightning data that show the South American thunderstorm center stronger than the Asian center.,[24] although observations made from North America indicate the dominant contribution comes from South America. The reason for such disparity remains unclear, but may have something to do with the 60 Hz cycling of electricity used in North America (60 Hz being a mode of Schumann Resonance). Williams and Sátori[27] suggest that in order to obtain "correct" Asia-America chimney ranking, it is necessary to remove the influence of the day/night variations in the ionospheric conductivity (day-night asymmetry influence) from the Schumann resonance records. On the other hand, such "corrected" records presented in the work by Sátori et al.[28] show that even after the removal of the day-night asymmetry influence from Schumann resonance records, the Asian contribution remains greater than American. Similar results were obtained by Pechony et al.[29] who calculated Schumann resonance fields from satellite lightning data. It was assumed that the distribution of lightning in the satellite maps was a good proxy for Schumann excitations sources, even though satellite observations predominantly measure in-cloud lightning rather than the cloud-to-ground lightning that are the primary exciters of the resonances. Both simulations – those neglecting the day-night asymmetry, and those taking this asymmetry into account, showed same Asia-America chimney ranking. As for today, the reason for the "invert" ranking of Asia and America chimneys in Schumann resonance records remains unclear and the subject requires further, targeted research.

Influence of the day-night asymmetry[edit]

In the early literature the observed diurnal variations of Schumann resonance power were explained by the variations in the source-receiver (lightning-observer) geometry.[15] It was concluded that no particular systematic variations of the ionosphere (which serves as the upper waveguide boundary) are needed to explain these variations.[30] Subsequent theoretical studies supported the early estimations of the small influence of the ionosphere day-night asymmetry (difference between day-side and night-side ionosphere conductivity) on the observed variations in Schumann resonance field intensities.[31]

The interest in the influence of the day-night asymmetry in the ionosphere conductivity on Schumann resonances gained new strength in the 1990s, after publication of a work by Sentman and Fraser.[32] Sentman and Fraser developed a technique to separate the global and the local contributions to the observed field power variations using records obtained simultaneously at two stations that were widely separated in longitude. They interpreted the diurnal variations observed at each station in terms of a combination of a diurnally varying global excitation modulated by the local ionosphere height. Their work, which combined both observations and energy conservation arguments, convinced many scientists of the importance of the ionospheric day-night asymmetry and inspired numerous experimental studies. However, recently it was shown that results obtained by Sentman and Fraser can be approximately simulated with a uniform model (without taking into account ionosphere day-night variation) and therefore cannot be uniquely interpreted solely in terms of ionosphere height variation.[33]

Schumann resonance amplitude records show significant diurnal and seasonal variations which in general coincide in time with the times of the day-night transition (the terminator). This time-matching seems to support the suggestion of a significant influence of the day-night ionosphere asymmetry on Schumann resonance amplitudes. There are records showing almost clock-like accuracy of the diurnal amplitude changes.[28] On the other hand there are numerous days when Schumann Resonance amplitudes do not increase at sunrise or do not decrease at sunset. There are studies showing that the general behavior of Schumann resonance amplitude records can be recreated from diurnal and seasonal thunderstorm migration, without invoking ionospheric variations.[29][31] Two recent independent theoretical studies have shown that the variations in Schumann resonance power related to the day-night transition are much smaller than those associated with the peaks of the global lightning activity, and therefore the global lightning activity plays a more important role in the variation of the Schumann resonance power.[29][34]

It is generally acknowledged that source-observer effects are the dominant source of the observed diurnal variations, but there remains considerable controversy about the degree to which day-night signatures are present in the data. Part of this controversy stems from the fact that the Schumann resonance parameters extractable from observations provide only a limited amount of information about the coupled lightning source-ionospheric system geometry. The problem of inverting observations to simultaneously infer both the lightning source function and ionospheric structure is therefore extremely underdetermined, leading to the possibility of nonunique interpretations.

The "inverse problem"[edit]

One of the interesting problems in Schumann resonances studies is determining the lightning source characteristics (the "inverse problem"). Temporally resolving each individual flash is impossible because the mean rate of excitation by lightning, ~50 lightning events per second globally, mixes up the individual contributions together. However, occasionally there occur extremely large lightning flashes which produce distinctive signatures that stand out from the background signals. Called "Q-bursts", they are produced by intense lightning strikes that transfer large amounts of charge from clouds to the ground, and often carry high peak current.[22] Q-bursts can exceed theamplitude of the background signal level by a factor of 10 or more, and appear with intervals of ~10 s,[26] which allows to consider them as isolated events and determine the source lightning location. The source location is determined with either multi-station or single-station techniques, and requires assuming a model for the Earth–ionosphere cavity. The multi-station techniques are more accurate, but require more complicated and expensive facilities.

Transient luminous events research[edit]

It is now believed that many of the Schumann resonances transients (Q bursts) are related to the transient luminous events (TLEs). In 1995 Boccippio et al.[35] showed that sprites, the most common TLE, are produced by positive cloud-to-ground lightning occurring in the stratiform region of a thunderstorm system, and are accompanied by Q-burst in the Schumann resonances band. Recent observations[35][36] reveal that occurrences of sprites and Q bursts are highly correlated and Schumann resonances data can possibly be used to estimate the global occurrence rate of sprites.[37]

Global temperature[edit]

Williams [1992][38] suggested that global temperature may be monitored with the Schumann resonances. The link between Schumann resonance and temperature is lightning flash rate, which increases nonlinearly with temperature.[38] The nonlinearity of the lightning-to-temperature relation provides a natural amplifier of the temperature changes and makes Schumann resonance a sensitive "thermometer". Moreover, the ice particles that are believed to participate in the electrification processes which result in a lightning discharge[39] have an important role in the radiative feedback effects that influence the atmosphere temperature. Schumann resonances may therefore help us to understand these feedback effects. A strong link between global lightning and global temperature has not been experimentally confirmed as of 2008.

Upper tropospheric water vapor[edit]

Tropospheric water vapor is a key element of the Earth’s climate, which has direct effects as a greenhouse gas, as well as indirect effect through interaction with cloudsaerosols and tropospheric chemistry. Upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) has a much greater impact on the greenhouse effect than water vapor in the lower atmosphere,[40] but whether this impact is a positive, or a negative feedback is still uncertain.[41] The main challenge in addressing this question is the difficulty in monitoring UTWV globally over long timescales. Continental deep-convective thunderstorms produce most of the lightning discharges on Earth. In addition, they transport large amount ofwater vapor into the upper troposphere, dominating the variations of global UTWV. Price [2000][42] suggested that changes in the UTWV can be derived from records of Schumann Resonances.

On other planets and moons[edit]

The existence of Schumann-like resonances is conditioned primarily by two factors:

  1. A closed, planetary-sized spherical[dubious – discuss] cavity, consisting of conducting lower and upper boundaries separated by an insulating medium. For the earth the conducting lower boundary is its surface, and the upper boundary is the ionosphere. Other planets may have similar electrical conductivity geometry, so it is speculated that they should possess similar resonant behavior.
  2. A source of electrical excitation of electromagnetic waves in the ELF range.

Within the Solar System there are five candidates for Schumann resonance detection besides the Earth: VenusMarsJupiterSaturn and its biggest moon Titan. Modeling Schumann resonances on the planets and moons of the Solar System is complicated by the lack of knowledge of the waveguide parameters. No in situ capability exists today to validate the results.

Venus[edit]

The strongest evidence for lightning on Venus comes from the impulsive electromagnetic waves detected by Venera 11 and 12 landers. Theoretical calculations of the Schumann resonances at Venus were reported by Nickolaenko and Rabinowicz [1982][43] and Pechony and Price [2004].[44] Both studies yielded very close results, indicating that Schumann resonances should be easily detectable on that planet given a lightning source of excitation and a suitably located sensor.

Mars[edit]

In the case of Mars there have been terrestrial observations of radio emission spectra that have been associated with Schumann resonances.[45] The reported radio emissions are not of the primary electromagnetic Schumann modes, but rather of secondary modulations of the nonthermal microwave emissions from the planet at approximately the expected Schumann frequencies, and have not been independently confirmed to be associated with lightning activity on Mars. There is the possibility that future lander missions could carry in situ instrumentation to perform the necessary measurements. Theoretical studies are primarily directed to parameterizing the problem for future planetary explorers.

Detection of lightning activity on Mars has been reported by Ruf et al. [2009].[45] The evidence is indirect and in the form of modulations of the nonthermal microwave spectrum at approximately the expected Schumann resonance frequencies. It has not been independently confirmed that these are associated with electrical discharges on Mars. In the event confirmation is made by direct, in situ observations, it would verify the suggestion of the possibility of charge separation and lightning strokes in the Martian dust storms made by Eden and Vonnegut [1973][46] and Renno et al. [2003].[47] Martian global resonances were modeled by Sukhorukov [1991],[48] Pechony and Price [2004][44] and Molina-Cuberos et al. [2006].[49] The results of the three studies are somewhat different, but it seems that at least the first two Schumann resonance modes should be detectable. Evidence of the first three Schumann resonance modes is present in the spectra of radio emission from the lightning detected in Martian dust storms.[45]

Titan[edit]

It was long ago suggested that lightning discharges may occur on Titan,[50] but recent data from Cassini–Huygens seems to indicate that there is no lightning activity on this largest satellite of Saturn. Due to the recent interest in Titan, associated with the Cassini–Huygens mission, its ionosphere is perhaps the most thoroughly modeled today. Schumann resonances on Titan have received more attention than on any other celestial body, in works by Besser et al. [2002],[51] Morente et al. [2003],[52] Molina-Cuberos et al. [2004],[53] Nickolaenko et al. [2003][54] and Pechony and Price [2004].[44] It appears that only the first Schumann resonance mode might be detectable on Titan.

Since the landing of the Huygens probe on Titan's surface in January 2005, there have been many reports on observations and theory of an atypical Schumann resonance on Titan. After several tens of fly-bys by Cassini, neither lightning nor thunderstorms were detected in Titan's atmosphere. Scientists therefore proposed another source of electrical excitation: induction of ionospheric currents by Saturn's co-rotating magnetosphere. All data and theoretical models comply with a Schumann resonance, the second eigenmode of which was observed by the Huygens probe. The most important result of this is the proof of existence of a buried liquid water-ammonia ocean under few tens of km the icy subsurface crust.[55][56][57][58]

Jupiter and Saturn[edit]

Jupiter is one planet where lightning activity has been optically detected. Existence of lightning activity on that planet was predicted by Bar-Nun [1975][59] and it is now supported by data from GalileoVoyagers 1 and 2, Pioneers10 and 11 and Cassini. Saturn is also confirmed to have lightning activity.[60] Though three visiting spacecraft – Pioneer 11 in 1979, Voyager 1 in 1980 and Voyager 2 in 1981, failed to provide any convincing evidence from optical observations, in July 2012 the Cassini spacecraft detected visible lightning flashes, and electromagnetic sensors aboard the spacecraft detected signatures that are characteristic of lightning. Little is known about the electrical parameters of Jupiter and Saturn interior. Even the question of what should serve as the lower waveguide boundary is a non-trivial one in case of the gaseous planets. There seem to be no works dedicated to Schumann resonances on Saturn. To date there has been only one attempt to model Schumann resonances on Jupiter.[61] Here, the electrical conductivity profile within the gaseous atmosphere of Jupiter was calculated using methods similar to those used to model stellar interiors, and it was pointed out that the same methods could be easily extended to the other gas giants Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Given the intense lightning activity at Jupiter, the Schumann resonances should be easily detectable with a sensor suitably positioned within the planetary-ionospheric cavity.

See also[edit] References[edit]
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  3. Jump up^ Rusov, V.D. (2012). "Can Resonant Oscillations of the Earth Ionosphere Influence the Human Brain Biorhythm?". arXiv:1208.4970 [physics.gen-ph]. Department of Theoretical and Experimental Nuclear Physics, Odessa National Polytechnic University, Ukraine
  4. Jump up^ Recent advances in multidisciplinary applied physics By A. Méndez-Vilas. Page 65.
  5. Jump up^ G. F. FitzGerald, “On the period of vibration of electrical disturbances upon the Earth,” Br. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Rep. 63, 682 (1893)
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  9. Jump up^ Appleton, E. V. , M. A. F. Barnett (1925). "On Some Direct Evidence for Downward Atmospheric Reflection of Electric Rays". Proceedings of the Royal Society. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character 109 (752): 621–641.Bibcode:1925RSPSA.109..621Adoi:10.1098/rspa.1925.0149.
  10. Jump up^ Watson, G.N. (1918). "The diffraction of electric waves by the Earth".Proceedings of the Royal Society. Ser.A 95: 83–99.
  11. Jump up to:a b Schumann W. O. (1952). "Über die strahlungslosen Eigenschwingungen einer leitenden Kugel, die von einer Luftschicht und einer Ionosphärenhülle umgeben ist". Zeitschrift und Naturfirschung 7a: 149–154. Bibcode:1952ZNatA...7..149S.
  12. Jump up^ Schumann W. O. (1952). "Über die Dämpfung der elektromagnetischen Eigenschwingnugen des Systems Erde – Luft – Ionosphäre". Zeitschrift und Naturfirschung 7a: 250–252. Bibcode:1952ZNatA...7..250S.
  13. Jump up^ Schumann W. O. (1952). "Über die Ausbreitung sehr Langer elektriseher Wellen um die Signale des Blitzes". Nuovo Cimento 9 (12): 1116–1138.doi:10.1007/BF02782924.
  14. Jump up^ Schumann W. O. and H. König (1954). "Über die Beobactung von Atmospherics bei geringsten Frequenzen". Naturwiss 41 (8): 183–184.Bibcode:1954NW.....41..183Sdoi:10.1007/BF00638174.
  15. Jump up to:a b Balser M. and C. Wagner (1960). "Measurement of the spectrum of radio noise from 50 to 100 c/s". J.Res. NBS 64D: 415–418.doi:10.6028/jres.064d.050.
  16. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1960). "Observations of Earth–ionosphere cavity resonances". Nature 188 (4751): 638–641.Bibcode:1960Natur.188..638Bdoi:10.1038/188638a0.
  17. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1962). "Diurnal power variations of the Earth–ionosphere cavity modes and their relationship to worldwide thunderstorm activity". J.G.R 67 (2): 619–625. Bibcode:1962JGR....67..619B.doi:10.1029/JZ067i002p00619.
  18. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1962). "On frequency variations of the Earth–ionosphere cavity modes". J.G.R 67 (10): 4081–4083.Bibcode:1962JGR....67.4081Bdoi:10.1029/JZ067i010p04081.
  19. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1963). "Effect of a high-altitude nuclear detonation on the Earth–ionosphere cavity". J.G.R 68: 4115–4118.doi:10.1029/jz068i013p04115.
  20. Jump up to:a b Volland, H. (1984). Atmospheric Electrodynamics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  21. Jump up^ Price, C., O. Pechony, E. Greenberg (2006). "Schumann resonances in lightning research". Journal of Lightning Research 1: 1– 15.
  22. Jump up to:a b Ogawa, T., Y. Tanka, T. Miura, and M. Yasuhara (1966). "Observations of natural ELF electromagnetic noises by using the ball antennas". J. Geomagn. Geoelectr 18: 443– 454.doi:10.5636/jgg.18.443.
  23. Jump up^ Heckman S. J., E. Williams, (1998). "Total global lightning inferred from Schumann resonance measurements". J. G. R. 103(D24): 31775–31779.Bibcode:1998JGR...10331775Hdoi:10.1029/98JD02648.
  24. Jump up to:a b Christian H. J., R.J. Blakeslee, D.J. Boccippio, W.L. Boeck, D.E. Buechler, K.T. Driscoll, S.J. Goodman, J.M. Hall, W.J. Koshak, D.M. Mach, M.F. Stewart, (2003). "Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector". J. G. R. 108(D1): 4005. Bibcode:2003JGRD..108.4005C.doi:10.1029/2002JD002347.
  25. Jump up^ Nickolaenko, A.P. (1997). "Modern aspects of Schumann resonance studies". J.a.s.t.p. 59: 806–816. doi:10.1016/s1364-6826(96)00059-4.
  26. Jump up to:a b Shvets A.V. (2001). "A technique for reconstruction of global lightning distance profile from background Schumann resonance signal". J.a.s.t.p.63: 1061–1074. doi:10.1016/s1364-6826(01)00024-4.
  27. Jump up^ Williams E. R., G. Sátori (2004). "Lightning, thermodynamic and hydrological comparison of the two tropical continental chimneys".J.a.s.t.p. 66: 1213–1231. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2004.05.015.
  28. Jump up to:a b Sátori G., M. Neska, E. Williams, J. Szendrői (2007). "Signatures of the non-uniform Earth–ionosphere cavity in high time-resolution Schumann resonance records". Radio Science. in print.
  29. Jump up to:a b c Pechony, O., C. Price, A.P. Nickolaenko (2007). "Relative importance of the day-night asymmetry in Schumann resonance amplitude records". Radio Science. in print.
  30. Jump up^ Madden T., W. Thompson (1965). "Low-frequency electromagnetic oscillations of the Earth–ionosphere cavity". Rev. Geophys. 3 (2): 211.Bibcode:1965RvGSP...3..211Mdoi:10.1029/RG003i002p00211.
  31. Jump up to:a b Nickolaenko A. P. and M. Hayakawa (2002). Resonances in the Earth–ionosphere cavity. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-Boston-London.
  32. Jump up^ Sentman, D.D., B. J. Fraser (1991). "Simultaneous observations of Schumann Resonances in California and Australia – Evidence for intensity modulation by the local height of the D region". Journal of geophysical research 96 (9): 15973–15984. Bibcode:1991JGR....9615973S.doi:10.1029/91JA01085.
  33. Jump up^ Pechony, O., C. Price (2006). "Schumann Resonances: interpretation of local diurnal intensity modulations". Radio Sci. 42 (2): RS2S05.Bibcode:2006RaSc...41.2S05Pdoi:10.1029/2006RS003455.
  34. Jump up^ Yang H., V. P. Pasko (2007). "Three-dimensional finite difference time domain modeling of the diurnal and seasonal variations in Schumann resonance parameters". Radio Science 41 (2): RS2S14.Bibcode:2006RaSc...41.2S14Ydoi:10.1029/2005RS003402.
  35. Jump up to:a b Boccippio, D. J., E. R. Williams, S. J. Heckman, W. A. Lyons, I. T. Baker, R. Boldi (1995). "Sprites, ELF transients, and positive ground strokes". Science 269 (5227): 1088–1091.Bibcode:1995Sci...269.1088Bdoi:10.1126/science.269.5227.1088.PMID 17755531.
  36. Jump up^ Price, C., E. Greenberg, Y. Yair, G. Sátori, J. Bór, H. Fukunishi, M. Sato, P. Israelevich, M. Moalem, A. Devir, Z. Levin, J.H. Joseph, I. Mayo, B. Ziv, A. Sternlieb (2004). "Ground-based detection of TLE-producing intense lightning during the MEIDEX mission on board the Space Shuttle Columbia". G.R.L. 31: L20107. doi:10.1029/2004GL020711.
  37. Jump up^ Hu, W., S. A. Cummer, W. A. Lyons, T. E. Nelson (2002). "Lightning charge moment changes for the initiation of sprites". G.R.L. 29 (8): 1279.Bibcode:2002GeoRL..29h.120Hdoi:10.1029/2001GL014593.
  38. Jump up to:a b Williams, E.R. (1992). "The Schumann resonance: a global tropical thermometer". Science 256 (5060): 1184–1186.Bibcode:1992Sci...256.1184Wdoi:10.1126/science.256.5060.1184.PMID 17795213.
  39. Jump up^ Williams, E.R. (1989). "The tripole structure of thunderstorms". J. G. R.94: 13151–13167. Bibcode:1989JGR....9413151W.doi:10.1029/JD094iD11p13151.
  40. Jump up^ Hansen, J., A. Lacis, D. Rind, G. Russel, P. Stone, I. Fung, R. Ruedy, J., Lerner (1984). "Climate sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms".Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, J.,E. Hansen and T. Takahashi, eds.. AGU Geophys. Monograph 29: 130–163.doi:10.1029/gm029p0130.
  41. Jump up^ Rind, D. (1998). "Just add water vapor". Science 28 (5380): 1152–1153.doi:10.1126/science.281.5380.1152.
  42. Jump up^ Price, C. (2000). "Evidence for a link between global lightning activity and upper tropospheric water vapor". Letters to Nature 406 (6793): 290–293. doi:10.1038/35018543PMID 10917527.
  43. Jump up^ Nickolaenko A. P., L. M. Rabinowicz (1982). "On the possibility of existence of global electromagnetic resonances on the planets of Solar system". Space Res. 20: 82–89.
  44. Jump up to:a b c Pechony, O., C. Price (2004). "Schumann resonance parameters calculated with a partially uniform knee model on Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan". Radio Sci. 39 (5): RS5007. Bibcode:2004RaSc...39.5007P.doi:10.1029/2004RS003056.
  45. Jump up to:a b c Ruf, C., N. O. Renno, J. F. Kok, E. Bandelier, M. J. Sander, S. Gross, L. Skjerve, and B. Cantor (2009). "Emission of Non-thermal Microwave Radiation by a Martian Dust Storm". Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(13): L13202. Bibcode:2009GeoRL..3613202R.doi:10.1029/2009GL038715.
  46. Jump up^ Eden, H. F. and B. Vonnegut (1973). "Electrical breakdown caused by dust motion in low-pressure atmospheres: consideration for Mars".Science 180 (4089): 962–3. Bibcode:1973Sci...180..962E.doi:10.1126/science.180.4089.962PMID 17735929.
  47. Jump up^ Renno N. O., A. Wong, S. K. Atreya, I. de Pater, M. Roos-Serote (2003). "Electrical discharges and broadband radio emission by Martian dust devils and dust storms". G. R. L. 30 (22): 2140.Bibcode:2003GeoRL..30vPLA1Rdoi:10.1029/2003GL017879.
  48. Jump up^ Sukhorukov A. I. (1991). "On the Schumann resonances on Mars".Planet. Space Sci. 39 (12): 1673–1676.Bibcode:1991P&SS...39.1673Sdoi:10.1016/0032-0633(91)90028-9.
  49. Jump up^ Molina-Cuberos G. J., J. A. Morente, B. P. Besser, J. Porti, H. Lichtenegger, K. Schwingenschuh, A. Salinas, J. Margineda (2006). "Schumann resonances as a tool to study the lower ionosphere of Mars".Radio Science 41: RS1003. Bibcode:2006RaSc...41.1003M.doi:10.1029/2004RS003187.
  50. Jump up^ Lammer H., T. Tokano, G. Fischer, W. Stumptner, G. J. Molina-Cuberos, K. Schwingenschuh, H. O. Rucher (2001). "Lightning activity of Titan: can Cassiny/Huygens detect it?". Planet. Space Sci. 49 (6): 561–574. Bibcode:2001P&SS...49..561Ldoi:10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00171-9.
  51. Jump up^ Besser, B. P., K. Schwingenschuh, I. Jernej, H. U. Eichelberger, H. I. M. Lichtenegger, M. Fulchignoni, G. J. Molina-Cuberos, J. A. Morente, J. A. Porti, A. Salinas (2002). "Schumann resonances as indicators for lighting on Titan". Proceedings of the Second European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology, Graz, Australia, September 16–19.
  52. Jump up^ Morente J. A., Molina-Cuberos G. J., Porti J. A., K. Schwingenschuh, B. P. Besser (2003). "A study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in Titan’s atmosphere with the TLM numerical method". Icarus 162 (2): 374–384. Bibcode:2003Icar..162..374Mdoi:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00025-3.
  53. Jump up^ Molina-Cuberos G. J., J. Porti, B. P. Besser, J. A. Morente, J. Margineda, H. I. M. Lichtenegger, A. Salinas, K. Schwingenschuh, H. U. Eichelberger (2004). "Shumann resonances and electromagnetic transparence in the atmosphere of Titan". Advances in Space Research33 (12): 2309–2313. Bibcode:2004AdSpR..33.2309M.doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00465-4.
  54. Jump up^ Nickolaenko A. P., B. P. Besser, K. Schwingenschuh (2003). "Model computations of Schumann resonance on Titan". Planet. Space Sci. 51(13): 853–862. Bibcode:2003P&SS...51..853Ndoi:10.1016/S0032-0633(03)00119-3.
  55. Jump up^ Béghin, C., et al., 2007. A Schumann-like resonance on Titan driven by Saturn’s magnetosphere possibly revealed by the Huygens Probe, Icarus 191, 251-266.
  56. Jump up^ Béghin, C., et al., 2009. New insights on Titan’s plasma-driven Schumann resonance inferred from Huygens and Cassini data, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1872-1888.
  57. Jump up^ Béghin, C., Hamelin, M., Sotin, C., 2010. Titan’s native ocean revealed beneath some 45 km of ice by a Schumann-like resonance, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 342, 425-433.
  58. Jump up^ Béghin, C., and 8 colleagues. Analytic theory of Titan’s Schumann resonance: Constraints on ionospheric conductivity and buried water ocean, Icarus, 218, 1028-1042, 2012.
  59. Jump up^ Bar-Nun A. (1975). "Thunderstorms on Jupiter". Icarus 24: 86–94.Bibcode:1975Icar...24...86Bdoi:10.1016/0019-1035(75)90162-1.
  60. Jump up^ http://www.ciclops.org/view_event/178/Lightning_Flashing_in_Daylight
  61. Jump up^ Sentman D. D. (1990). "Electrical conductivity of Jupiter's Shallow interior and the formation of a resonant planetary-ionosphere cavity".Icarus 88: 73–86. Bibcode:1990Icar...88...73Sdoi:10.1016/0019-1035(90)90177-B.
External articles and references[edit] General references Websites Animation

 

 

 

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Fizicianul Bob Lazar care a lucrat in baza S4 de langa Zona 51 explica in 1989 functionarea unei farfurii zburatoare din sistemul binar Zeta Reticuli: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adugati prcc8UQW3bY. Iata si ocupanti ai farfuriilor zburatoare din acest sistem solar dublu intr-o baza din fosta URSS, in 23 aprilie 1942 (chiar arata bine extraterestra!): tastati  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati PgfwJzAvQNE

 

Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati succesiv:

3VWmNm6J09M

PgfwJzAvQNE

3swu_lC-7zc

2giFGsGLft4

MwUpPwyyvLw

5tydvDgVNiA

nuQp8OxgJrQ

e5gQ2D5St3Q

 

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SF.

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Romanul Henri Marie Coanda nu e SF, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit aerodina lenticulara Coanda 9 bazata pe efectul Coanda si motoare cu reactie, cu 12 turboagregate BMW 028, nici austriacul Viktor Schauberger, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit Repulsin, un disc zburator cu impulsie magnetohidrodinamica, cu motor cu implozie (suctiune, scadere a presiunii fluidului aflat pe directia de inaintare a avehiculului) magnetohidrodinamica cu vortex de aer ionizat sub presiune intr-o spirala Nautilus, cu sectiune crescand dupa sirul lui Fibonacci si apa fierbinte sub presiune, generand automentinerea unei miscari de rotatie la 1200 rpm, si tasnirea verticala a discului, si in  nici germanul Rudolph Schriever, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit avionul rotund Rund Flugzeug (RFZ) sau elicopterul supersonic cu reactie Flugelrad (aripa rotativa) la Praga, nici aromanul (romanii de peste Dunare, din Timoc si Voivodina) Nicolae Teslea sau Nikola Tesla, dupa care capitanul de marina Hans Kohler a construit tahionator converterul sau convertizorul de energie libera folosit la crearea giroscopului electrogravitational Thule, Vril, si apoi, Haunebu (clopotul zburator Haunebu IV avea 120 m diametru) si navei mama Andromeda, de 139 m lungime, de marimea unui zepelin mare (Hindenburg avea 253 m), nici Andreas Epp, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit farfuria zburatoare Omega 8. Viktor Grebennikov si Edward Leedskalnin au dezvoltat metode de invingere a gravitatiei, Grebennikov folosinduse de proprietatile geometrice ale structurii microscopice a aripilor cheratinoase ale sacarabeului, care duc la deformarea continuumului spatiu-timp si generarea leviatiei si opririi scurgerii timpului pentru cel care leviteaza: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: _ChsZUwqTeE. Deasemenea despre bazele naziste subterane din nord-estul Antarctidei (la Polul Sud), fata nevazuta a Lunii si Marte, a scris si generalul de brigada Emil Strainu, cat si militarii rusii au comentat despre campania militara a amiralului de marina Richard Bird din 1947 pentru distrugerea bazei naziste de la Polul Sud soldata cu esec. Nu mai zic despre fizicianul Robert Lazar care a lucrat la baza S4 din apropierea Zonei 51 la retroingineria unor discuri zburatoare, inclusiv celui cazut la Roswell in 1947.   Si pe canalele de stiinta de la RDS apar unele din aceste informatii. Dar nu cred ca ai avut rabdare sa studiezi tot ce scrie la aceast topic despre ei. Nici nu e de condamnat, mai ales daca nu stai bine cu timpul liber si daca nu te pasioneaza fizica. Oricum, e parerea ta si e dreptul tau sa ti-o exprimi! Toate cele bune! :friends: 
Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 3J_K5vHQnlQ; Y02BLG9Xek4; 1fn5_8gw6Qg; Rx6SWYT5abw; U53zCg8uFAo; gcD1h9DYitg; o2weEI1F64o; _1tkWMI-TSc; NiVROBhwHUM; VjpCKZ7cEoY; 3W94TT2eFV8; mJtKcUiWEms; GIIHzpzBErM; _6G_QDnXgx0; UBZZlM3IJ60; GP1TTwUWpg4; 9-UXJbrgIr0; 7k0OXGLC8Ok; G7Zi5i94rzs; 9-UXJbrgIr0; KMyiH-dFqfs; SqvnbgGPdmI; prcc8UQW3bY; x8npcgiNGus; dKOYzYwQ6js; dlo8IEBJaqs; 7-0iOfYF6o0; 4NLIkKl8NlY; V9-BsAUps5E; OcoPsm26RfQ; VSTaQ51stb4; eb97wVaz3Ic; rN2AhUXlcLs; HRfW7w1YoUU; sVLRKDlE8c4; 5VtYQzMvSio; _ECjO46EUp4; DRWbmiXQba0; NN09AAG94Os; xEEw3TzahVI; KBrYCUnEExA; 7hJP9ZWRXCo; 6EWpNckTqLA; gc0menDzaUE&feature=c4-overview-vl&list=PLE34B0DF38A5BD062; EeocSYQ5GnY; HRfW7w1YoUU; e5gQ2D5St3Q; 3VWmNm6J09M; nuQp8OxgJrQ; PgfwJzAvQNE; 3swu_lC-7zc; 2giFGsGLft4; MwUpPwyyvLw; 5tydvDgVNiA; hYJXE4FCm7Q; _ChsZUwqTeE.

 

Zum ersten mal in der Geschichte der Menschheit, in einem Weltweiten event, Ganz gleich, wer sie sind, Ganz egal, wo sie sind, machen Sie sich gefasst, auf eine neue Ara in der Geschichte der Menschheit.

 

http://www.vortex-world.org/repulsin.htm

 

 

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the VORTEX WORLD

 

 

 

the repulsin

It happend at 1200 rpm ...

With a snapping sound the machine broke loose from the six quarter inch bolts that connected it to the ground, and then, with a soft wining sound, it took off with a blue glowing fog emerging from the machine ...

 

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Imagine that we could control that force ....

Among Viktor Schaubergers machines there is no one like the Repulsin or the flying saucer that has created such myths and stories. The basic designs are from the mid thirties when he tried to finish the Climator. Often mysterious material acting as catalysts are used in the devices. Different light and sound phenomena are also reported from people that claim that they had been eye witnesses to these flying devices. A most peculiar thing is that they seem to be very difficult to control, as they have a habit of smashing into the ceiling, and after that, being irreparable. Viktor himself claimed that powerful diamagnetic forces were responsible for the enormous effect. However, in the literature and in Viktor's own notebooks there is no evidence, if and if so how these devices worked. The question is, are all these rumours true ? Do these devices really work ?

Well, what we can see from the few pictures that exist is that there seems to be some kind of turbine, shaped as a double flat membrane with concentric rills on it. If you compare to the wave pattern you get when you throw a stone into a small pond you will comprehend better what I mean. However, the wave pattern on the upper membrane had a small difference in the phase compared to the lower membrane. On the edge rim, turbine vanes are mounted, probably acting as a source of power for both self rotation and even for the generation of power. The double membrane was probably co-rotating as four bolts that fix them together, can be observed.

In the pictures we can also see that there is some kind of body, a bowl shaped plate that is bend over the membrane whose outlet can be found inside the rim foil. Together, the rim foil (the metal band around the lower rim) and the outlet form a Venturi "tube". An air intake can be seen on the top of the device. Unfortunately, one important component is missing on the top. This component should "pre-form" the air so it starts to twist before it enters the double membrane. This component had a similar shape as a sea shell. Viktor said that this device was never built as it is very difficult to produce a thing with such a complex geometry. In the book Living Water (by Olof Alexandersson) a colloid solution of very fine grained quartz crystal and water is mentioned as a catalyst for the process.

So, if we start to think for a while. Let's say that this device really worked, it really did
take off! How would it work ?
Consider what probably happens in the machine:

- The air is sucked through the intake where it is pre-formed into a vortice containing vortices within vortices shaped as long threads rotating around their axis.In my opinion the double membrane was not co-rotating. If they where not counter rotating, one of the was fixed, probably the upper membrane and the lower rotating on the driving axis. A description on what happens is given on the wind mill page.

- Briefly the air threads start to spin faster and faster around their axis driven by the difference in speed between the membranes. As the air reaches longer out on the membrane, the peripherical speed increases along with the radius and so does the angular speed of the air threads.

- During the passage between the double membrane the air has to pass cavities where the volume sometimes is bigger and sometimes is smaller due to the difference in phase between the upper and the lower membrane. When the air passes a narrow cavity it gets extra energy input and when it passes a larger cavity it is allowed to expand.

- The "air threads" are twisted along their axis in a smaller and smaller radius leading to an increase of the angular speed. As the air reaches further out, closer to the rim, the threads start to bend due to the increasing peripherical speed. When the air passes the different cavities it starts to pulsate in a rhythm that is depending on the angular speed of the disc. Huge forces are generated when all these degrees of freedom are harmonised into a symphony.

However, it is not necessary to use unknown theories as the diamagnetic forces to explain how the powerful lift is generated. Of course this can be the explanation, the future will show us if this is the case. As for the colloid solution of fine grained quartz and water, one can imagine that huge amounts of piezo electricity is produced between the membranes, where the pulsating and twisting air containing small amounts of the solution is passing. At a certain rotation speed we have reached the level where we have "harmony" and the air is "self pulsating" and generating electricity that "pumps" up the energy level. What actually happens in this process in certainly unknown! But, high levels of static electricity have been reported in similar devices connected to the ZPE-area. ZPE stands for zero point energy or vacuum energy which is the idea of an unknown field of energy existing in vacuum. Read more about this phenomena! In several proposals of propulsion devices, for flying saucers high electric energy levels are also used. As an example we have David Hamels flying disk. You can read about it here. It could
be that the diamagnetism that Viktor Schauberger mentioned, is the same phenomena or physical principle that is proposed in these propulsion devices. In Viktor's lessons he always talked about two important things:
"You shall always remember two things. First, remember how the rivers are meandering. Second, remember the electrophorus (or Kelvin's thunderstorm ) experiments!"

As I mentioned before there is one (at least…) more explanation on why Viktor Schaubergers machine took off with such power. It might be explained by "normal" aerodynamics and a phenomena named ‘the Coanda effect'. Very brief the Coanda effect is the phenomena when a flowing media tends to "stick" to a curved surface, You can read a biography of Henri Coanda here . If we take a closer look on the bowl shaped plate, we realise that it is a circular wing. When the air is rushing out inside the foil or the metal band that can be seen on the lower rim of the device it creates a sub pressure just over the foil.

The surrounding air is sucked inside the foil and with the air from the membranes. This generates a sub pressure over the device and the device is "hanging" in it. You could say that it is an inverted hovercraft. But instead of creating a pressure under the craft You create a sub pressure over it. Basically it is the same, it is only a matter of pressure differences. The sub pressure is modest but as we have a large area we also get a huge lifting force. There is one more way to create the sub pressure over the craft. You can let the air blow out on the top instead.

When the twisted air follows the Coanda surface it sweeps down the surrounding air and we get the sub pressure this way. If You want to read more about the Coanda effect follow this link . On this page You can read a lot about different applications and a very interesting new type of fan, the Jet Fan.

The principle of the "flats and angles" (type 1) is demonstrated in picture 1, where I have built a small (250 mm diameter, 80 mm high) prototype of the Jet Fan type (type1). I have also "rebuilt" my vacuum cleaner so it is blowing instead (my wife demanded a new one … ). The air blows out through a special nozzle so it forms a "disk" of blowing air.

Picture 2: When the nozzle with the "air disk" is placed close to the top, we can simulate what is happening on type 1. As You can see in the picture, the silk threads follow the air flow shoving the path.

Picture 3: Oh Yes, It works !

The Malmögroup will continue their work during 1998 with further testing of these ideas. We proposed a model of the membrane turbine and will continue to shape the moulds so we can multiply the membranes. A section of the body will also be designed as a test rig where it will be possible to test different profiles of the body and different types of nozzles and other things related to the device. We will also present the results on this page, please continue to check the site. I will write in the "what's new section" when there is more info.

 

 

 

 

 

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http://davidpratt.info/gravity2.htm

 

Gravity and Antigravity

 

David Pratt

Feb 2001, last rev’d Jul 2007

 

Part 2 of 2

 

 

Contents

Part 1

Part 2
    4. Levitation and technology
    5. Human levitation
    6. Theosophical writings

 

 

4. Levitation and technology

 

Myths and megaliths

    The megalithic structures found at many sites around the world have generated endless controversy as to how they were built. Conventional archaeologists, who dismiss the possibility of highly advanced civilizations in the remote past, insist that they were built solely with the use of primitive tools and brute force. Some of the structures, or parts of them, could have been built in this way. However, a number of engineers have stated that some features would be difficult if not impossible to duplicate today, even using the most advanced technology. The sheer weight and size of some of the stone blocks have prompted several researchers to wonder whether the ancient builders had mastered some form of levitation technology.*

*The acoustic and magnetic levitation techniques currently under development by mainstream scientists create a physical lifting force stronger than the force of gravity and do not modify gravity or generate an antigravitational force.

    The pre-Incan fortresses at Ollantaytambo and Sacsayhuaman in the Peruvian Andes consist of cyclopean walls constructed from tight-fitting polygonal stone blocks, some weighing 120 tonnes or more. The blocks used at Ollantaytambo were somehow transported from a quarry located on another mountaintop 11 km away, the descent from which was impeded by a river canyon with 305-metre vertical rock walls. The ruins of Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia include blocks weighing around 100 tonnes, which were transported from quarries 50 km away.1 According to the local Aymara Indians, the complex was built at the ‘beginning of time’ by the founder-god Viracocha and his followers, who caused the stones to be ‘carried through the air to the sound of a trumpet’. An alternative theme is that they created a ‘heavenly fire’ that consumed the stones and enabled large blocks to be lifted by hand ‘as if they were cork’. According to a Mayan legend, the temple complex of Uxmal in the Yucatan Peninsula was built by a race of dwarfs who were able to move heavy rocks into place by whistling.2

    Legends of occult power being employed to lift and transport stone blocks are in fact universal. For example, according to tradition the megalithic city of Nan Madol on the Micronesian island of Pohnpei was built by the god-kings Olosopa and Olosipa, who used magic spells to make the huge stones ‘fly through the air like birds’.3 Legends about the huge stone statues or moai on Easter Island, many of which are as high as a three-storey building, tell how magicians or priests used mana, or mind power, to make them ‘walk’, or float through the air.4

    According to early Greek historians, the walls of the ancient city of Thebes were built by Amphion, a son of Jupiter, who moved the large stones ‘to the music of his harp’ while his ‘songs drew even stones and beasts after him’. Another version claims that when he played ‘loud and clear on his golden lyre, rock twice as large followed in his footsteps’. The 10th-century Arab historian Mas’di wrote that, to build the pyramids, the ancient Egyptians inserted papyri inscribed with certain characters beneath the stone blocks; they were then struck by an instrument, producing a sound which caused them to rise into the air and travel for a distance of over 86 metres.5

    The achievements of the ancient Egyptian builders have caused even some fairly orthodox investigators to wonder whether levitation might have been employed.6 For instance the roof of the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid, 200 feet up, consists of huge granite beams weighing up to 70 tonnes. What’s more, the major temples on the Giza plateau – the two next to the Sphinx and those besides the Second and Third Pyramids – contain colossal limestone blocks weighing between 50 and 200 tonnes and placed on top of one another. The largest are 9 metres long, 3.6 metres wide and 3.6 metres high. It is interesting to note that there are only a few cranes in the world today capable of lifting objects weighing 200 tonnes or more.7

    The largest blocks used in any known man-made structure are found in the ancient platform beneath the Roman Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek in Lebanon.8 The foundation platform is enclosed by a cyclopean retaining wall; in the western side, on the fifth level, at a height of 10 metres, there are three colossal stones known as the Trilithon, each measuring about 19.5 metres long, 4.5 metres high and 3.5 metres deep, and weighing a staggering 1000 tonnes. The stones fit together perfectly and not even a knife blade can be pushed between them. At the quarry, half a kilometre away, there remains a fourth, even larger block, weighing as much as 1200 tonnes, the lower part of its base still attached to the bedrock. The course beneath the Trilithon contains seven mammoth stones weighing about 450 tonnes each.

    There are no traces of a roadbed leading from the quarry and no traces of any ramp. Nor are there any written records as to how the platform was built. According to local Arab legend, Baalbek’s first citadel was built before the Flood, and rebuilt afterwards by a race of giants. The Phoenician historian Sanchoniatho stated that Lebanon’s first city was Byblos, founded by the god Ouranus, who designed cyclopean structures and was able to make stones move as if they had a life of their own.


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Fig. 5.1 The massive Trilithon at Baalbek.9
(The silhouetted two-storey house has been inserted for scale.)

 

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Fig. 5.2 Another view of the Trilithon.

 

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Fig. 5.3 The ‘Stone of the South’ still in the quarry at Baalbek.10

Among the Tibetans

    Evidence that worldwide legends of acoustic levitation might have a basis in fact, was provided by the Swedish engineer Henry Kjellson, who in the 1950s recorded the experiences of two separate western travellers who had allegedly witnessed demonstrations of sonic technology in Tibet.1 Since neither of the following accounts can be verified, sceptics assume that Kjellson probably made them up himself.

    During a visit to a Tibetan monastery situated southwest of the capital Lhasa, the Swede Dr Jarl was taken to a meadow where there was a high cliff to the northwest. About 250 metres up the face of the cliff was an entrance to a cave, in front of which was a wide ledge where monks were building a stone wall. Embedded in the ground 250 metres from the foot of the cliff, was a large rock slab with a bowl-shaped depression in it. A block of stone, 1.5 metres long, 1 metre wide, and 1 metre high, was manhandled into the depression. Monks with 19 musical instruments, consisting of 13 drums and 6 very long trumpets, were arranged in an arc of about 90 degrees, 63 metres from the bowl-stone. The drums, open at one end, were aimed at the stone block. Behind each instrument was a line of monks eight to ten deep. A monk in the middle of the arc started chanting and beating out a rhythm on a small drum, and then the other instruments joined in. After four minutes, the large stone block began to wobble and floated into the air rocking from side to side. All the instruments were trained constantly on the stone as it rose upwards at an accelerating rate and finally crashed onto the ledge. The monks continued to perform this feat at the rate of 5 or 6 stones per hour. The role of the 200 or so monks behind the instruments was unclear: one suggestion is that they used some form of coordinated psychokinesis to aid the flight of the stone.

 

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Fig. 5.4 Dr Jarl’s sketch showing how Tibetan monks were able to raise stone blocks into the air using the power of sound.

    The second case involved an Austrian named Linauer, who stated that while at a remote monastery in northern Tibet during the 1930s, he had witnessed the demonstration of two curious sound instruments which could induce weightlessness in stone blocks. The first was an extremely large gong, 3.5 metres in diameter, composed of a central circular area of very soft gold, followed by a ring of pure iron, and finally a ring of extremely hard brass. When struck, it produced an extremely low dumph which ceased almost immediately. The second instrument was also composed of three different metals; it had a half-oval shape like a mussel shell, and measured 2 metres long and 1 metre wide, with strings stretched longitudinally over its hollow surface. Linauer was told that it emitted an inaudible resonance wave when the gong was struck. The two devices were used in conjunction with a pair of large screens, positioned so as to form a triangular configuration with them. When the gong was struck with a large club to produce a series of brief, low-frequency sounds, a monk was able to lift a heavy stone block with just one hand. Linauer was informed that this was how their ancestors had built protective walls around Tibet, and that such devices could also disintegrate physical matter.

Keely and Leedskalnin

    A man who appears to have gone a long way to unlocking the secrets of sound was John Ernst Worrell Keely of Philadelphia (1827-1898). He spent 50 years developing and refining a wide variety of devices that used ‘sympathetic vibratory force’ or ‘etheric force’ to levitate objects, spin large wheels, power engines, and disintegrate rock. He performed many convincing demonstrations in his laboratory for scientists and other interested observers. He attempted to put his apparatus into commercial production, but this was hampered by the fact that it had to be tuned to the bodily vibrations of the operator and also to the surroundings.1

 

keely.jpg

Fig. 5.5 John Keely.

    Keely built several devices to manipulate gravity.2 One of them was the ‘sympathetic transmitter’, a copper globe about one foot (30 cm) in diameter, containing a Chladni plate and various metal tubes, whose position could be adjusted by means of a knob. The globe was held by a metal stand, around the base of which projected small metal rods a few inches long, of different sizes and lengths, which vibrated like tuning forks when twanged by the fingers. In one experiment, the transmitter was connected by a wire made of gold, platinum, and silver to the top of a water-filled glass jar. When the right chord was sounded on the strings of a zither, metal balls, weighing 2 pounds (0.9 kg), rose from the bottom of the jar until they hit the metal cap, and remained there until a different note was played which caused them to sink again. Witnesses relate how, after further experimentation, Keely was able to make heavy steel balls move in the air by simply playing on a kind of mouth organ. Using the same combination of transmitter, connecting cord, and musical instrument, he was able to make a 3.6-kg model of an airship rise into the air, descend, or hover with a motion ‘as gentle as that of thistledown’. He was also able to lift extremely heavy weights by connecting them to vibratory appliances worn on his person; several people witnessed him levitate and move a 3-tonne cast-iron sphere in this way, and also make it heavier so that it sank into the ground as if into mud.

    Keely was able to catalyze the vibratory force necessary to make objects move using a variety of musical instruments, including trumpets, horns, harmonicas, fiddles, and zithers, and could even operate the equipment just by whistling. One sceptic, however, claimed that Keely did not play on an instrument to set up sympathetic vibration but to signal to a confederate in another part of the building when to turn on or off the compressed air that supposedly powered his ‘fraudulent’ devices!

    A man who in more recent times claimed to know the secret of how the pyramids and other megalithic structures were built was Edward Leedskalnin.3 He lived in a place called Coral Castle, near Miami, Florida, which he built himself from giant blocks of coral weighing up to 30 tons. In 28 years, working alone, without the use of modern construction machinery, he quarried and erected a total of 1100 tons. He was very secretive and usually worked at night, and died in 1952 without divulging his construction techniques, despite visits from engineers and government officials. Some teenagers spying on him one evening claimed they saw him ‘float coral blocks through the air like hydrogen balloons’. It is widely thought that he had discovered some means of locally reversing the effects of gravity. From the remaining contents of Leedskalnin’s workshop and photographic evidence, engineer Chris Dunn suggests that he generated a radio signal that caused the coral to vibrate at its resonant frequency, and then used an electromagnetic field to flip the magnetic poles of the atoms so that they were repulsed by the earth’s magnetic field.


castle.jpg

Fig. 5.6 The Nine-ton Gate at Coral Castle. Originally used as a turnstile, the 8-foot-tall gate is perfectly mounted and balanced so that a child can open it with the touch of a finger.4

 

Schauberger and nature’s levity

    According to aeronautical experts, the flight of the simple bumble bee is a mystery that defies conventional laws of physics, as its wings do not flutter rapidly enough to create sufficient lift. The rhinoceros beetle should also be unable to fly as its body mass is completely out of proportion to its wing area. Some writers have suggested that levitational forces help to explain how birds and insects fly, and fishes swim.

    Austrian scientist and inventor Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) believed that, alongside gravity, a principle of levity operated in nature, governing all upward movement of energy, all uplift and upward growth. During his early life as a forester in the Alpine wilderness, he observed how large mountain trout could lie motionless in the strongest currents, except for an occasional slight movement of their tail-fins. If alarmed, they darted at lightning speed upstream, instead of allowing the current to carry them downstream. Trout and salmon are able to jump up high waterfalls (even as much as 60 m high) with little apparent effort. Schauberger would watch trout dance in a wild spinning movement at the bottom of a waterfall, and then come out of this spinning movement and float motionlessly upwards. He developed the idea that in addition to the gravitational movement of water from the spring down to the sea, there is a flow of ‘levitational’ energy in the opposite direction.

    In one experiment Schauberger had 100 litres of hot water poured into a stream. Although it did not noticeably warm the water, a trout resting about 150 m downstream immediately became very agitated: it started to flail its tail, moving backwards all the time as it struggled to maintain its position. Finally it was swept downstream, and only returned much later. Schauberger concluded that the hot water had destroyed the upward flow of levitational energy. One moonlit winter night, he saw egg-shaped stones the size of a head rise to the surface of a deep pool, and concluded that the combined effect of the cold and the metalliferous composition of the stones (especially their silica content) was responsible for enhancing the levitational energies.

    Schauberger was surprised to find that the tips of mosses on rocks in a shaded mountain stream point upstream, somehow resisting the pressure of the fast-flowing current. He regarded this as a reliable indicator of a stream’s state of health, because it showed that the downstream gravitational flow of matter and the upstream, levitational flow of energy were in balance. However, if through deforestation a stream is exposed to direct sunlight, the water becomes warmer, less dense, and the moss-tips point downstream. Pristine wilderness is nowadays hard to find, owing to the marauding hand of man.

    Schauberger sought to develop energy-generating machines which, by the power of shape, form, and motion alone, were able to mimic nature’s processes. Whereas today’s main energy technologies use outward-moving explosion, such as fuel-burning and atom-splitting, his machines operated on the basis of inward-spiralling movements, or implosion. He wrote: ‘If water or air is rotated into a twisting form of oscillation known as “colloidal”, a buildup of energy results, which with immense power, can cause levitation.’ Vortical motion, with rotational velocities of 15-20,000 revolutions per minute, accompanied by rapid cooling, created strong vacuum effects inside his machines. Some researchers think that the transmutation of matter into more ethereal states and the production of genuine levitational forces also occurred.

    Detailed reports of his experiments with a variety of designs are generally lacking, but his efforts seem to have met with at least partial success. During the second world war, he was forced to work for the Nazis, and developed small ‘flying saucers’. One of the scientists involved was reported as saying that at the first attempt to run one of the models, it shot upwards unexpectedly, trailing a blue-green then silver-coloured glow, and was wrecked against the ceiling of the hangar. At the end of the war Schauberger’s research was investigated by the Americans and Russians, but as far as the public record is concerned, none of his models were developed further. More recently there has been a resurgence of interest in his revolutionary ideas.1

 

schauberg.jpg

Fig. 5.7 Two prototypes of Schauberger’s flying saucer, about 65 cm in diameter.

 

References

Myths and megaliths

  1. Paul LaViolette, Genesis of the Cosmos: The ancient science of continuous creation, Rochester, VE: Bear and Company, 2004, p. 343; Ian Lawton and Chris Ogilvie-Herald, Giza: The truth, London: Virgin, 1999, p. 201.
  2. Andrew Collins, Gods of Eden: Egypt’s lost legacy and the genesis of civilisation, London: Headline, 1998, pp. 58-62.
  3. Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the lost civilization, London: Michael Joseph, 1998, p. 235.
  4. Easter Island: land of mystery, section 5, davidpratt.info.
  5. Gods of Eden, pp. 35-37, 62-63.
  6. Giza: The truth, pp. 198-210.
  7. Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock, Keeper of Genesis, London: Heinemann, 1996, pp. 28-29.
  8. Andrew Collins, ‘Baalbek, Lebanon’s sacred fortress’, www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/baalbek.htm; Gods of Eden, pp. 63-64; David Hatcher Childress, Lost Cities of Atlantis, Ancient Europe & the Mediterranean, Stelle, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996, pp. 31-36, 48-50; Christian and Barbara Joy O’brien, The Shining Ones, Kemble, Cirencester: Dianthus Publishing, 2001, pp. 265-282.
  9. The Shining Ones, p. 269.
  10. www.lessing4.de/megaliths/non_europ.htm.

Among the Tibetans

  1. Collins, Gods of Eden, pp. 66-72.

Keely and Leedskalnin

  1. H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press, 1977 (1888), 1:554-566.
  2. Theo Paijmans, Free Energy Pioneer: John Worrell Keely, Lilburn, GA: IllumiNet Press, 1998, pp. 58, 144, 200, 207-212; Clara Bloomfield Moore, Keely and his Discoveries: Aerial navigation, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1893, Mokelumne Hill, CA: Health Research, 1971, pp. 106, 122-123; Dale Pond, Universal Laws Never Before Revealed: Keely’s secrets, Santa Fe, NM: Message Company, 1996, pp. 54-60, 214-217, 232-234, 257 (www.svpvril.com); Dan A. Davidson, Energy: Breakthroughs to new free energy devices, Greenville, TE: RIVAS, 1990, pp. 12-13.
  3. Christopher Dunn, The Giza Power Plant: Technologies of ancient Egypt, Santa Fe, NM: Bear & Co, 1988, pp. 109-119; Frank Joseph, ‘Mysteries of Coral Castle’, Fate, 1998, www.parascope.com/en/articles/coralCastle.htm; Kathy Doore, ‘The enigma of Coral Castle: a geomantic wonder’, www.labyrinthina.com/coral.htm.
  4. http://coralcastle.com.

Schauberger and nature’s levity

  1. Callum Coats, Living Energies: An exposition of concepts related to the theories of Viktor Schauberger, Bath: Gateway Books, 1996; Olaf Alexandersson, Living Water: Viktor Schauberger and the secrets of natural energy, Bath: Gateway Books, 1996; John Davidson, The Secret of the Creative Vacuum, Saffron Walden, Essex: Daniel Company, 1989, pp. 246-262; Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, London: Arrow, 2002, pp. 296-328; www.schauberger.co.uk.

 

5. Human levitation

 

There are reports of over 200 Christian saints levitating – usually involuntarily – during religious raptures, and some cases are supported by an impressive amount of eyewitness testimony.1 For instance, the 16th-century mystic St Teresa of Avila was observed on many occasions, typically when deep in prayer, to rise anywhere from a few feet to as high as the ceiling of the room. When she felt an ‘attack’ coming on she would beg the sisters in her convent to hold her down, though they were not always successful. Once while receiving Holy Communion from the Bishop of Avila, she felt her knees begin to leave the floor so she clutched onto the grille. But after receiving the sacrament, she let go and rose into the air.

    The 17th-century Franciscan monk St Joseph of Copertino began levitating during services and was often observed by whole congregations. Once while walking in the monastery grounds, he soared up into the branches of an olive tree and remained kneeling on a branch for half an hour, the thin stem hardly moving under his weight. Unable to glide down, after his ecstasy had passed, he had to wait for a ladder to be brought. For 35 years he was banned from all public services, but he levitated not only before the Pope and his fellow monks but also before Europe’s titled heads and the philosopher Leibnitz. The Spanish ambassador to the papal court watched him fly over the heads of a crowd to a statue of the Virgin Mary, where he briefly hovered. After giving his customary shriek, he flew back; the ambassador’s wife had to be revived with smelling salts. The duke of Brunswick hid himself in a stairway to observe one of Joseph’s levitations. After observing a second levitation, the duke renounced his Lutheran faith and became a Catholic. At Osimo, Joseph flew eight feet into the air to kiss a statue of Jesus then carried it off to his cell and floated about with it. He is also reported to have caught up another friar and carried him in the air around the room.

    The annals of 19th-century spiritualism contain many references to human levitations, as well as to tables, chairs, and other objects gaining or losing weight, levitating, and moving without human contact.2 The most famous levitator of all was the medium Daniel Dunglas Home (pronounced: Hume). His first recorded levitation took place at a seance in August 1852. He was suddenly ‘taken up into the air . . . He palpitated from head to foot with the contending emotions of joy and fear . . . Again and again he was taken from the floor, and the third time he was carried to the ceiling of the apartment, with which his hands and feet came into gentle contact.’

    He later became able to levitate at will, and believed he was lifted up by ‘spirits’. During a public career spanning 30 years, hundreds of people witnessed his levitations. The most famous incident was when in the company of Lord Adare, the Master of Lindsay, and a friend of theirs, he floated out of one window of a London house and in at another. The eminent English scientist Sir William Crookes saw him levitate on several occasions and verified that there was no trickery involved. On one occasion, Crookes’ wife, who was sitting beside Home, was raised off the ground in her chair.3

    The magician Harry Kellar, who enjoyed showing audiences how mediums did their tricks, described how during a world tour in the 1870s he was watching a Zulu witch doctor go into a trance when suddenly ‘to my intense amazement, the recumbent body slowly arose from the ground and floated upward in the air to the height of about three feet, where for a while it floated, moving up and down’. In 1882 he challenged the medium William Eglinton to perform some feat which no conjuror could repeat. Eglinton then levitated, carrying Kellar, holding his foot, into the air – an achievement which Kellar had to admit he could not explain.4

    The Italian medium Eusapia Palladino occasionally used to levitate and was also able to increase or decrease the weight of objects. Her paranormal powers were verified in investigations conducted by European scientists around the turn of the 20th century. After witnessing her demonstrations, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion stated that levitation should no longer be any more in question than the attraction of iron by a magnet.5

    In the 1920s Brazilian medium Carlos Mirabelli performed stunning phenomena under test conditions. Full-form materializations of deceased individuals known to the witnesses appeared, who were able to converse with the investigators, and to touch and be touched. He was also able to levitate and remain floating for minutes at a time. In one instance, a chair with Mirabelli in it rose into the air until it was two metres above the floor, where it remained for two minutes.6 Levitations of mediums have frequently been reported since then in spiritualist journals but, as far as is known, no medium has been able to produce them in fraud-proof conditions.


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Fig. 6.1 Mirabelli levitating.

 

    Levitation is one of the Catholic Church’s criteria for demonic possession. In 1906 a 16-year-old schoolgirl from South Africa, Clara Germana Cele, who was allegedly possessed, levitated up to 5 feet off the ground, sometimes vertically and sometimes horizontally. She fell if sprinkled with holy water.7

    In the mid-19th century, Louis Jacolliot, Chief Justice of Chandernagore, travelled all over India to learn more about wonder-working fakirs. He witnessed many extraordinary phenomena, which he tried to view in an objective and unprejudiced manner. In Varanasi (Benares) he met a fakir named Covindasamy, who performed various paranormal phenomena for him. On one occasion he crossed his arms on his chest and slowly levitated to a height of ten to twelve inches, remaining in the air more than eight minutes.8 Another of his levitations is described by Jacolliot as follows:

Leaning upon [his] cane with one hand, the Fakir rose gradually about two feet from the ground. His legs were crossed beneath him, and he made no change in his position . . .
    For more than twenty minutes I tried to see how Covindasamy could thus fly in the face and eyes of all the known laws of gravity; it was entirely beyond my comprehension; the stick gave him no visible support, and there was no apparent contact between that and his body, except through his right hand.
9

    A similar display was reported by American journalist John Keel. While travelling in Sikkim in the 1950s, he met an old lama who demonstrated his ability to levitate.

He . . . pressed one hand on top of his stick, a heavy branch about four feet long, frowned a little with effort, and then slowly lifted his legs up off the floor until he was sitting cross-legged in the air! There was nothing behind him or under him. His sole support was his stick, which he seemed to use to keep his balance. I was astounded.

The lama then conducted the rest of the conversation ‘sitting there in empty space’.10

    In July 1916, P. Muller, a German veterinarian stationed in Turkey, attended a gathering of the Rufai dervishes. He described a large hall in which white-robed dervishes wearing tall black caps ‘moved in a circle with sideways steps and curious jerking motions’. About an hour into the ceremony, the music and dancing and cries of the dancers intensified, when suddenly one of them bounded into the middle of the circle. He stood still, with his arms upraised, palms facing the sky:

And now the incomprehensible happened . . . [S]lowly the whole tense body of this man elevated itself about eighteen inches off the floor and remained there, floating in the air with the toes pointing down.

The ecstatic man remained suspended for about a minute.11

    Tibetans speak of a power of fast-walking known as lung-gom. An eye-witness account was provided by Alexandra David-Neel, an early 20th-century explorer, journalist, and Buddhist. While in northern Tibet, she saw a man approaching with an ‘unusual gait’ and ‘extraordinary swiftness’.

I could clearly see his perfectly calm impassive face and wide-open eyes with their gaze fixed on some invisible far-distant object situated somewhere high up in space. The man did not run. He seemed to lift himself from the ground, proceeding by leaps. It looked as if he had been endowed with the elasticity of a ball and rebounded each time his feet touched the ground. His steps had the regularity of a pendulum.12

    The native American Indians apparently knew of a similar method of magical running. In the 1920s anthropologist Carobeth Laird reported on one of the last men to travel ‘the old way’: the tracks left by his feet were very faint and far apart, as if his feet had barely touched the ground.13

    On 6 June 1936, Indian yogi Subbayah Pullavar levitated for four minutes in front of 150 witnesses. He was in a state of deep trance and, once back on the ground, his limbs could not be unbent at first.14

 

levitate.jpg


Fig. 6.2 Indian yogi Subbayah Pullavar.

 

    In 1984 a German film crew filmed the levitation of an African witch-doctor, Nana Owaka, in Togo. After meditating for a full day, he placed dry leaves and twigs in a circle and sat in the middle.

Just as the sun was setting, Owaka started to stir. A villager lit the circle of twigs and flames shot up. Drums began beating wildly – then we were hardly able to believe our eyes as Owaka stood and rose straight upward! It was as if he were being lifted on a pillow of air. He simply hung as if suspended, with nothing above or below him.

After about a minute, Owaka fell back to earth. He was filmed from two angles, and no one who has examined the film has been able to detect any signs of trickery.15

    Paranormal phenomena, including levitation, are sometimes reported in connection with UFO encounters. For instance, in 1954 a man who was coming back from the fields with his horse had to let go of the bridle as the animal was lifted several feet into the air when a dark, circular object flew fast over the trail they were following. In 1968 a French doctor saw two glowing discs in the sky merge into a single object, and during the sighting he was hit by a beam of light. A few days later he and his baby son each developed a strange, reddish, triangular mark on the abdomen, and this mark recurred in successive years. Strange paranormal phenomena began to take place, including poltergeist activity, unexplained disturbances in electrical circuits, meetings with a mysterious, nameless man, and on at least one occasion uncontrolled levitation.16

 

References

  1. Rodney Charles and Anna Jordan, Lighter than Air: Miracles of human flight from Christian saints to native American spirits, Fairfield, IO: Sunstar Publishing, 1995, pp. 155-180; Stuart Gordon, The Paranormal: An illustrated encyclopedia, London: Headline, 1992, p. 395; Brian Inglis, The Paranormal: An encyclopedia of psychic phenomena, London: Paladin, 1985, pp. 159-160; Richard S. Broughton, Parapsychology: The controversial science, New York: Ballantine Books, 1991, pp. 52-53.
  2. William Crookes, Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism, London: J. Burns, 1874, Pomeroy, WA: Health Research, n.d., pp. 9-19, 21-43, 88-91; H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press, 1972 (1877), 1:202-204, 358-359.
  3. Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism, pp. 89-90; Gordon, The Paranormal, pp. 395-396; Inglis, The Paranormal, p. 161.
  4. Inglis, The Paranormal, pp. 161-162.
  5. Brian Inglis, Natural and Supernatural: A history of the paranormal, Bridport, Dorset: Prism Press, Lindfield, NSW: Unity Press, 1992, p. 425.
  6. Brian Inglis, Science and Parascience: A history of the paranormal, 1914-1939, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1984, p. 224.
  7. Rosemary Ellen Guiley, The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits, New York: Checkmark Books, 2nd ed., 2000, p. 221.
  8. Louis Jacolliot, Occult Science in India and Among the Ancients, NY: University Books, 1971, p. 257.
  9. Ibid., pp. 237-238.
  10. Lighter than Air, pp. 64-65.
  11. Ibid., p. 132.
  12. Alexandra David-Neel, With Mystics and Magicians in Tibet, London: Penguin Books, 1937, p. 186.
  13. Lighter than Air, pp. 98-99.
  14. Gordon, The Paranormal, pp. 358/9.
  15. D. Hatcher Childress (ed.), The Anti-Gravity Handbook, Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1993, p. 171.
  16. UFOs: the psychic dimension, section 6, davidpratt.info.

 

6. Theosophical writings

 

As mentioned in section 1, Kepler believed that the rotation of the sun generated its gravitational force. A disciple of Pythagoras and Plato, he believed in an ether of subtler matter and that stars and planets were animated by souls. He took the view that it was solar magnetism that held the planets in their orbits, and he conceived magnetism to be a form of vortical motion. More recent theosophical writers such as H.P. Blavatsky, W.Q. Judge, and G. de Purucker have also highlighted the link between gravity and electromagnetism, the bipolar nature of gravity, and the etheric origin of force, as the following quotations show.

[A]ether is the source and cause . . . of cohesive, chemical, thermal, electric, and magnetic forces . . .1

[T]he Occultists . . . consider all the forces of Nature as veritable, though supersensuous, states of Matter; and as possible objects of perception to Beings endowed with the requisite senses.2

[T]here is no gravitation in the Newtonian sense, but only magnetic attraction and repulsion; . . . it is by their magnetism that the planets of the solar system have their motions regulated in their respective orbits by the still more powerful magnetism of the sun, not by their weight or gravitation.3

Gravitation . . . depends entirely on electrical law, and not on weight or density.4

[The theosophical adepts] reject gravity as at present explained. They deny that the so-called ‘impact theory’* is the only one that is tenable in the gravitation hypothesis. They say that if all efforts made by the physicists to connect it with Ether, in order to explain electric and magnetic distance-action have hitherto proved complete failures, it is again due to the race ignorance of the ultimate states of matter in nature, foremost of all the real nature of the solar stuff. Believing but in the law of mutual magneto-electric attraction and repulsion, they agree with those who have come to the conclusion that ‘Universal gravitation is a weak force,’ utterly incapable of accounting for even one small portion of the phenomena of motion.5

*The theory that gravity is caused by bombardment of material objects with tiny particles.

[G]ravitation [is] the same fundamentally as cosmic electro-magnetism.6

[G]ravitation is: Vital Cosmic Magnetism; the efflux or outflow of cosmic vitality from the heart of the celestial bodies . . . It is this Vital Electricity or Vital Magnetism in the Cosmic Structure which attracts in all directions, thus uniting all things into the vast body corporate of the Cosmos. Furthermore, some day it will be discovered that this Cosmic Magnetic Vitality contains or includes in itself as powerful and as greatly functional an element of repulsion as it does of attraction; and that behind all its phenomenal workings, in fact, behind and within itself, lie the still higher and incomparably more potent principles or elements of the inner and invisible Universe which thus infallibly guide its activities everywhere.7

[Einstein’s] ideas with regard to the nature of gravitation as being . . . a warping or distortion of space in the proximity of material bodies seem to be a mathematical pipe-dream, purely and simply, although doubtless very creditable indeed to the gentleman’s mathematical ability . . .8

The earth is a magnetic body . . . It is charged with one form of electricity – let us call it positive – which it evolves continuously by spontaneous action, in its interior or centre of motion. Human bodies, in common with all other forms of matter, are charged with the opposite form of electricity – negative. That is to say, organic or inorganic bodies, if left to themselves will constantly and involuntarily charge themselves with, and evolve the form of electricity opposed to that of the earth itself. . . . [T]here is an attraction between our planet and the organisms upon it, which holds them upon the surface of the ground. But the law of gravitation has been counteracted in many instances, by levitations of persons and inanimate objects . . . [T]he action of our will . . . can produce . . . a change of this electrical polarity from negative to positive; the man’s relations with the earth-magnet would then have become repellent, and ‘gravity’ for him would have ceased to exist. It would then be as natural for him to rush into the air until the repellent force had exhausted itself, as, before, it had been for him to remain upon the ground. The altitude of his levitation would be measured by his ability, greater or less, to charge his body with positive electricity. This control over the physical forces once obtained, alteration of his levity or gravity would be as easy as breathing.9

Until gravitation is understood to be simply magnetic attraction and repulsion, and the part played by magnetism itself in the endless correlations of forces in the ether of space . . . it is neither fair nor wise to deny the levitation of either fakir or table. Bodies oppositely electrified attract each other; similarly electrified, repulse each other. Admit, therefore, that any body having weight, whether man or inanimate object, can by any cause whatever, external or internal, be given the same polarity as the spot on which it stands, and what is to prevent its rising?10

Levitation of the body in apparent defiance of gravitation is a thing to be done with ease when the process is completely mastered. It contravenes no law. Gravitation is only half of a law. The Oriental sage admits gravity, if one wishes to adopt the term; but the real term is attraction, the other half of the law being expressed by the word repulsion, and both being governed by the great laws of electrical force. Weight and stability depend on polarity, and when the polarity of an object is altered in respect to the earth immediately underneath it, then the object may rise. . . . The human body . . . will rise in the air unsupported, like a bird, when its polarity is thus changed.11

    Blavatsky says that the flight of birds and swimming of fishes, including the rapid sinking of whales, involve changes in polarity and gravity not yet admitted by science. Animals can do this instinctively, while humans can learn to do so by will.12

    Theosophy asserts that during the life-period of a planet or star, gravitational forces do not remain constant. The first half of a planet’s life (the ‘descending arc’) is said to be characterized by the condensation of matter from a primordial, ethereal state, implying a strengthening of attractive and cohesive forces. It is followed by the reverse process of etherealization and spiritualization (the ‘ascending arc’), when attractive and cohesive forces weaken and matter becomes increasingly radioactive.13

 

References

  1. H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press (TUP), 1977 (1888), 1:508.
  2. Ibid., 1:143fn.
  3. H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, TUP, 1972 (1877), 1:271.
  4. William Q. Judge, Echoes of the Orient, San Diego, CA: Point Loma Publications, 1975, 1:336.
  5. H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House, 1950-91, 5:152-153.
  6. G. de Purucker, The Esoteric Tradition, TUP, 2nd ed., 1940, p. 441.
  7. Ibid., pp. 860-861.
  8. Ibid., p. 861fn.
  9. Isis Unveiled, 1:xxiii-iv, 497-498.
  10. Blavatsky Collected Writings, 1:244.
  11. W.Q. Judge, The Ocean of Theosophy, TUP, 1973 (1893), p. 154.
  12. Blavatsky Collected Writings, 4:167-169.
  13. The Secret Doctrine, 1:159, 2:68fn, 250, 308fn; The Esoteric Tradition, pp. 324-327, 453-454, 760; G. de Purucker, Studies in Occult Philosophy, TUP, 1945, pp. 450-451; A.T. Barker (comp.), The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett, TUP, 2nd ed., 1926, pp. 98-99.

 

 

Gravity and antigravity: Contents

Aetherometry and gravity: an introduction

Homepage

 

Șirul lui Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă]

Articol principal: Numerele Fibonacci.

În șirul de numere al lui Fibonacci, fiecare număr reprezintă suma a două numere anterioare, începând cu 0 și 1. Astfel, șirul incepe cu 0,1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610 etc

Cu cât este mai mare valoarea unui număr din cadrul acestui șir, cu atât mai mult se apropie de corelația supremă două "numere Fibonacci" consecutive din șir, numere care se împart prin ele însele (aproximativ 1 : 1,618 sau 0,618 : 1).

Corelația supremă a fost folosită pe scară largă în timpul Renașterii, în picturi.

Despre șirul lui Fibonacci a tratat și matematicianul român Miron Nicolescu în 1933.

 

Formula matematica a existentei lui Dumnezeu ii incurca si azi pe experti

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In 1940, Kurt Godel, cunoscut ca matematician si ca un personaj excentric al vremurilor sale, sustinea ca a gasit dovada stiintifica a existentei lui Dumnezeu. Formula lui matematica nu a fost copiata de nimeni pana la sfarsitul anilor ’70. Godel nu a spus un cuvant despre descoperirea sa, pana cand nu a fost sigur ca va muri. Formula matematica a existentei lui Dumnezeu a fost publicata abia in 1980, la 40 de ani de cand fusese gasita.

"Nu l-am vazut pe Dumnezeu, deci nu exista". Acesta este rationamentul clasic, bazat pe observatia directa. Un matematician excentric a reusit, insa, sa demonstreze stiintific ca Dumnezeu exista, fara a se baza pe observatia directa.

Dupa gandirea lui Godel, formula “magica” arata ca mai jos:

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Godel si-a bazat argumentul pornind de la cel al Sfantului Anselm. Sfantul Anselm L-a definit pe Dumnezeu ca pe cel mai impunator lucru din Univers. Nicio fiinta mai puternica nu putea fi imaginata de mintea umana. Prin umare, daca Dumnezeu nu exista, atunci trebuie sa ne gandim la o fiinta si mai puternica decat el si care, evident, exista. Cum nu a fost posibil, prin definitie, a imagina un lucru mai impozant decat cel mai impunator lucru imaginabil, atunci, Dumnezeu trebuie sa existe.

Godel a modificat un pic argumentul lui Anselm. A folosit logica modala. Logica modala face distinctia intre diferitele stadii ale supozitiilor. Unele supozitii sunt demonstrabile in cateva cuvinte, altele sunt demonstrabile numai printr-un cuvant, iar altele sunt demonstrabile in toate cuvintele. Daca sunt posibile in toate cuvintele, atunci ele sunt considerate intotdeauna “necesare”.

Dumnezeu poate fie sa existe in mod "necesar", fie sa nu existe in acelasi mod "necesar". Daca Dumnezeu este o fiinta atotputernica si el exista, atunci el exista in toate cuvintele. Daca nu exista, atunci nu exista in toate cuvintele in mod necesar. Indiferent cat de mica este sansa, Dumnezeu poate exista. Asta inseamna ca Dumnezeu nu poate in mod necesar sa nu existe. Din moment ce alegerea poate fi facuta intre: “Dumnezeu exista in mod necesar” si “Dumnezeu nu exista in mod necesar”, si am eliminat posibiltatea ca el sa nu existe in mod necesar, atunci singura posibilitate este aceea ca el exista in mod necesar.

 

(infografic) Ecuația matematică a parcării paralele
 

 

infografic-ecuatia-matematica-a-parcarii
Foto: captură video 

Potrivit unu studiu al unei universități din Marea Britanie, este determinat printr-o formulă spațiul exact de care ai nevoie pentru a parca paralel. Totul depinde de capacitatea de manevrare la virajuri a automobilului, distanța de la roata din față spre centrul mașinii cât și lățimea mașinii parcate care se va afla în spate, informează UNIMEDIA. 

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Cei trei pași după cum urmează: 

1. Te deplasezi paralel cu mașina aflată în față. Aliniezi capacul de la rezervor cu spatele mașinii din față, după care rotești volanul spre stânga până la maximum. 

2. Dai în spate până când roata din dreapta spate se aliniază cu mașina din față. 

3. Odată îndeplinit al doilea pas, rotești volanul până la capăt spre dreapta. 

Totuși de menționat că acești pași ar funcționa perfect în cazul traficului din Marea Britanie, unde mașinile se depasează pe partea stângă a carosabilului, iar volanul se află pe dreapta. În cazul traficului din Moldova, totul se face invers. 

Ecuația parcării laterale ar arăta cam așa: 

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Sau, dacă sunteți mai profesionist/ă, puteți încerca acest procedeu: 

tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 7rBAwFD2EvQ.

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How to build a Schauberger Repulsine:

Before we begin with construction of the Repulsine, this is what can happen if careful research and proper assembly, along with using quality materials for construction is not followed and adhered to:

One: the Repulsine will shred its upper power turbine! That turbine spins at a very high rpm and can, if formed from cast metal, shatter without warning.
Two: the internal thermal zone separator (wavy discs) and mechanical fluid work transmitter can shatter, as it is hollow (I will explain) and flexible and is also not capable of withstanding high centrifugal stress do to its perforated construction and wavy design. It generally will shatter first.
Three: the casing of the Repulsine is formed of copper in one device (although steel can be used) as this is for heat conduction. Copper is a brittle metal under repeated stress and can crack easily. Once again, shards will be expelled onto any unprepared researcher. 
Four: it is capable of high temperature’s (I will explain). It can scorch and burn its surroundings or a careless researcher. That temperature can easily reach 300 to 500 degrees F.
Five: it can explode if its internal vortex is suddenly quenched, venting super heated air onto any nearby observers.
Six: it must be grounded. It is best operated over hot pavement (I will explain). There is no simple way to describe its power level. It is cyclic and similar to a child’s top being spun faster and faster. It can, by a very strong suction force (as it sits in the middle of a much larger external vortex) be wrenched from the ground.
Seven: it can effect the external environment. It is highly recommended any researcher using it should precede to an area with no air or automobile traffic.
Eight: it can set fire to any dry brush present. It must be operated in a rock quarry or concrete industrial area for maximum fire safety with a fire extinguisher standing by. 
Nine: it is difficult to gain the approval of a mechanical engineer with an unproved technology; however, he or she can still verify that every precaution has been taken. The vessel is subject to high internal winds approaching 100 to 300 mph; never underestimate the harm that wind can do. That wind can amount to several static pounds pressure per square inch. It is the escaping wind that is most dangerous.
Ten: as air is ionized around the Repulsine, it can produce dangerous electrical phenomena. That is due to dust particle charging. Anytime air passes a chamber that is not grounded, at high speed it can induce charged particles! Be prepared for static electric build up if operating in a dry environment. See below for further information regarding safety issues.

A small Repulsine can easily produce 10 to 25 horsepower; a large one, in the ten to twenty foot diameter ranges, can produce well into the thousands of horsepower. This is due to its power concentrating effect. It is in a category of windmills known as dynamic flow enhancers. That is to say its passive wind flow ratting is small and no more then any similar Darrius or Savonious type. However, once the work function has begun, it can concentrate external flow from 2 times, up to 10 times. That is, it will generate the equivalent power level of a machine ten times its own size. This is similar to windmills of the “diffusion cone†type. That refers specifically to a windmill that has a large external diffuser or cone that assists in flow pressure concentration allowing even a small turbine to generate far more then its diameter is capable of without the added diffusion cone to create a down wind low pressure pocket.

The Repulsine consists of a few major parts. It has a top cone or chimney that, like the rest of the shell, must be constructed of heat conductive metal. Viktor wanted this top cone to be shaped like an elongated snail-shell. This is so external wind, in the form of a dust-devil, can enter the cone and assist the upper drive turbine’s rotation. I have found it best to use materials similar to the steel chimney pipes found in wood stove connection joints (a light steel sheet formed into a cone and riveted so that there is no turbulence on the inside of this upper chimney cone). That is the simplest part to fabricate. The taller it is; the better. It should have at least twice to five times the height of the primary plenum chamber; its upper outlet diameter is still debatable. I recommend looking at Schauberger’s water turbine arms and using that as a conical ratio. If a small aperture overly restricts the upper chimney, the flow will quench. If an oversized exit hole is used, the flow will receive too much horizontal ground wind turbulence backflow. The dynamics problem of the horizontal flow as it interferes with the vertical convection flow produced cannot be underestimated. That is the bane of all wind generator engineers who have attempted to produce energy by concentrating convection flow. That is, the horizontal wind will antagonize your Repulsine unless it has its upper cone intake aperture or snail-shell mouth directly pointed into the apparent horizontal wind. Wind is variable; it can change direction without warning, so keeping the upper snail-shell pointed can be a frustrating chore. You cannot place a guidance fin to keep the snail-shell mouth pointed, since that will break up the induced flow of the external dust-devil vortex.

Viktor simply ignored the snail-shell all together and only punched a few inlet and outlet holes in a simple conic upper chimney shell. That is not to say it is un-important. He simply could not get the correct shape fabricated. The upper chimney focuses the exhaust vortex leaving the Repulsine drive turbine. Now you have the fabrication of the upper drive turbine. That turbine must be mounted on a shaft (if using a 22-inch unit) capable of at least 10 horsepower minimal load. Shafts of this type are found on all small engines in that horsepower range. One-inch diameter shafts will ensure maximum safety. Obviously, the bearing must be of a reliable type. I recommend from personal experience the bearings used in racing go-carts wheel shafts. They have a 3-bolt mounting cup, and are very reliable.

The upper plate can be found on old centrifugal blowers. Yes, Schauberger’s design used multiple curves, but that is not set in stone. The cooling fins found on a two-cycle motor or lawn mower head can be substituted in a pinch. The plate from the centrifugal blower of a ruined engine can be used for the exhaust drive turbine. The air coming out is cyclonic so the plate is used in a reversed fin rotation. That is fairly obvious to any one building one...this plate cannot be constructed from plastics. It will melt! I realize plastic is safer and easier to fabricate however it is also worthless in a Repulsine exhaust turbine. Next, you require the shell. That shell is fabricated from a 22-inch diameter Barbecue Kettle lid piece. It has a flat region that is cut out for the upper exhaust hole. The exact plenum exhaust hole size on a unit is critical. Once again, if it is too large, the shell heat won’t build to a high temperature. Too small, and it will vent waste centrifugal air poorly and shut down the unit. Use Viktor’s photos. My ideal exhaust hole is 12 inches in diameter with a 22-inch plenum shell. I am still experimenting on the best diameter exhaust turbine.

The Repulsine has need of two active parts; the upper exhaust turbine (or reversed centrifuge blower plate) and the inner wavy discs (that use the mechanical work from the upper turbine). Theses discs are not easy to fabricate. The best material I can find is used in fireplace screening and perforated. You must locate a source of perforated steel. That perforation is to allow airflow through the wavy discs, which also prevents back conduction of heat from the outer shell or rim region (I will explain). It will be found that Hammel, used a perforated metal cone on his devices. That is the type of shell you are after. Perforating a steel sheet of that thickness with thousands of holes is difficult and imprecise. If you place too many perforations in one area, the disc may shatter!

Why do it at all? Recall that I spoke of the H-R tube. Those wavy discs serve to conduct vortex strands and transmit mechanical energy to the internal plenum chamber vortex from the upper exhaust turbine. They cannot be underestimated. They are the Repulsine...Think of the drive exhaust turbine as a simple windmill. Updrafts and convection currents power it. It is also driven off of any horizontal flow that is swirled into the upper chimney shell snail shell mouth. That is all it does! It uses waste exhaust to spin that is given maximum pressure advantage from the suction above it in the upper chimney shell vortex. There are three vortexes at work here!

One, is the external shell heat vortex or outer dust-devil,
Two, is the vortex in the upper snail shaped chimney shell,
Three, is the mechanical work vortex inside the “Repulsine†plenum or H-R tube vortex,

The novice experimenter should examine carefully the work done by vortex Wind Engineers on the web. The entire upper part of the unit is already in use at many wind turbine-generating sites! Assuming you have successfully fabricated the exhaust turbine and mounted it in a typical tri-arm mount, flush with your plenum shell, and mounted the two opposed perforated wavy discs on the long drive shaft, you now require a base shell. This shell must be as strong or stronger then the upper shell. It can be flat and still function. If it is flat steel it must be reinforced. It is always best to use shaped steel that is self-integrated structurally due to its own 3-dimensional form. For example, it can also have a wave ring shape. That is far more rigid then a simple flat piece. That is yet another reason the wavy discs are curved so they are rigid when the Repulsine tilts or lifts.

This is then bolted and sealed to the upper shell. This is critical. The outer rim is subject to great pressure and heat. The bottom hole is smaller then the exhaust hole, however the relative surface area is comparable. This is because a great deal of the upper exhaust turbine plate is sealed with only a small exit region open at its circumference. The bottom shaft bearing can be tri-arm mounted as well. These hole-sizes are critical. If the bottom axle area intake hole is too small, it will not take in enough air! The exact diameter, as compared to the upper exhaust hole is still a matter of experimentation. It is between 4 and 6 inches in diameter. In other words, its diameter in surface area approximates the exhaust outlet surface area. The entire assembly is best placed on yet another Barbecue Kettle piece - the bottom hemisphere. In this use, it is placed round side up (that is its rim on the ground). Several metal posts now go to your bottom plenum. The plenum or H-R work chamber is mounted 6 to 12 inches above the inverted kettle hemisphere. Those posts will later have metal fins on them, which will be twisted to guide air into the single intake hole, placed concentric with the drive shaft.

Now, with all in place, you can do a first spin test. Instead of an attached motor, you can use the pressure exhaust of a large tank-type vacuum cleaner. It requires precise aim. Place the hose near the exhaust turbine and push air against the curved blades the same direction the air is meant to leave the plenum chamber. This is a simple reaction effect. The snail-shell hole is more then large enough for you to place the start-up air jet. Recall that model pulsejets were actually started with a bicycle pump. Now your unit is spinning! What happens next? Usually, very little will happen. It will spin of course, but, until the exact exhaust ratio and intake ratio is found, you can expect no miracles. The bearing races must be low-friction units. If you do it correctly, the unit will begin to heat up at its plenum shell circumference. Why (?) - because the internal wavy perforated discs and compressions on the shell rim are spinning air centrifugally. That can be seen directly by touching the top of any large-tank vacuum cleaner with a metal flange head. In fact all centrifugal air compressors or high pressure fans heat in this manner. Inside the plenum, the air is being separated into a center, or axle region, cold-zone and outer rim region hot-zone. Mechanical work from the upper exhaust disc is being used to separate these temperature regions. This effect is no different than is seen on the H-R tube! The only difference is that air is being spun on the unit by frictional interaction with the wavy disc set. In the H-R tube, it is from the mechanical energy, released as compressed air, and is swirled into a vortex tube. The exact same thermal separation occurs. The inner region is cold, and outer region is hot. That heat now contributes to a rising updraft vortex about the Repulsine. Recall in a calorimeter experiment, paddles are spun to heat water in a closed shell . One experiment is to then spray water at various temperatures into the shell. If it is done properly, it will assist in imploding the center cold air mass and greatly increasing the RPM. of the turbine. This is a science experiment of a lifetime.

Why does it work? As the work being done on the Repulsine internal plenum increases from the exhaust turbine drive shaft, the steel shell reaches a critical temperature level. At that point the rim air approaches several hundred degrees. The wavy discs prevent heat from easily moving from the rim to the center (that is one reason they are perforated and cannot be solid). The plenum will begin to alternately heat and cool as new air is drawn in at its base. If its core air trapped in between the wavy discs is cooled, the plenum velocity will increase. If it is heated by intake air, the velocity will slow. This effect is resonant and typical of the Repulsine operation. It is very hard to explain. Viktor claims, that any time you allow the core air of his Repulsine to heat and expand, it pulls the internal vortex wider apart! Next, as you intake cooler air, it snaps back together again. This is a phenomenon of thermo-mechanical resonance. Tesla coils use the very same principle.

The point is that your plenum will be driven off of induced external updrafts (as if a campfire) and off of a resonance caused by changes in the core vortex temperature! That is to say, the plenum chamber is like a child’s top. Any temperature change will cause the internal vortex (a vertical axis vortex centered about the drive axle) to expand and contract. The temperature changes must work in resonant fashion. Think of the child’s top being spun faster and faster, as they plunge its push rod up and down. This resonant expanding and contracting vortex bounces off the wavy rings much as ball bounces on a floor. Each time a little more energy is added. It is like stretching and contracting a rubber band around your fingers. When thermal mechanical vortex resonance is achieved, the implosion motor takes off. This is not an out-dated centrifugal air compressor. It is a chamber where any intake air is being converted into rotary motion. As the air vortex enlarges, it strikes the rim and cools. This causes it to bounce and return like a wave, to the center of the chamber (much like an echo reflecting off a hard surface). This compresses the center cold air and heats it, causing the wave front to once more expand.

That is why the wavy perforated discs are so important. They guide this echoing vortex band as it bounces from the rim to center and back again. To see what Schauberger saw, go to a circular water bath or tank (it must be a perfect circle). Put a Styrofoam disc at its center with a stick attached. Start to resonantly plunge the disk up and down. If you time it right, the wave crest will work with your plunges in harmony, as it bounces off the tank’s wall. This is exactly why those disks are wavy and perforated. They allow the vortex bounces to build up energy. Yes, you can argue that it wastes power. Actually it does not. The heat leaving the rim feeds back into the exhaust turbine updraft. You are amplifying this echo effect. Now the skeptic will begin to squirm in their seat. What good is this resonance effect? Sure, a Tesla coil makes a big spark, but that uses up electrical power even at high Q.

What makes a two-cycle motorcycle tail pipe exhaust expansion chamber work? Echo! That is correct. The principle that helps back pressure a two-cycle motorcycle engine is the exact same principle that feeds back energy in a Schauberger Repulsine implosion motor. It makes no difference. We can get mechanical work either way! A Sterling engine obtains mechanical work on both its cold cycle and hot cycle! We now have two defined reservoirs; a cold rim reservoir and a hot central intake reservoir. These reservoirs are maintained by external wind and sunlight. This is not a guess; it is a fact! A Stirling engine uses a displacer to shuttle an air mass between a hot and cold reservoir! Go to the fine Japanese Stirling engine pages found all over the web and you will soon understand this principle.

In the Repulsine, it is accomplished by the natural vortex echo inside of the chamber. This echo builds up our RPM. That is why the wavy discs are perforated. They must help spin the vortex but never stop its wave front echo. Think of that as a natural air displacer. Striking the rim cools the vortex and reaching the center heats it. The center bottom is hot from intake air ramming. Think of it this way before you stop reading this material. The echo bounce places our vortex over the center and then the rim region. That takes the place of the Stirling engine displacer. The vortex acts like a flywheel that stores the bounce energy. In effect, it is a simple Stirling engine hybrid that uses the expanding and contracting vortex as both a piston and a displacer, at the same time.

This is not difficult to understand. The Schauberger Repulsine is a new class of Stirling, atmospheric-feedback, hot-air motor. Schauberger’s genius removed the complex piston and displacer. They are replaced by a bouncing and expanding vortex and contracting vortex ring. If the reader takes away nothing more about the “Repulsineâ€, consider the following. IT is not a centrifugal air compressor. It is a new class of Stirling hot air engine, that converts a captive vortex into a piston and displacer that therefore shuttles between a hot center region, and a cold outer shell. This vortex also forms the Stirling Engine hybrid’s flywheel. In one simple gesture, Viktor removed the flywheel - the displacer and the piston - of a Stirling hot air engine - its closest thermo-mechanical cousin. By combining all of these elements, he simplified the Stirling engine, and, allowed it to directly feed back energy to an updraft. In other words, its own waste heat assists in increasing a natural external flow. No Stirling engine does that!

A final purpose of the wavy internal discs is to help "bounce" the vortex. It is similar to the 90-degree phase drive rod that activates the displacer. It forces the vortex wall back out to the rim. I realize that I said the rim is hot and it is. That is because it is constantly relieving itself of heat from the internal bouncing vortex. It is also cooled by the swirling external vortex. Without that, it is no longer a useful reservoir. In effect we have discovered a dynamic feedback Stirling Engine suited to extracting energy from a stationary external tornadic convection cell. This is not free energy...but I feel it is neglected physics. Only time and a little faith in Schauberger’s genius and commitment to relieving the suffering of mankind will tell.

In the “Phillips Technical Review Notes†we found references to an Air Core Betatron containing only a few kilograms of active magnetic flux material. That is to say the Phillips engineers had found a way to avoid the entire heavy iron superstructure used on a Betatron. It relied instead, like a Tesla coil, on resonance in heavy cables. To add, therefore to the list of things to avoid when constructing a Repulsine, I must now in all fairness add the Air Core Betatron effect. This means very simply, your Repulsine is capable of hard X-ray production from an internal current imploded with the thermo-mechanical rim resonance vortex bounce. To put it simply; the Repulsine at full resonance is a radiation source. It is possible that 50 thousand to 10 million electron volt-level radiation by-products, in the form of hard X-rays, will be present during operation. Any time you contract a charged electron cloud so that its magnetic field is cut, you can, and will accelerate electrons in the defined nature of a Betatron Particle Accelerator! It can and will emit high-energy particle radiation of the class known as High Energy Electrons and Hard X-rays. The Phillips’ Air Core Betatron proves a large ferromagnetic induction mass is not required for electron volt energy levels up to 9 MEV. Prolonged X-ray exposure is a certified tissue destroying process. For those “would’be†Nuclear Physicists out there, any doubts that the Repulsine is capable of Betatron particle acceleration will be quashed after reading about the “Phillips T.R. papers on their 9 MEV “Air Core Betatronâ€â€.

The final piece of the puzzle; The Repulsine's rim is resonantly cooled by thermally induced downdraft feedback, as the internal plenum flow expands for its re-coil or implosion echo. It is a surface effect. Hot internal centrifugal air induces a cold downdraft pulse that is in effect the capacitive analogy to our thermo-mechanical vortex resonance, taking place in the unit. Hot always attracts cold ...remember that! The Repulsine is unpredictable and dangerous, and, in an evacuated condition, is capable of Hard X-ray production. It is NOT a toy. It is best left in the hands of certified engineers and physicists!

 

Fibonacci
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
Leonardo Fibonacci 225px-Leonardo_da_Pisa.jpg
Statuia lui Fibonacci. Camposanto, Pisa Născut c. 1170
Pisa Decedat c. 1250
Pisa (?) Naționalitate italian 30px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png Domeniu matematică Cunoscut pentru Numere Fibonacci
Număr prim Fibonacci
Identitatea Brahmagupta–Fibonacci
Polinom Fibonacci
Număr pseudoprim Fibonacci
Cuvânt Fibonacci
Constanta reciprocă Fibonacci
Introducerea notației numerice în Europa
Perioada Pisano
Număr practic Religie Catolic modifică 12px-Gtk-dialog-info.svg.png

Leonardo Pisano Bogollo, (c. 1170 - c. 1250) [1] cunoscut și sub numele de Leonardo din Pisa, Leonardo Pisano, Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo Fibonacci, sau pur și simplu Fibonacci, a fost un matematician italian considerat de unii drept "cel mai talentat matematician din Occidentul Evului Mediu[2]

Fibonacci este cel mai bine cunoscut lumii moderne pentru: [3]

  • Răspândirea sistemului de numărare hindu-arab în Europa, prin publicarea în primul rând la începutul secolului al 13-lea a cărții sale denumită Cartea de calcul , sau Liber Abaci.
  • Un șir de numere, care i-a purtat ulterior numele, și anume șirul lui Fibonacci, pe care el nu l-a descoperit, dar pe care l-a folosit ca un exemplu în cartea sa, Liber Abaci. [4]

 

 

Biografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

Leonardo Fibonacci s-a născut în jurul anului 1170, tatăl lui fiind Guglielmo Fibonacci, un negustor italian înstărit. Guglielmo deținea un post de conducere în cadrul comercial (din varii motive a fost consultant pentru Pisa) în Bugia, un port la est de Alger, în sultanatul dinastiei Almohad din Africa de Nord (în prezent Bejaia, Algeria). În tinerețe, Leonardo obișnuia să călătorească cu tatăl său pentru a-l ajuta și astfel el a învățat limba arabă și despre sistemul numeral hindus-arab [5]

Numele de Fibonacci derivă din Leonardo filius Bonacci Pisano. După unii istorici, se numea Bighelone, cuvânt sinonim cu Bonacci.

Recunoscând că aritmetica cu ajutorul cifrelor hindu-arabe este mai simplă și mai eficientă decât cea cu cifrele romane, Fibonacci a călătorit prin mai toate țările de pe țărmul Mării Mediterane (EgiptSiriaBizanțSicilia și Provența) pentru a studia cu profesori de seamă de origine arabă din acele vremuri. Face cunoștință și cu algebra lui Al-Khwarizmi.

Leonardo s-a întors din călătoriile sale în jurul anului 1200. În 1202, la vârsta de 32 ani, el a publicat ceea ce a învățat în Liber Abaci (Cartea lui Abacus sau Cartea de calcul) și astfel a introdus cifrele hindu-arabe în Europa.

Leonardo a devenit un oaspete de seamă al împăratului Frederic al II-lea, căruia îi plăceau matematica și științele exacte. În 1240 Republica din Pisa l-a onorat pe Leonardo, cunoscut sub numele de Leonardo Bigollo, [6] acordându-i un salariu în acest sens.

În secolul al 19-lea, a fost ridicată o statuie a lui Fibonacci care a fost dezvelită în orașul Pisa. Astăzi statuia este găzduită de galeria occidentală din Camposanto din cimitirul istoric situat în Piazza dei Miracoli. [7]

Activitate științifică[modificare | modificare sursă]

Unul din marile merite ale lui Fibonacci constă în introducerea aritmeticii în sistemul comercial european. Astfel, a dat importanță cifrei zero și a recunoscut superioritatea sistemului de numerație arab față de cel roman.

La Fibonacci apar operații cu numere fracționare, procedeul de aducere la același numitor, procedee de rezolvarea a problemelor de aritmetică comercială, împărțirea în părți proporționale, probleme de amestecuri, operații cu numere iraționale, relații de recurență, problema păsărilor etc.

A propus un șir de numere naturale în care fiecare termen este egal cu suma celor doi precedenți, numit ulterior șirul lui Fibonacci.

În probleme de algebră, tratează teoria ecuațiilor de gradul al doilea, progresii, sume de serii.

A interpretat numerele negative și le-a introdus în algebră.

A stabilit valoarea lui π ca fiind 864/275.

Liber Abaci[modificare | modificare sursă]
Articol principal: Liber Abaci.

În cartea Liber Abaci ("Cartea abacului", 1202), Fibonacci introduce așa-numitul modus Indorum (metoda indiană), metodă cunoscută astăzi sub numele de cifrele arabe (Sigler 2003; Grimm, 1973). Cartea descrie o enumerare cu cifre cuprinse de la 0 la 9 cărora le conferă câte o valoare separată. Cartea a relevat importanța practică a noului sistem de numărare, folosind multiplicarea structurală și fracțiile egiptene, prin aplicarea sistemului în evidența contabilă la conversiile greutăților și a măsurilor, la calculul dobânzii, la schimbul valutar, precum și la alte aplicații de acest gen. Cartea a fost bine primită în întreaga Europă de către oamenii educați și a avut un impact profund asupra gândirii europene.

Cartea Liber Abaci a ridicat și a rezolvat, de asemenea, o problemă care privea creșterea populației ipotetice a iepurilor, în baza unor presupuneri idealiste. Soluția, generație de generație, a dus la o secvență de numere, cunoscută mai tarziu ca șirul lui Fibonacci. Șirul de numere era cunoscut matematicienilor indieni încă din secolul al 6-lea, însă cartea Liber Abaci a lui Fibonacci a fost cea care a introdus această secvențialitate în occident.

La scrierea acestei cărți, s-a folosit de o lucrare a lui Abraham bar Hiyya, scrisă în ebraică și tradusă în latină de Platon din Tivoli.

Șirul lui Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă]
Articol principal: Numerele Fibonacci.

În șirul de numere al lui Fibonacci, fiecare număr reprezintă suma a două numere anterioare, începând cu 0 și 1. Astfel, șirul incepe cu 0,1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610 etc

Cu cât este mai mare valoarea unui număr din cadrul acestui șir, cu atât mai mult se apropie de corelația supremă două "numere Fibonacci" consecutive din șir, numere care se împart prin ele însele (aproximativ 1 : 1,618 sau 0,618 : 1).

Corelația supremă a fost folosită pe scară largă în timpul Renașterii, în picturi.

Despre șirul lui Fibonacci a tratat și matematicianul român Miron Nicolescu în 1933.

În cultura populară[modificare | modificare sursă]
  • Numele Fibonacci a fost adoptat de o formație de muzică rock din Los Angeles numită Fibonaccis, care a cântat între anii 1981-1987.
  • Oamenii de la bursă studiază frecvent "Evoluția numerelor lui Fibonacci" atunci când fac estimări privind prețul acțiunilor viitoare.
  • Un tânăr Fibonacci este unul dintre personajele principale din romanul Cruciadă în blugi (1973). În 2006 a existat și o versiune pentru film, dar filmul nu a mai fost făcut.
  • În Codul lui Da Vinci șirul lui Fibonacci a fost folosit ca un cod, dar și pentru a introduce confuzia asupra personajelor din carte.
Cărțile scrise de Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă] Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă] Note[modificare | modificare sursă]
  1. ^ http://library.thinkquest.org/27890/biographies1.html
  2. ^ [3] ^ Howard Eves. O prezentare a istoriei matematicii. Brooks Cole, 1990: ISBN 0-03-029558-0 (6-a ed.), P 261.
  3. ^ Leonardo Pisano - pagina 3: "Contribuții la teoria numerelor". Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006. Accesat 18 septembrie 2006.
  4. ^ Parmanand Singh. "Acharya Hemachandra și (așa-numitul) Șirul lui Fibonacci". Math. Ed. Siwan, 20 (1) :28-30, 1986. ISSN 0047-6269]
  5. ^ http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibBio.html
  6. ^ [7] ^ A se vedea incipit de Flos: "Incipit flos Leonardi bigolli Pisani ..." (citat în Surse documentul MS Word, în matematică de recreere: o bibliografie adnotată de David Singmaster, 18 martie 2004 - adăugat), în limba engleză: "Aici începe "floarea" de Leonardo căutătorul din Pisa ..."
    Sensuri de bază ale "bigollo" care par a fi "bunr de nimic" și "călătorul" (așa că ar putea fi tradus prin "vagabondul", "derbedeul" sau "golanul"). A.F. Horadam conține o conotație a termenului de "bigollo" însemnând "absent" (a se vedea prima notă de subsol din "Tânăr de opt sute de ani"), care este asemenea conotației din limba engleză a cuvântului "rătăcitor". Traducere "Wanderer", în citatul de mai sus încearcă să combine conotațiile diferite de cuvântul "bigollo" într-un singur cuvânt în limba română.
  7. ^ Fibonacci Statuia din Pisa
Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]
  • Goetzmann, William N. și Rouwenhorst, K. Geert, Originile valorii: inovațiile financiare care au creat piețele de capital moderne (2005, Oxford University Press Inc, SUA), ISBN 0-19-517571-9.
  • Grimm, RE, "Autobiografia lui Leonardo Pisano", Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol.. 11, No. 1, februarie 1973, pp. 99-104.
  • A.F. Horadam, "Tânăr de opt sute de ani," Profesorul australian de matematică 31 (1975) 123-134.
Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]

 

 

 

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In alta ordine de idei, Sfantul Apostol si Evanghelist Andrei, fratele Sfantului Apostol si Epistolist Petru, adica "Piatra", piatra de temelie a Bisericii, a venit sa propovaduiasca pe la mijlocul secoulului I si a format comunitati crestine in Scitia Minor, sau Dobrogea de astazi, unde e si Pestera unde a locuit o perioada Sfantul Andrei, deci deja inainte de formare poporul nostru era crestin, pentru ca Dacia a fost cucerita de romani in 106. Crezul s-a format prin combaterea ereziilor, in 325, la Soborul episcopilor de la Niceea, si s-a definitivat in 381, la Soborul episcopilor de la Constantinopol. Sfanta Liturghie din Biserica Ortodoxa s-a definitivat in secolul VII de catre Sfantul Episcop Ioan Gura de Aur. Duhul Sfant suflat la inceput de Dumnezeu intrupat, Iisus Hristos, peste cei 12 Apostoli la cina cea de Taina, se transmite de la episcop la episcop, din generatie in generatie, prin impunerea mainilor, la fel cum il primesc si preotii pentru savarsirea celor sapte Taine, inclusiv pentru rugaciunea de invocare a Duhului Sfant, prin care Acesta se coboara si produce transubstantiatia, adica elementele paine si vin ale Sfintei Impartasanii devin chiar Trupul si Sangele Domnului, dar preotii la randul lor nu pot transmite Duhul Sfant mai departe altor preoti. Mos Craciun este un obicei asimilat din traditia poporului, ca si bradul de Craciun, care insa bucura copiii! Biserica si stiinta sunt surori, si asa cum afirma si Einstein, stiinta conduce la credinta in Dumnezeu. Biserica nu spune sa nu apelezi la medici in caz de nevoie! Insa sunt numeroase cazuri de vindecari rapide inexplicabile de cancer, sau de orbire, savarsite prin oameni sfinti sau prin rugaciune sincera, confirmate de medici! Multi nu au studiat in profunzime problema existentei lui Dumnezeu, dar au timp daca vor. Cititi spre exemplu despre viata lui Padre Pio, din Biserica Sora Catolica. Dati cautare pe google. Nimeni nu va obliga sa dati vreun ban la preot, sau pentru constructia unei biserici, daca nu vreti. Ca padure fara uscaturi nu exista, e normal, nu toti preotii sunt cum ar trebui sa fie, dar ii va judeca si pedepsi inseptit Dumnezeu, caci cui i se va da mult, i se va cere mult, zice Dumnezeu prin prooroci! Biserica Ortodoxa nu a impus cu forta crestinismul de-a lungul istoriei. Biserica Romano-Catolica insa a impus cu forta crestinismul in Lumea Noua (cele doua Americi) si Africa, dar papa Ioan Paul al II-lea (polonezul Karol Wojtila) si-a cerut scuze in numele predecesorilor sai, chiar daca el a luptat pentru pace. Daca stam sa ne gandim, la faza ca Eva a fost luata din Adam, cum era sa explice Dumnezeu prin profeti unui popor de pastori nomazi de acum 3600 ani, ca de fapt cromozomii  X si Y ai barbatului cuprind si cromozomii X si X ai femeii, barbatul fiind deci cel care da sex masculin noului nascut. Si ce e imposibil la Dumnezeu, cel care da viata (pentru ca omul nu a reusit sa creeze nici macar o celula vie), in ce priveste faza ca Maria a nascut de la Duhul Sfant, si ca a ramas virgina si dupa nastere, nefiind mare lucru la Dumnezeu sa regenereze himenul rupt la nastere, cand orice alte rani se regenereaza si ele, spre exemplu coada rupta a soparlei, ba sunt soparle la care se regenereaza si membrele. Oamenii de stiinta au obtinut doar aminoacizi recreand conditiile initilale ale "supei primordiale", dar viata nu, caci se spune clar ca la inceput Duhul lui Dumnezeu se plimba deasupra apelor, cand pamantul era pustiu si era intuneric (datorita activitatii intense vulcanice (placile tectonice inca nefiind racite complet), lumina fiind impiedicata sa patrunda in atmosfera). Asa ca nu mai fiti asa de porniti impotriva crestinismului. Chiar nu ati ajuns in situatia in care sa va puneti speranta numai in Dumnezeu? Orice om ajunge si acolo pana la batranete, si abia atunci isi da seama ca intr-adevar Dumnezeu este Iubire si Lumina, asa cum spune apostolul si evanghelistul Ioan, insusi Marin Preda spunea:" daca iubire nu e, nimic nu e", iar Iisus Hristos, Fiul lui Dumnezeu, este intruparea lui Dumnezeu pe aceasta planeta (pentru ca fiinte superioare biologice, precum omul, sunt foarte multe in Univers, Dumnezeu creand Universul cu multitudinea de planete capabile sa sustina viata organica si dand viata, omul fiind mamiferul cel mai evoluat tehnologic de pe Pamant, dar si fiu al lui Dumnezeu, inzestrat cu ratiune, sentiment, vointa, constiinta de sine si de Dumnezeu, si capacitate de iubire, pentru ca Dumnezeu este Iubire). Renumitul om de stiinta specialist in fizica, Albert Einstein, care a descoperit echivalenta intre materie si energie (in Scripturi sau Biblie se spune ca Dumnezeu a facut lumea din "nimic", iar asta si spune teoria despre formarea Universului a Big Bangului, ca toata materia din Univers s-a format dintr-o particula de energie mai mica decat atomul, deci "nimic", ca sa poata intelege pastorii nomazi iudei), deasemenea faptul ca la viteza luminii, atinsa doar de particula de energie a fotonului, adica a luminii (Dumnezeu fiind Lumina), care nu are masa, timpul nu mai exista, perioada scursa de la o secunda la alta fiind infinita (ca la Dumnezeu, care nu e material, Dumnezeu fiind Duh, timpul nu conteaza), cat si deasemenea faptul ca totul e bazat pe informatie (Dumnezeu fiind si Informatie, Iisus Hristos (Cel uns cu Duhul Sfant) fiind Cuvantul (Informatia) care s-a facut Trup), spunea: "Orice persoana care devine serios implicata in cercetarea stiintifica, devine convinsa ca exista un spirit care se manifesta in legile Universului, un spirit cu mult superior celui omenesc." Se poate observa intr-adevar ca exista un singur Arhitect al Universului, de la sistemul solar la cel atomic, tot proiectul unei sfere in jurul careia graviteaza altele mai mici exista: in macrounivers, universul vizibil, planetele in jurul stelei, iar in microunivers, universul invizibil, electronii in jurul nucleului atomic. Deasemenea, frumusetea si parfumul florilor exprima existenta lui Dumnezeu, adica a Iubirii, pentru ca pentru supravietuire un organism nu trebuie defel sa fie frumos ca sa reuseasca, dimpotriva, cu cat e mai feroce, cu atat ar fi mai bine pentru el! Tot Albert Einstein spunea: "Avand in vedere milioanele de miliarde de planete asemanatoare Pamantului, viata in alta parte in Univers, fara indoila, exista. In vastitatea Universului nu suntem singuri." Se stie prea bine viziunea lui Iezechiel din Vechiul Testament, in care se descrie o nava spatiala si un astronaut, cat si zborul lui Enoh intr-un "car de foc", deasupra "rotundului Pamantului", acesta vazand de acum 3600 de ani ca Pamantul e rotund, luat fiind in spatiu intr-un vehicul zburator. Ingerii nu sunt decat fiinte biologice superioare extraterestre, create tot de Dumnezeu. Chiar se descrie momentul cand fiii lui Dumnezeu i-au invatat pe oameni astronomia, astrologia, faurirea armelor, cum sa se fardeze femeile, s-au imperecheat cu fiicele oamenilor si a rezultat neamul de uriasi, ale caror schelete se gasesc azi, cel mai inalt avand 11 m. Iata un link: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: u48p24utVJo; V1uZzUy7SRQ; Pzhcqd4-z3Q; LWDtuSLLjPI; vXCXXLNaYjo; o1515ujK7AI; 3J_K5vHQnlQ; cat si altul despre aterizarea unei farfurii zburatoare si contactul cu ocupantii ei: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: PgfwJzAvQNE, cat si despre aerodina lenticulara (farfuria zburatoare) facuta pentru nazisti a lui Henri Marie Coanda al nostru: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 3swu_lC-7zc; 2giFGsGLft4; MwUpPwyyvLw; 5tydvDgVNiA; -f5Y1RAo4pY; 7IvhcYnGUjU; si despre farfuria zburatoare garvito-spatio-temporala extraterestra studiata prin retroinginerie, in baza S4 de langa zona 51 de fizicianul Robert Lazar: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: prcc8UQW3bY, si despre Basarabia, parintele Arsenie Boca:  tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 7IvhcYnGUjU si Iustin Parvu:  tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: -voq6QHgN1w, si despre testamentul Maresalului Ion Victor Antonescu:  tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: pEhzcfuhRrg; CbhSgvYZERA; P1uv5gW_kU8; 1C6ZXlZw5To.

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 Multumesc din inima! :heart:  Ar fi bun si un finantator sa pun in aplicare cateva sisteme de producere de energie, propulsie si zbor. :hi: De tahionator convertorul capitanului de marina german Hans Kohler, construit dupa inginerul in electrotehnica aroman Nicolae Teslea (Nikola Tesla), sau convertizorul de energie libera electromagnetica ma apuc in curand, pentru ca nu presupune efort mare financiar.  :scout_en: Despre motorul cu ulei in miscare la presiuni foarte mari, in loc de combustibil, folosit ca sursa de automentinere a miscarii, prin cirulatia fortata intr-un sistem de capilare spiralate, inventat de americanul Richard Clem, nu pot spune insa acelasi lucru. Acolo trebuie finantare sau dotare tehnica corespunzatoare. :thanks: Iata un link despre implozie si impulsia magnetohidrodinamica la aerodinele lenticulare Repulsin ale lui Viktor Schauberger: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Z8HO5DGZcM0, si unul despre aparatul de levitatie al entomologului rus Viktor Grebenikov, bazat pe folosirea aripioarelor cheratinoase ale gandacului de stejar din Austria, scarabeului din Egipt, radascai sau gandacului cerb si gandacului rinocer de la noi, care au o structura spatiala microscopica care genereaza antigravitatie si distorsionarea continuumului spatiu-timp in jurul pilotului: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati hYJXE4FCm7Q; _ChsZuwqTeE. Deasemenea despre tancul german Leopard 2 si posibilul Landkreuzer (Land Cruiser) P1000 Ratte (Sobolan): tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 8h0-yfoi5PM; yL0h19ci6dw. Despre giroscoapele electrogravitationale Haunebu I, II, III si IV: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati A-p2s7ltRh0. Despre electromagnetul monopolar, care poate pune in miscare o roata, sau genera levitatie:  tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati i-dhIK2ozz0. Despre navele extraterestre vazute de cei 24 de astronauti, din care 12 au pasit pe Luna intre 1969 si 1972, preintre care si doctor E. D. Mitchell care a zburat cu racheta Saturn in misiunea Apollo 14:  tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati FkNfNUJl6dI. Despre neamul de uriasi si urmasii lor: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati gmA_lyYJLu0; -LxRtfQnzG4; b_-vWCY5lN0; _GzesvdOu6c. Despre artefacte extraterestre: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati asomHvqhYB4. Despre umanoizii cu cranii mari conice: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Oa6nqmfEM-0. Despre Edward Leedskalnin: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati H5q-LOhBHSI. Despre nave uriase extraterestre filmate de astronomul si astrofotograful John Lenard Walson cu un telescop special: tastati  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 4buqxm1ZOys. Iata si Luna filmata de el:  tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati ohL8v_6SNjY.

 

posted on Sep, 3 2007 @ 06:01 AM
link   
Mods, bear with me, as I'm aware there have been threads on this topic in the past. However, I feel they weren't started correctly and focused on Jose Escamilla's controversial and undependable distribution methods rather than on the actual subject matter itself. I feel this thread should stand alone. I ask responders to focus on the subject, rather than on their anger for not receiving proper service from Mr. Escamilla after paying for the online download of "Interstellar", which uses Microsoft DRM and has caused some issues. I understand that Mr. Escamilla should be accountable and timely in issuing refunds, however this is not what I'm focusing on, so I politely ask that you remain on subject. I do not have first hand experience with the broken downloads or refunds; I am merely addressing the people that have posted about it to get it out of the way. I also understand that there were some copyright issues with the YouTube videos below. I don't want that to be the focus of this either. I believe this topic deserves a more focused beginning, (which the other's lacked) in order to pick up some steam; hence the reason I've started this one. I hope it doesn't get locked. Here goes: 

Amateur astronomer John Lenard Walson claims to have devised an "apparatus" composed of a common CCD camcorder and a commercial grade telescope that is capable of zooming and focusing in on deep space objects (which appear to the naked eye as regular stars) in such a way, that their shape and structure becomes clearly visible. 

In the latest release from independent UFO documentary filmmaker Jose Escamilla, titled simply, "Interstellar", Mr. Escamilla claims to provide half an hour of "live" footage recorded directly through Mr. Walson's contraption. The images are incredible and shocking, to say the least. If the footage is real, this could be the biggest discovery in history. The images show intricate and structured objects of vast proportions, clearly not of naturally occurring origin. Jose and John have taken to calling them "starships". They claim these starships are orbiting earth at varying distances; some in very deep space and others closer than I dare to imagine! I will admit that some of the objects appear to be nebulas or gas formations, but others appear more "intentional" or anomalous to be natural, at least in my opinion. Mr. Walson claims to have received attention from NASA astronomers as well as prestigious universities for his discovery and has stated that he will disclose his technique to the world at large at some point in the near future. The images below are only a tease. Watch the videos!
 
Despre nave extraterestre observate de un cosmonaut rus: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati ePHyCsLOHIo. Despre intalniri filmate cu nave extraterestre si ocupantii lor: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati iKUtmJOzNdA; 8BhJL1O7gmw; N_WLP8c0KnQ. Filmari cu sirene: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati fz1NOgrpipE;  dMaIlFyVKWM; 4Q7-qxuxmyw. Despre incidentul Roswell, New Mexico, 1947: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati IETeIi6Zuzs. Despre baza nazista actuala si orasul antic si nava-mama antica de pe Luna, mare cat Manhattanul, aflata intr-o cariera aurifera de suprafata, impreuna cu ocupanta ei, avand musculatura upgradata prin nanotehnologie: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati uF-F67OUEAw. Despre extraterestrii de 15 cm din Anzi: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati HPJA9unQFw4. Despre energia electromagnetica continuta de spatiul tridimensional si constiinta universala: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati X4HQtB_A_Tc. Despre paleoastronautica cu Erich von Daniken: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati CGCswr6qwC0. Despre nave aerospatiale cu Michael Schratt de la U. S. Air Force,  de forma triunghiulara TR-3B cu reactor nuclear si levitatie folosind bobina toroidala Marco Rodin, cu fluid feromagnetic (mercur cu particule feroase), presurizat la 250000 atmosfere si rotit la 50000 rpm, anuland 89% din gravitatie, cei 11% fiind preluati de minirachete de ghidaj cu impuls multimod amplasate in varfurile triunghiului, apoi de forma discoidala cu reactor nuclear si cu turboreactoare, apoi tot de forma discoidala, dar giroscoape electrogravitationale, apoi sub forma de clopot, pe efect Biefeld-Brown (Thomas Townsend Brown), cu propulsie ionica ascensionala de voltaj inalt (intre 25 si 200 KV), cu o bobina Tesla in jumatatea superioara si o baterie de placi capacitive plan paralele incarcate cu sarcini pozitive in jumatatea inferioara,  apoi bombardierul strategic "aripa zburatoare delta" de joasa altitudine, invizibil radar, B-2 Spirit, fratele mai mic fiind F-117 A, construit dupa aripa zburatoare H-9 a fratilor nazisti germani Reimar si Walter Horten din WWII, combinata cu antigravitatie datorata campului dielectric si polarzarii opuse a bordului de atac al aripii, incarcata cu sarcini electrostatice pozitive, respectiv a gazului de evacuare, ionizat negativ, combinata cu ionizarea aerului si generarea plasmei la botul avionului, ceea ce duce la o reducere la 60% a consumului pentru atingerea vitezei de croaziera, iar datorita antigravitatiei si modificarii campului gravitational, sub botul avionului diminuandu-se mult, respectiv sub turboreactoarele posterioare diminuandu-se putin, ducand la un randament supraunitar, deci la oprirea alimentarii cu cherosen,  aceasta fiind propulsia electrogravitica, incarcarea cu sarcini opuse a jumatatilor inferioara, respectiv superioara ale aeronavei care genereaza antigravitatie, iar datorita ionizarii aerului reduce la zero frecarea cu acesta (americanii construind de asemenea pe acest principiu avioane care prind 8 Mach (de 8 ori viteza sunetului)), fiind descoperita de Viktor Schauberger, studiind zborul gargaritei: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati xfGqINFNL40.
 
Despre nave spatiale, inclusiv nave "buchet" sau obiecte zburatoare neidentificate "tort de nunta", fotografiate de Eduard Albert Meier, contactat la varsta de 5 ani, in 1942, de pleiadieni inalti, blonzi, cu ochi albastri si piele alba, care a vorbit cu 28 de ani inainte de a avea loc, despre razboiul din golful persic, si despre marturiile lt. col. U.S.A. Force Wendelle C. Stevens, despre "clopotele" zburatoare germane Haunebu II, din 19 februarie 1945, capabile sa distruga cate 200 bombardiere "fortarete zburatoare" B-29 din WWII (Al Doilea Razboi Mondial), si despre pistolul cu laser pleiadian (din Constelatia Pleiade, aflata la 68 de ani lumina, steaua Aldebaran, cu planetele Sumer si An), din 6 iulie 1977, capabil sa traga la 37,2 km: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati CCds1GMHcHs; _82jhX-MIZc; Ekws-cCrt8g; hB2fVceXl0Q; HQO3yUA5S3Y; C53OYAST9CI; tfH2oKrvmYg; NrMxNyhBkps; sBbocB96TKMin afara de: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 3swu_lC-7zc; 2giFGsGLft4MwUpPwyyvLw;5tydvDgVNiA-f5Y1RAo4pY7IvhcYnGUjU; prcc8UQW3bY; PgfwJzAvQNE. Ciocnire razanta laterala intre automobil si giroscop electrogravitational: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati xqdKYsztBXg. Despre fiinte ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 2MX1Y9-q5vk; PLj4cw-Bz-E. Despre sunete ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati -c7hCWwTlrY. Despre Marte: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati JpNg8Z75sEs. Despre semnale ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati My02OrCHxVw. Despre lacasuri subterane: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati MSNqKVCrDJQ. Despre atac cu nave aerospatiale triunghiulare TR-3B cu levitatie folosind bobina toroidala Marco Rodin, cu fluid feromagnetictastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati YQWqiI0jlQc. Despre Blackstar, avion orbital, zburand la 480 km altitudine, cu motor racheta, apoi depre Northrop-Gruman RQ-180, cu anvergura de 39,6 m si capabilitate de 24 de ore de zbor la 17,7 km altitudine, urmasul lui RQ-170 si SR-71 Blackbird, care zbura cu de 4 ori viteza sunetului, si al carui fuzelaj se etansa la viteze supersonice, avion de spinaj care a zburat pana in 1998, apoi despre Boeing X37-B, de 8,8 m lungime, avion spatial robotic, pentru testarea tehnologiei spatiale reutilizabile, lansat in varful unei rachete Atlas 5, capabil de un an de zbor orbital, inainte de aterizare, bombardier spatial, avion de spionaj si arma antisatelit, urmasul lui X-40, apoi despre Aurora de 455 milioane dolari, nava triunghiulara hipersonica, cu motor cu detonare pulsatorie, bombardier neconventional, ale carui bombe genereaza unde seismice reperate de seismografe, zboara la 27,4 km altitudine cu Mach 4 pana la Mach 5,2 (1 Mach = viteza sunetului): tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati VJ0I773sFbw.

 

 
Thomas Townsend Brown
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

Thomas Townsend Brown (March 18, 1905 – October 22, 1985) was an American inventor who's research into odd electrical effects led him to believe he had discovered a connection between strong electric fields and gravity, a type of antigravity effect. For most of his life he attempted to develop devices based on his ideas, trying to promote them for use by industry and the military. He came up with the name "Biefeld-Brown effect" for the phenomenon he had discovered and called the field of study electrogravitics.

Instead of being an antigravity force, what Brown observed has generally been attributed to electrohydrodynamics, the movement of charged particles that transfers their momentum to surrounding neutral particles in air, also called "ionic drift" or "ionic wind".

In recent years Brown's research has had an influence in the community of amateur experimenters who build "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage. There are still claims Brown discovered antigravity, an idea popular with theunidentified flying object (UFO) community and spawning many conspiracy theories.

 

 

Biography[edit]

Thomas Townsend Brown was born into a wealthy construction family in Zanesville, Ohio in 1905. His parents were Lewis K. and Mary Townsend Brown. Thomas was interested in electronics from early childhood and his wealthy parents indulged their sons interests, buying him his own experimental equipment. He started what would be a lifelong series of experiments with electrical phenomenon and began to investigate what he thought was an electro-gravity phenomenon while still in high school.

For two years in 1922 and 1923 Thomas Brown attended Doane Academy, a preparatory school associated withGranville, Ohio's Denison University, graduating in June of 1923. In the fall of 1923 he entered the California Institute of Technology. He struggled with the required curriculum of a freshman student and to help Thomas in his school work his parents set up a fully provisioned private laboratory in the family home in Pasadena, California. Here he demonstrated his ideas on electricity and gravity to invited guests such as the physicist and Nobel laureate, Dr. Robert A. Millikan. Millikan told the freshman student his ideas were impossible and told him to complete his college education before trying to develope such theories. Brown left Cal-Tech after his first year. In 1924 he attended Denison University but left there after a year as well.

In September 1928 Thomas Townsend Brown married Josephine Beale, daughter of the Zanesville, Ohio physician Clifford Beale.

In 1930 Brown enlisted in the United States Navy as an apprentice seaman. After completing basic training, based on his background in experimental electrical research he was ordered to report to duty at the Naval Research Laboratory in Anacostia, D.C. on March 16, 1931. He performed the dual rolls of a rank-and-file sailor and a research assistant on the Navy submarine S-48 in the the Navy Department's International Gravity Expedition to the West Indies in 1932. In 1933 he was assigned to the yacht "Caroline" (loaned to the Navy by Eldridge Reeves Johnson) which was conducting US Navy ocean surveys and research in the Johnson-Smithsonian Deep Sea Expedition of 1933. His primary duties were as sonar and radio operator with little involvement in scientific work. In 1933 Brown lost his job at the Naval Research Lab due toDepression era budget cutbacks and he joined the U.S. Naval Reserve.

Brown found a job during the 30s as a soil engineer for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and then as an administrator for the Ohio Civilian Conservation Corps. Thomas Brown and Josephine were divorced in 1937 for a short while, re-marring in September 1940. Also in 1937 Thomas Brown re-enlisted in the US Navy.

In 1938 Brown was promoted to Lieutenant and in 1939 was assigned for a few months as a material engineer for the Navy’s flying boats being built at the Glenn L. Martin Company in Maryland. He was engaged in magnetic and acoustic mine-sweeping research and development under the Bureau of Ships in Washington D.C. From October, 1940 to March, 1941. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 he was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet Radar School in Norfolk, Virginia in May of 1942. In October 1942 Brown was discharged from navy service with Brown requesting to resign "for the good of the naval service in order to escape trial by General Court Martial" and with his official discharge exam listing "no comment" as to the reasons why.[1] After 1944 he worked as a Radar consultant to the Lockheed-Vega Aircraft Corporation.[2]

After leaving Lockheed, Brown moved to Hawaii where he was temporarily a consultant to the Pearl harbor Navy Yard due to Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Arthur W. Radford's interest in Browns ideas on Gravitor devices, although the work was looked on more as a curiosity than any type of workable device. In 1952 Brown moved to Cleveland in hopes of selling his Gravitor device to the military establishment but there was little interest in it. In 1955 Brown went to Europe first in England and then to France. In research test for the French corporation, La Socie'te' National de Construction Aeronautique Sud Ouest (SNCASO) Brown demonstrated what he thought was an antigravity effect in a vacuum with his device but all funding was cut off when SNCASO was merged with SNCASE forcing Brown to return to the U.S. in 1956.

Brown became involved in the subject of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and in 1956 helped found the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) although he was forced out as director in 1957 with allegations that Brown was using funds to further his own anti-gravity research.

In 1958 Brown worked as a research and development consultant for Agnew Bahnson's Whitehall Rand Project, an anti-gravity venture at the Bahnson Company of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. That same year Brown setup his own anti-gravity corporation, Rand International Limited. He filed several patents but his ideas met with little success. In the early 1960s he worked as a physicist for Electrokinetics Inc., of Bala Cynwyd, PA. and then went into semi-retirement living in California. Thomas Townsend Brown died on October 22, 1985.

Anti-gravity research[edit]
Further information: Biefeld-Brown effect and Electrogravitics

In 1921 while experimenting in the lab his parents had set up for him while he was still in high school, Brown discovered an unusual effect while experimenting with a Coolidge tube, a type of X-ray vacuum tube with two asymmetrical electrodes. Placing it on a balance scale with the tube’s positive electrode facing up, when the power was on the tubes mass seemed to decrease. When tube's electrode was facing down the tube's mass seemed to increase.[3] Brown was convinced that he had managed to influence gravity electronically. At Caltech in 1923 Brown tried to convince his instructors about his throries via inviting them to his home laboratory but they showed little interest. He also invited the press and the May 26, 1924 edition Los Angeles Evening Express ran a story on Brown titled "Claims Gravity is a Push, not a Pull." After quitting Caltech Brown studied one year at Denison University where he claimed that he did a series of experiments with professor of astronomy Paul Alfred Biefeld although the present day Denison University claims they have no record of such experiments being carried out, or of any association between Brown and Biefeld.[4] Brown would continue to claim Biefeld as his mentor and co-experimenter, eventually calling the phenomenon the Biefeld–Brown effect.[5] The phenomenon was also given the name "Electrogravitics" by Brown based on his belief this was an electricity/gravity phenomenon.

Working in his home lab Brown developed an electrical device he called a “gravitor” or “gravitator", consisting of a block of insulating or dielectric material with electrodes at either end. He received a British patent for it in November 1928. In demonstrations Brown would mount the unit as a pendulum, apply electrical power, and the unit moves in one direction. In 1929 Brown published "How I Control Gravity," in Science and Invention where he claimed these devices were producing a mysterious force that interacted with the pull of gravity. He envisions a future where, if his device could be scaled up, "Multi-impulse gravitators weighing hundreds of tons may propel the ocean liners of the future" or even "fantastic 'space cars'" to Mars.[6]

Brown spent the rest of his life working in his spare time and sometimes in funded projects trying to prove his ideas on Electrogravity. He proposed his gravitator as a means of propulsion to General Motors executives in 1930 and as ship propulsion while he was at the Naval Research Laboratory in 1932. After World War II Brown sought to develop and sell his "Electrogravitic" effect as a means of propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Brown refined his invention over the years and eventually came up with designs consisting of metal plates or disks charged with 25,000 to 200,000 volts that would produce a pulpulsive force. Brown demonstrated a working apparatus to an audience of scientists and military officials in the US, England, and Fance. Research in the phenomenon was popular in the mid-1950s, at one point the Glenn L. Martin Company placed advertisements looking for scientists who were "interested in gravity", but rapidly declined in popularity thereafter (see United States gravity control propulsion research).

Most scientists who witnessed the demonstrations were skeptical, attributing the noticed motive force to the more well understood phenomenon of ionic drift or "ion wind" from the air particles, some of which still remained even when Brown's put his device inside a vacuum chamber. His association with UFOs and a 1979 book on the Philadelphia Experiment(where the Navy allegedly teleported a warship) helped to give Brown the reputation in mainstream physics of being a "crackpot".[6]

Legacy[edit]

Electrogravitics is popular with conspiracy theorists with claims that it is powering the B-2 Stealth Bomber and UFOs with claims it may have become a classified subject by 1957.[6] There are further claims that it can be used to generate "free energy".[7]

Brown's research and the "Biefeld-Brown effect" has since become something of a popular pursuit around the world, with amateur experimenters replicating his early experiments in the form of "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage.

References[edit]
  1. Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 43 - For the Good of the Service
  2. Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 43 - For the Good of the Service
  3. Jump up^ The Canonical Hamiltonian The Intersection Of Chip Design and Physics by Hamilton Carter, Thomas Townsend Brown: Part IV of the Holiday Serial
  4. Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 13: Notes from the Rabbit Hole #3: "He Made Things Up" (online excerpts)
  5. Jump up^ alienscientist.com, Biefeld-Brown Effect Controversy, Tajmar ESA Experiments
  6. Jump up to:a b c Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground"Wired Magazine.
  7. Jump up^ Chapter Six UFOs and Electrogravity Propulsion, Did Tesla Discover the Secrets of Antigravity?
  • Farrell, Joseph P., "Covert Wars and the Clash of Civilizations" c.2013, Adventures Unimited Press, Kempton, Illinois, Chapter 9, pages 221-245 ISBN 978-1-939149-04-6
Sources for biography References and external articles[edit] Patents
  • GB300311 — A method of and an apparatus or machine for producing force or motion (accepted 1928-11-15)
  • US 1,974,483 — Electrostatic motor (1934-09-25)
  • US 2,949,550 — Electrokinetic apparatus (1960-08-16)
  • US 3,018,394 — Electrokinetic transducer (1962-01-23)
  • US 3,022,430 — Electrokinetic generator (1962-02-20)
  • US 3,187,206 — Electromagnetic apparatus (1965-06-01)
  • US 3,196,296 — Electric generator (1965-07-20)
Websites

 

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yoginul ala nu mediteaza, e doar un truc...

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l1I8cLhCcQ4

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yoginul ala nu mediteaza, e doar un truc...

In cazul celui din filmarea ta, da! Oricum, singura legatura cu giroscoapele electrogravitationale naziste e starea de levitatie.

 

Istoricul aviatic american Henry Stevens, inginerul italian Luigi Romersa si inginerul roman Radu Manicatide, student in varsta de 20 de ani in 1932 al inginerului si savantului roman Henry Marie Coanda, care a asistat la un test de zbor al aerodinei lenticulare (farfurie zburatoare) inventata de Coanda in 1932, in Bucuresti, vorbesc despre farfuria zburatoare, care combina efectul Coanda cu lamele (aripi) rotative populsate de turboreactoare dispuse radial simetric, inventata de inginerii germani Rudolph Schriever, Habermohl, Miethe, Joseph Andreas Epp si inginerul italian Beluzzo, construita de Skoda in Cehoslovacia, la Praga, in 1945, ca si BMW FlugelRad (Aripa Rotativa) II (2), cat si farfuria zburatoare Coanda 9, construita de BMW cu 12 turboagregate BMW 028: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 3swu_lC-7zc.

 

Stevens
- Hitler's Flying Saucers - 
A Guide to German Flying Discs 
of the Second W
orld War

 

The Schriever-Habermohl Project(s)

The best known of these projects is usually referred to as the Schriever-Habermohl project although it is by no means clear that these were the individuals in charge of the project. Rudolf Schriever was an engineer and test pilot. Less is known about Otto Habermohl but certainly he was an engineer. This project was centered in Prag, at the Prag-Gbell airport (l)(2). Actual construction work began somewhere between 1941 and 1943 (3)(4).This was originally a Luftwaffe project which received technical assistance from the Skoda Works at Prag and at a Skoda division at Letov (5) and perhaps elsewhere (6). Other firms participating in the project according to Epp were the Junkers firm at Oscheben and Bemburg, the Wilhelm Gustloff firm at Weimarand the Kieler Leichtbau at Neubrandenburg (7). This project started as a project of the Luftwaffe, sponsored by second-in-command, Ernst Udet. It then fell under the control of Speer's Armament Ministry at which time it was administered by engineer Georg Klein. Finally, probably sometime in 1944, this project came under the control of the SS, specifically under the purview of General Hans Kammler (8).

According to his own words, Georg Klein saw this device fly on February 14, 1945 (9). This may have been the first official flight, but it was not the first flight made by this device. According to one witness, a saucer flight occurred as early as August or September of 1943 at this facility. The eyewitness was in flight-training at the Prag-Gbell facility when he saw a short test flight of such a device. He states that the saucer was 5 to6 meters in diameter (about 15 to 18 feet in diameter) and about as tall as a man, with an outer border of 30-40 centimeters. It was "aluminum" in color and rested on four thin, long legs. The flight distance observed was about 300 meters at low level of one meter in altitude. The witness was 200 meters from the event and one of many students there at the time (10).

Joseph Andreas Epp, an engineer who served as a consultant to both the Schriever-Habermohl and the Miethe-Belluzzo projects, states that fifteen prototypes were built in all (11) (12). The final device associated with Schriever-Habermohl is described by engineer Rudolf Lusar who worked in the German Patent Office, as a central cockpit surrounded by rotating adjustable wing-vanes forming a circle. The vanes were held together by a band at the outer edge of the wheel-like device. The pitch of the vanes could be adjusted so that during take off more lift was generated by increasing their angle from a more horizontal setting. In level flight the angle would be adjusted to a smaller angle.This is similar to the way helicopter rotors operate. The wing-vanes were to be set in rotation by small rockets placed around the rim like a pinwheel. Once rotational speed was sufficient,lift-off was achieved. After the craft had risen to some height the horizontal jets or rockets were ignited and the small rockets shut off (13). After this the wing-blades would be allowed to rotate freely as the saucer moved forward as in an auto-gyrocopter. In all probability, the wing-blades speed, and so their lifting value, could also be increased by directing the adjustable horizontal jets slightly upwards to engage the blades,thus spinning them faster at the digression of the pilot.

42

The Airport at Prag-Gbell

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Site of the Schriever and Habermohl Flying Saucer Projects
In the top diagram the hanger which was the site of the research is marked as number 2. The same hanger is indicated in the picture below with an arrow.

The Habermohl Saucer In Flight

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To the left is the closest shot of the two taken by Joseph Andreas Epp as he drove to the Prag airport in 1944. To the right is a blow up (400 times) of that same saucer. Epp remembers a date of November, 1944 but the foliage on the trees argues for a date earlier in the year.

 

Rapid horizontal flight was possible with these jet or rocket engines. Probable candidates were the Junkers Jumo 004 jet engines such as were used on the famous German jet fighter, the Messerschmitt 262. A possible substitute would have been the somewhat less powerful BMW 003 engines. The rocket engine would have been the Walter HWK109 which powered the Messerschmitt 163 rocket interceptor (14). If all had been plentiful, the Junkers Jumo 004 probably would have been the first choice. Epp reports Jumo 211/b engines were used (15). Klaas reports the Argus pulse jet (Schmidt-duct), used on the V-l, was also considered (16).All of these types of engines were difficult to obtain at the time because they were needed for high priority fighters and bombers, the V-l and the rocket interceptor aircraft.

Joseph Andreas Epp reports in his book Die Realitaet der Flugscheiben (The Reality of the Flying Discs) that an official test flight occurred in February of 1945. Epp managed to take two still pictures of the saucer in flight which appear in his book and are reproduced here. There is some confusion about the date of these pictures. In the video film "UFOs Secrets of the3rd Reich", Epp states these pictures were taken in the Fall of1944. In his book the date is given as the official date of February 14, 1945. In personal correspondence to me of December, 30, 1991, he indicated the date of the pictures as August, 1944. In that correspondence he further revealed that the official flight had been February 14, 1945 but an earlier lift-off had taken place in August of 1944. The pictures show a small disc-like object in the distance at some altitude posed above a landscape. The saucer is at too great a distance and altitude to show any mechanical detail. As Klaus-Peter Rothkugel points out,the foliage on the trees indicates the August date as being the most accurate.

Very high performance flight characteristics are attributed to this design. Georg Klein says it climbed to 12,400 meters (over37,000 feet) in three minutes (17) and attaining a speed around that of the sound barrier (18). Epp says that it achieved a speed of Mach 1 (about 1200 kilometers per hour or about 750miles per hour) (19). From his discussion, it appears that Epp is describing the unofficial lift-off in August, 1944 at this point. He goes on to say that on the next night, the sound barrier was broken in manned flight but that the pilot was frightened by the vibrations encountered at that time (20). On the official test flight, Epp reports a top speed of 2200 kilometers per hour (21). Lusar reports a top speed of 2000kilometers per hour (22). Many other writers cite the same or similar top speed. There is no doubt of two facts. The first is that these are supersonic speeds which are being discussed.

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Second, it is a manned flight which is under discussion.

But at least one writer has discounted such high performance(23). It is argued that the large frontal area of one of the possible designs in question makes Mach 2 flight impossible. The argument seems to be that given the possible power plants the atmospheric resistance caused by this frontal area would slow the craft to a point below the figures stated earlier.

Some new information has come to light regarding the propulsion system which supports the original assessment. Although actual construction had not started, wind-tunnel and design studies confirmed the feasibility of building a research aircraft which was designated Project 8-346. This aircraft was not a saucer but a modern looking swept-back wing design. According this post-war Allied intelligence report, the Germans designed the 8-346 to flying the range of 2000 kilometers per hour to Mach 2. (24).Interestingly enough, it was to use two Walther HWK109 rocket engines. This is one of the engine configurations under consideration for the Schriever-Habermohl saucer project.

As an aside, it should be noted that there are those who will resist at any attempt to impugn the official breaking of the sound barrier by Chuck Yeager in 1947 in the Bell X-l rocket aircraft. They had better brace themselves. This record has also been challenged from another direction. This challenge was reported in February, 2001, by the Associated Press, Berlin. It seems that a certain Hans Guido Mutke claims he pushed his Messerschmitt jet fighter, the Me-262, through the sound barrier in 1945. This occurred during an emergency dive to help another German flyer during air combat. At that time he experienced vibrations and shaking of the aircraft. According to the report,a Hamburg Professor is working on a computer simulation in order to check the validity of this claim.

Returning to the topic at hand, Schriever continued to work Anthe project until April 15, 1945. About this time Prag was threatened by the Soviet Army. The Czech technicians working on this project were reported to have gone amuck, looting the facility as the Russians approached. The saucer prototype(s) at Prag-Gbell were pushed out onto the tarmac and burnt. Habermohl disappeared and presumably ended up in the hands of the Soviets. Schriever, according to his own statements, packed the saucer plans in the trunk of his BMW and with his family drove into Southern Germany. After cessation of hostilities Schriever worked his way north to his parents house in Bremerhaven-Lehe.There Schriever set up an inventor-workshop. On August 4, 1948there was a break in to the workshop in which Schriever's plans and saucer model were stolen (25). Schriever was approached by agents of "foreign powers" concerning his knowledge of German saucers. He declined their offers, preferring rather menial work driving a truck for the U.S. Army (25).

Schriever is reported to have died shortly thereafter in 1953.

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There is a report, however, that his death was reported prematurely and that he was identified by a witness who knew him in Bavaria in 1964 or 1965 (26). The publisher of this book, Thomas Mehner, was so kind as to send me a copy of the statement by a Bavarian woman who knew Schriever and made this claim (27). This means that there is a possibility that Schriever did do post-war work on flying saucers.

Interestingly enough, Schriever never claimed that his saucer ever flew at all! If this true, Schriever's saucer was still in the pre-flight stage at the time of the Russian advance and its ultimate destruction on the Prag-Gbell tarmac. This is in direct contradiction to the sources cited above and the photographic evidence. How can this seeming inconsistency be explained?

J. Andeas Epp has always maintained that it was he who originated the type of design used in the Schriever-Habermohl project (28). He states in his book that the imbalance in the ring of wing- vanes which plagued the early Schriever-Habermohl prototypes was a deviation from his original design in which the wing-vanes were lengthened. He states that when they returned to his original design, the saucer was able to take off (29) (30). He referred to the saucer used in the August, 1944 unofficial lift-off, the saucer whose wing-vanes had been altered and then corrected through his intervention, as the "Habermohlischen Version", theHabermohl version (31).

Could the discrepancy referred to above be accounted for if there were actually two lines of saucers built by Schriever and Habermohl? In other words, could the Schriever-Habermohl project have actually been a Schriever project and a Habermohl project,two separate designs within the team? Georg Klein seems to answer this question, stating that "three constructions" which were finished at Prag by the end of 1944. One of these, he says,was a design by Dr. Miethe (32). The best interpretation of the words of both Epp and Klein would indicate that both Schriever and Habermohl each produced their own design. Schriever made no claim that his design flew. Epp claims the Habermohl design didfly in August, 1944 and again in February 14, 1945. This was the saucer witnessed by both Klein and Epp in flight.

Therefore, the history of the Schriever-Habermohl project in Prag can be summarized in a nutshell as follows: Epp's statement is that it was his design and model which formed the basis for this project. This model was given to General Erst Udet which was then forwarded to Dr. Walter Dornberger at Peenemuende. Dr. Dornberger tested and recommended the design (33) which was confirmed by Dornberger to Epp after the war (34). A facility was set up in Prag for further development and the Schriever- Habermohl team was assigned to work on it there. At first this project was under the auspices of Hermann Goering and the Luftwaffe (35). Sometime later the Speer Ministry took over the running of this project with chief engineer Georg Klein in charge(36). Finally, the project was usurped by the SS in 1944, along

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A Comparison of the Schriever and Habermohl Designs

 

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On the left is the Schriever design while on the right is the Habermohl design. Please note the differing dimensions of the vane blades. This difference caused instability in the Schriever design. Drawings adapted from the work of Klaus-Peter Rothkugel.

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with other saucer projects, and fell under the purview of Dr. Hans Kammler (37). Schriever altered the length of the wing-vanes from their original design. This alteration caused the instability. Schriever was still trying to work out this problem in his version of the saucer as the Russians overran Prag. Haberrmohl, according to Epp, went back to his original specifications, with two or three successful flights for his version.

While speaking of flight success, two more pieces of important evidence exists which were supplied by Andreas Epp. One comes in the form of a statement by a German test pilot, Otto Lange, given years after the war to Andreas Epp. In that statement, signed by Lange, Epp is credited with the idea behind the invention of the flying saucer and states that none other than Dr. Walter Dornberger had a hand in its development. He also makes the astonishing claim that he, personally, test flew this flying saucer for 500 kilometers in the course of testing (38) (39).

Otto Lange is a person who is known historically and independently of any connection to Epp. Lange is mentioned in U.S. intelligence documents as a member of the "Rustungsstab"(Armament Staff), for aircraft (40). This is some confusion on this issue since a German researcher, Klaus-Peter Rothkugel, has found evidence for three individuals with this name serving in the German military at this time. Mr. Rothkugel, has suggested that the statement by Lange, discussed above, was, in fact, written by Epp based on known examples of Epp's hand writing. It was signed by another hand, so perhaps Epp and Lange had a chance meeting in 1965 wherein the letter was drafted by Epp in an effort to further document his, at that time, little-acknowledged involvement in the German saucer projects.

The second piece of evidence, also supplied by Epp, is a wartime Letter from Prag, dated March, 1944. It speaks to the conditions behind German lines with its opening greeting, simply "Still Alive!". It follows in a cryptic style describing historically well known political and military people who apparently knew or had something to do with the saucer project at Prag. The letter also describes some early prototype saucer models and their shortcomings. Interestingly enough figures on thrust are given

(40) (41).

Three pictures appear at the bottom of the letter. One definitely shows a saucer in flight. There is no mention of these pictures in the text of the letter. Because they are not referenced and from their placement on the face of the letter it is possible that these pictures may have been a later addition to that letter. There are some other reasons why these pictures may not have been connected to the Schriever-Habermohl project or the Miethe-Belluzzo project. We shall return to these pictures at a later time.

An interesting fact elucidated by Epp is that the senior experts and advisors for both the Schriever-Habermohl project and the next project to be discussed, the Miethe-Belluzzo project, were exactly the same individuals (43).

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Cryptic And Enigmatic Letter Describes Flying Disc Development

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On the left is the original letter sent to the author by Andreas Epp. On the right is a typed version done by Kadmon. Notes in English are directed to the author. The letter starts without any formal or Informal greeting, stating only "Still alive". Flying disc research "sehr gut" with vertical take-off at speeds of 860-880 per hour (525-550 miles per hour).

 

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Flying Disc Test Pilot Otto Lange

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Original and author's translation of letter signed by Lange acknowledging Epp's role in flying disc history

The Schriever-Habermohl Project(s)

Sources and References

  1. Meier, Hans Justus, 1999, page 24, "Zum Thema "FliegendeUntertassen" Der Habermohlsche Flugkreisel", reprinted inFliegerkalender 1999, Internationales Jahrbuch de Luft-und Raumfahrt, Publisher: Hans M. Namislo, ISBN 3-8132-0553-3

  2. Lusar, Rudolf, 1964, page 220, Die Deutschen Waffen undGeheimwaffen des 2. Weltkrieges und ihre Weiterentwicklung, J.F. Lemanns Verlag, Munich

  3. Lusar, 1964, ibid

  4. Epp, Joseph Andreas, 1994, page 28, Die Realitaet derFlugscheiben, Efodon e.V., c/o Gernot L. Geise,Zoepfstrasse 8, D-82495

  5. Epp, 1994, ibid

  6. Rothkugel, Klaus-Peter, in personal letters a witness has reported to Mr. Rothkugel the sites of Prag-Rusin, Letov- Werke (Lettow), the Skoda Works at Pressburg/Trentschin

  7. Epp, 1994, pages 30-31

  8. Epp, 1994, pages 28-33

  9. Keller, Werner, Dr., April 25, 1953, Welt am Sonntag, "Erste "Flugscheibe" flog 1945 in Prag enthuellt Speers Beauftrager", an interview of Georg Klein

  10. Meier, 1999, page 23

  11. Personal letter from J. Andreas Epp dated 12/30/91

  12. Epp, 1994, page 27, 30

  13. Lusar, 1964, 220

  14. Holberg, Jan, 8/20/54, page 4, "UFOs gibt es nicht! Wohl aber: Flugscheiben am laufenden Band!" Das Neue Zeitalter

  15. Epp, 1994, page 31

  16. Barton, Michael X., 1968, page 38, The German Saucer Story, Futura Press, Los Angeles (based upon Hermann Klaas)

  17. Zwicky, Viktor, September 19, 1954, page 4, Tages-Anzeiger52 fuer Stadt und Kanton Zuerich, "Das Raetsel der Fliegenden Teller Ein Interview mit Oberingenieur Georg Klein, derunseren Lesern Ursprung und Konstruktion dieser Flugkoerpererklaert"

  18. Klein, Georg, October 16, 1954, page 5, "Die Fliegenden Teller", Tages-Anzeiger fuer Stadt und Kanton Zuerich

  19. Epp, 1994, page 31

  20. ibid

  21. Epp, 1994, page 34

  22. Lusar, 1964, page 220

  23. Meier, Hans Justus, 1999, page 10, "Zum Thema "FleigendeUntertassen" Der Habermohlsche Flugkreisel", FllegerkalenderInternationales Jahrbuch der Luft-und Raumfahrt

  24. Combined Intelligence Committee Evaluation Reports, CombinedIntelligence Objectives Subcommittee, Evaluation Report 149,page 8

  25. Der Spiegel, March 30, 1959, "Untertassen Sie fliegen aberdoch" Article about and interview of Rudolf Schriever

  26. Zunneck, 1998, page 119

  27. This written statement, translated from Bavarian dialect to High German was provided courtesy of publisher Thomas Mehner

  28. Epp, 1994, page 30

  29. Epp, 1994, page 31

  30. Personal letter from J. Andreas Epp dated 12/30/91

  31. ibid

  32. Klein, Georg, October 16, 1954, page 5, "Die "FliegendenTeller", Tages-Anzeiger fuer Stadt und Kanton Zuerich

  33. Epp, 1994, page 26

  34. ibid

  35. Epp, 1994, page 27

  36. Epp, 1994, page 33

  37. 17. ibid

  38. Kadmon, 2000, Ahnstern IX, "Andreas Epp", Aorta c/o Petak, 53 Postfach 778, A-1011, Wien, Austria

  39. Personal letter from Andreas Epp, dated 12/30/91

  40. Kadmon, 2000, Ahnstern IX, "Andreas Epp"

  41. Epp, 1994, page 31


Section Index
Index

 

My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla Chapter 6—The Magnifying Transmitter

No subject to which I have ever devoted myself has called for such concentration of mind, and strained to so dangerous a degree the finest fibbers of my brain, as the systems of which the Magnifying transmitter is the foundation. I put all the intensity and vigor of youth in the development of the rotating field discoveries, but those early labours were of a different character. Although strenuous in the extreme, they did not involve that keen and exhausting discernment which had to be exercised in attacking the many problems of the wireless.

Despite my rare physical endurance at that period, the abused nerves finally rebelled and I suffered a complete collapse, just as the consummation of the long and difficult task was almost in sight. Without doubt I would have paid a greater penalty later, and very likely my career would have been prematurely terminated, had not providence equipped me with a safety device, which seemed to improve with advancing years and unfailingly comes to play when my forces are at an end. So long as it operates I am safe from danger, due to overwork, which threatens other inventors, and incidentally, I need no vacations which are indispensable to most people. When I am all but used up, I simply do as the darkies who "naturally fall asleep while white folks worry."

To venture a theory out of my sphere, the body probably accumulates little by little a definite quantity of some toxic agent and I sink into a nearly lethargic state which lasts half an hour to the minute. Upon awakening I have the sensation as though the events immediately preceding had occurred very long ago, and if I attempt to continue the interrupted train of thought I feel veritable nausea. Involuntarily, I then turn to other and am surprised at the freshness of the mind and ease with which I overcome obstacles that had baffled me before. After weeks or months, my passion for the temporarily abandoned invention returns and I invariably find answers to all the vexing questions, with scarcely any effort. In this connection, I will tell of an extraordinary experience which may be of interest to students of psychology. I had produced a striking phenomenon with my grounded transmitter and was endeavoring to ascertain its true significance in relation to the currents propagated through the earth. It seemed a hopeless undertaking, and for more than a year I worked unremittingly, but in vain. This profound study so entirely absorbed me, that I became forgetful of everything else, even of my undermined health. At last, as I was at the point of breaking down, nature applied the preservative inducing lethal sleep. Regaining my senses, I realized with consternation that I was unable to visualize scenes from my life except those of infancy, the very first ones that had entered my consciousness. Curiously enough, these appeared before my vision with startling distinctness and afforded me welcome relief. Night after night, when retiring, I would think of them and more and more of my previous existence was revealed. The image of my mother was always the principal figure in the spectacle that slowly unfolded, and a consuming desire to see her again gradually took possession of me. This feeling grew so strong that I resolved to drop all work and satisfy my longing, but I found it too hard to break away from the laboratory, and several months elapsed during which I had succeeded in reviving all the impressions of my past life, up to the spring of 1892. In the next picture that came out of the mist of oblivion, I saw myself at the Hotel de la Paix in Paris, just coming to from one of my peculiar sleeping spells, which had been caused by prolonged exertion of the brain. Imagine the pain and distress I felt, when it flashed upon my mind that a dispatch was handed to me at that very moment, bearing the sad news that my mother was dying. I remembered how I made the long journey home without an hour of rest and how she passed away after weeks of agony. It was especially remarkable that during all this period of partially obliterated memory, I was fully alive to everything touching on the subject of my research. I could recall the smallest detail and the least insignificant observations in my experiments and even recite pages of text and complex mathematical formulae.

My belief is firm in a law of compensation. The true rewards are ever in proportion to the labour and sacrifices made. This is one of the reasons why I feel certain that of all my inventions, the magnifying Transmitter will prove most important and valuable to future generations. I am prompted to this prediction, not so much by thoughts of the commercial and industrial revolution which it will surely bring about, but of the humanization consequences of the many achievements it makes possible. Considerations of mere utility weigh little in the balance against the higher benefits of civilization. We are confronted with portentous problems which can not be solved just by providing for our material existence, however abundantly. On the contrary, progress in this direction is fraught with hazards and perils not less menacing than those born from want and suffering. If we were to release the energy of atoms or discover some other way of developing cheap and unlimited power at any point on the globe, this accomplishment, instead of being a blessing, might bring disaster to mankind in giving rise to dissension and anarchy, which would ultimately result in the enthronement of the hated regime of force. The greatest good will come from technical improvements tending to unification and harmony, and my wireless transmitter is preeminently such. By its means, the human voice and likeness will be reproduced everywhere and factories driven thousands of miles from waterfalls furnishing power. Aerial machines will be propelled around the earth without a stop and the sun's energy controlled to create lakes and rivers for motive purposes and transformation of arid deserts into fertile land. Its introduction for telegraphic, telephonic and similar uses, will automatically cut out the static and all other interferences which at present, impose narrow limits to the application of the wireless. This is a timely topic on which a few words might not be amiss.

During the past decade a number of people have arrogantly claimed that they had succeeded in doing away with this impediment. I have carefully examined all of the arrangements described and tested most of them long before they were publicly disclosed, but the finding was uniformly negative. Recent official statement from the U.S. Navy may, perhaps, have taught some beguilable news editors how to appraise these announcements at their real worth. As a rule, the attempts are based on theories so fallacious, that whenever they come to my notice, I can not help thinking in a light vein. Quite recently a new discovery was heralded, with a deafening flourish of trumpets, but it proved another case of a mountain bringing forth a mouse. This reminds me of an exciting incident which took place a year ago, when I was conducting my experiments with currents of high frequency.

Steve Brodie had just jumped off the Brooklyn Bridge. The feat has been vulgarized since by imitators, but the first report electrified New York. I was very impressionable then and frequently spoke of the daring printer. On a hot afternoon I felt the necessity of refreshing myself and stepped into one of the popular thirty thousand institutions of this great city, where a delicious twelve per cent beverage was served, which can now be had only by making a trip to the poor and devastated countries of Europe. The attendance was large and not over-distinguished and a matter was discussed which gave me an admirable opening for the careless remark, "This is what I said when I jumped off the bridge." No sooner had I uttered these words, than I felt like the companion of Timothens, in the poem of Schiller. In an instant there was pandemonium and a dozen voices cried, "It is Brodie!" I threw a quarter on the counter and bolted for the door, but the crowd was at my heels with yells, "Stop, Steve!", which must have been misunderstood, for many persons tried to hold me up as I ran frantically for my haven of refuge. By darting around corners I fortunately managed, through the medium of a fire escape, to reach the laboratory, where I threw off my coat, camouflaged myself as a hardworking blacksmith and started the forge. But these precautions proved unnecessary, as I had eluded my pursuers. For many years afterward, at night, when imagination turns into specters the trifling troubles of the day, I often thought, as I tossed on the bed, what my fate would have been, had the mob caught me and found out that I was not Steve Brodie!

Now the engineer who lately gave an account before a technical body of a novel remedy against static based on a "heretofore unknown law of nature," seems to have been as reckless as myself when he contended that these disturbances propagate up and down, while those of a transmitter proceed along the earth. It would mean that a condenser as this globe, with its gaseous envelope, could be charged and discharged in a manner quite contrary to the fundamental teachings propounded in every elemental textbook of physics. Such a supposition would have been condemned as erroneous, even in Franklin's time, for the facts bearing on this were then well known and the identity between atmospheric electricity and that developed by machines was fully established. Obviously, natural and artificial disturbances propagate through the earth and the air in exactly the same way, and both set up electromotive forces in the horizontal, as well as vertical sense. Interference can not be overcome by any such methods as were proposed. The truth is this: In the air the potential increases at the rate of about fifty volts per foot of elevation, owing to which there may be a difference of pressure amounting to twenty, or even forty thousand volts between the upper and lower ends of the antenna. The masses of the charged atmosphere are constantly in motion and give up electricity to the conductor, not continuously, but rather disruptively, this producing a grinding noise in a sensitive telephonic receiver. The higher the terminal and the greater the space encompassed by the wires, the more pronounced is the effect, but it must be understood that it is purely local and has little to do with the real trouble.

In 1900, while perfecting my wireless system, one form of apparatus compressed four antennae. These were carefully calibrated in the same frequency and connected in multiple with the object of magnifying the action in receiving from any direction. When I desired to ascertain the origin of the transmitted impulse, each diagonally situated pair was put in series with a primary coil energizing the detector circuit. In the former case, the sound was loud in the telephone; in the latter it ceased, as expected, the two antennae neutralizing each other, but the true static manifested themselves in both instances and I had to devise special preventives embodying different principles. By employing receivers connected to two points of the ground, as suggested by me long ago, this trouble caused by the charged air, which is very serious in the structures as now built, is nullified and besides, the liability of all kinds of interference is reduced to about one-half because of the directional character of the circuit. This was perfectly self-evident, but came as a revelation to some simple-minded wireless folks whose experience was confined to forms of apparatus that could have been improved with an axe, and they have been disposing of the bear's skin before killing him. If it were true that strays performed such antics, it would be easy to get rid of them by receiving without aerials. But, as a matter of fact, a wire buried in the ground which, conforming to this view, should be absolutely immune, is more susceptible to certain extraneous impulses than one placed vertically in the air. To state it fairly, a slight progress has been made, but not by virtue of any particular method or device. It was achieved simply by discerning the enormous structures, which are bad enough for transmission but wholly unsuitable for reception and adopting a more appropriate type of receiver. As I have said before, to dispose of this difficulty for good, a radical change must be made in the system and the sooner this is done the better.

It would be calamitous, indeed, if at this time when the art is in its infancy and the vast majority, not excepting even experts, have no conception of its ultimate possibilities, a measure would be rushed through the legislature making it a government monopoly. This was proposed a few weeks ago by Secretary Daniel's and no doubt that distinguished official has made his appeal to the Senate and House of Representatives with sincere conviction. But universal evidence unmistakably shows that the best results are always obtained in healthful commercial competition. there are, however, exceptional reasons why wireless should be given the fullest freedom of development. In the first place, it offers prospects immeasurably greater and more vital to betterment of human life than any other invention or discovery in the history of man. Then again, it must be understood that this wonderful art has been, in its entirety, evolved here and can be called "American" with more right and propriety than the telephone, the incandescent lamp or the airplane.

Enterprising press agents and stock jobbers have been so successful in spreading misinformation, that even so excellent a periodical as the "Scientific American," accords the chief credit to a foreign country. The Germans, of course, gave us the Hertz waves and the Russian, English, French and Italian experts were quick in using them for signaling purposes. It was an obvious application of the new agent and accomplished with the old classical and unimproved induction coil, scarcely anything more than another kind of heliography. The radius of transmission was very limited, the result attained of little value, and the Hertz oscillations, as a means for conveying intelligence, could have been advantageously replaced by sound waves, which I advocated in 1891. Moreover, all of these attempts were made three years after the basic principles of the wireless system, which is universally employed today, and its potent instrumentalities had been clearly described and developed in America.

No trace of those Hertzian appliances and methods remains today. We have proceeded in the very opposite direction and what has been done is the product of the brains and efforts of citizens of this country. The fundamental patents have expired and the opportunities are open to all. The chief argument of the Secretary is based on interference. According to his statement, reported in the New York Herald of July 29th, signals from a powerful station can be intercepted in every village in the world. In view of this fact, which was demonstrated in my experiments in 1900, it would be of little use to impose restrictions in the United States.

As throwing light on this point, I may mention that only recently an odd looking gentleman called on me with the object of enlisting my services in the construction of world transmitters in some distant land. "We have no money," he said, "but carloads of solid gold, and we will give you a liberal amount." I told him that I wanted to see first what will be done with my inventions in America, and this ended the interview. But I am satisfied that some dark forces are at work, and as time goes on the maintenance of continuous communication will be rendered more difficult. The only remedy is a system immune against interruption. It has been perfected, it exists, and all that is necessary is to put it in operation.

The terrible conflict is still uppermost in the minds and perhaps the greatest importance will be attached to the Magnifying Transmitter as a machine for attack and defense, more particularly in connection with TELAUTAMATICS. This invention is a logical outcome of observations begun in my boyhood and continued throughout my life. When the first results were published, the Electrical Review stated editorially that it would become one of the "most potent factors in the advance of civilization of mankind." The time is not distant when this prediction will be fulfilled. In 1898 and 1900, it was offered by me to the Government and might have been adopted, were I one of those who would go to Alexander's shepherd when they want a favor from Alexander! At that time I really thought that it would abolish war, because of its unlimited destructiveness and exclusion of the personal element of combat. But while I have not lost faith in its potentialities, my views have changed since. War can not be avoided until the physical cause for its recurrence is removed and this, in the last analysis, is the vast extent of the planet on which we live. Only though annihilation of distance in every respect, as the conveyance of intelligence, transport of passengers and supplies and transmission of energy will conditions be brought about some day, insuring permanency of friendly relations. What we now want most is closer contact and better understanding between individuals and communities all over the earth and the elimination of that fanatic devotion to exalted ideals of national egoism and pride, which is always prone to plunge the world into primeval barbarism and strife. No league or parliamentary act of any kind will ever prevent such a calamity. These are only new devices for putting the weak at the mercy of the strong.

I have expressed myself in this regard fourteen years ago, when a combination of a few leading governments, a sort of Holy alliance, was advocated by the late Andrew Carnegie, who may be fairly considered as the father of this idea, having given to it more publicity and impetus than anybody else prior to the efforts of the President. While it can not be denied that such aspects might be of material advantage to some less fortunate peoples, it can not attain the chief objective sought. Peace can only come as a natural consequence of universal enlightenment and merging of races, and we are still far from this blissful realization, because few indeed, will admit the reality that God made man in His image in which case all earth men are alike. There is in fact but one race, of many colors. Christ is but one person, yet he is of all people, so why do some people think themselves better than some other people?

As I view the world of today, in the light of the gigantic struggle we have witnessed, I am filled with conviction that the interests of humanity would be best served if the United States remained true to its traditions, true to God whom it pretends to believe, and kept out of "entangling alliances." Situated as it is, geographically remote from the theaters of impending conflicts, without incentive to territorial aggrandizement, with inexhaustible resources and immense population thoroughly imbued with the spirit of liberty and right, this country is placed in a unique and privileged position. It is thus able to exert, independently, its colossal strength and moral force to the benefit of all, more judiciously and effectively, than as a member of a league.

I have dwelt on the circumstances of my early life and told of an affliction which compelled me to unremitting exercise of imagination and self-observation. This mental activity, at first involuntary under the pressure of illness and suffering, gradually became second nature and led me finally to recognize that I was but an automaton devoid of free will in thought and action and merely responsible to the forces of the environment. Our bodies are of such complexity of structure, the motions we perform are so numerous and involved and the external impressions on our sense organs to such a degree delicate and elusive, that it is hard for the average person to grasp this fact. Yet nothing is more convincing to the trained investigator than the mechanistic theory of life which had been, in a measure, understood and propounded by Descartes three hundred years ago. In his time many important functions of our organisms were unknown and especially with respect to the nature of light and the construction and operation of the eye, philosophers were in the dark.

In recent years the progress of scientific research in these fields has been such as to leave no room for a doubt in regard to this view on which many works have been published. One of its ablest and most eloquent exponents is, perhaps, Felix le Dantec, formerly assistant of Pasteur. Professor Jacques Loeb has performed remarkable experiments in heliotropism, clearly establishing the controlling power of light in lower forms of organisms and his latest book, "Forced Movements," is revelatory. But while men of science accept this theory simply as any other that is recognized, to me it is a truth which I hourly demonstrate by every act and thought of mine. The consciousness of the external impression prompting me to any kind of exertion, physical or mental, is ever present in my mind. Only on very rare occasions, when I was in a state of exceptional concentration, have I found difficulty in locating the original impulse. The by far greater number of human beings are never aware of what is passing around and within them and millions fall victims of disease and die prematurely just on this account. The commonest, everyday occurrences appear to them mysterious and inexplicable. One may feel a sudden wave of sadness and rack his brain for an explanation, when he might have noticed that it was caused by a cloud cutting off the rays of the sun. He may see the image of a friend dear to him under conditions which he construes as very peculiar, when only shortly before he has passed him in the street or seen his photograph somewhere. When he loses a collar button, he fusses and swears for an hour, being unable to visualize his previous actions and locate the object directly. Deficient observation is merely a form of ignorance and responsible for the many morbid notions and foolish ideas prevailing. There is not more than one out of every ten persons who does not believe in telepathy and other psychic manifestations, spiritualism and communion with the dead, and who would refuse to listen to willing or unwilling deceivers?

Just to illustrate how deeply rooted this tendency has become even among the clear-headed American population, I may mention a comical incident. Shortly before the war, when the exhibition of my turbines in this city elicited widespread comment in the technical papers, I anticipated that there would be a scramble among manufacturers to get hold of the invention and I had particular designs on that man from Detroit who has an uncanny faculty for accumulating millions. So confident was I, that he would turn up some day, that I declared this as certain to my secretary and assistants. Sure enough, one fine morning a body of engineers from the Ford Motor Company presented themselves with the request of discussing with me an important project. "Didn't I tell you?," I remarked triumphantly to my employees, and one of them said, "You are amazing, Mr. Tesla. Everything comes out exactly as you predict."

As soon as these hardheaded men were seated, I of course, immediately began to extol the wonderful features of my turbine, when the spokesman interrupted me and said, "We know all about this, but we are on a special errand. We have formed a psychological society for the investigation of psychic phenomena and we want you to join us in this undertaking." I suppose these engineers never knew how near they came to being fired out of my office. Ever since I was told by some of the greatest men of the time, leaders in science whose names are immortal, that I am possessed of an unusual mind, I bent all my thinking faculties on the solution of great problems regardless of sacrifice. For many years I endeavoured to solve the enigma of death, and watched eagerly for every kind of spiritual indication. But only once in the course of my existence have I had an experience which momentarily impressed me as supernatural. It was at the time of my mother's death. I had become completely exhausted by pain and long vigilance, and one night was carried to a building about two blocks from our home. As I lay helpless there, I thought that if my mother died while I was away from her bedside, she would surely give me a sign. Two or three months before, I was in London in company with my late friend, Sir William Crookes, when spiritualism was discussed and I was under the full sway of these thoughts. I might not have paid attention to other men, but was susceptible to his arguments as it was his epochal work on radiant matter, which I had read as a student, that made me embrace the electrical career. I reflected that the conditions for a look into the beyond were most favorable, for my mother was a woman of genius and particularly excelling in the powers of intuition. During the whole night every fibber in my brain was strained in expectancy, but nothing happened until early in the morning, when I fell in a sleep, or perhaps a swoon, and saw a cloud carrying angelic figures of marvelous beauty, one of whom gazed upon me lovingly and gradually assumed the features of my mother. The appearance slowly floated across the room and vanished, and I was awakened by an indescribably sweet song of many voices. In that instant a certitude, which no words can express, came upon me that my mother had just died. And that was true. I was unable to understand the tremendous weight of the painful knowledge I received in advance, and wrote a letter to Sir William Crookes while still under the domination of these impressions and in poor bodily health. When I recovered, I sought for a long time the external cause of this strange manifestation and, to my great relief, I succeeded after many months of fruitless effort.

I had seen the painting of a celebrated artist, representing allegorically one of the seasons in the form of a cloud with a group of angels which seemed to actually float in the air, and this had struck me forcefully. It was exactly the same that appeared in my dream, with the exception of my mother's likeness. The music came from the choir in the church nearby at the early mass of Easter morning, explaining everything satisfactorily in conformity with scientific facts. This occurred long ago, and I have never had the faintest reason since to change my views on psychical and spiritual phenomena, for which there is no foundation. The belief in these is the natural outgrowth of intellectual development. Religious dogmas are no longer accepted in their orthodox meaning, but every individual clings to faith in a supreme power of some kind.

We all must have an ideal to govern our conduct and insure contentment, but it is immaterial whether it be one of creed, art, science, or anything else, so long as it fulfills the function of a dematerializing force. It is essential to the peaceful existence of humanity as a whole that one common conception should prevail. While I have failed to obtain any evidence in support of the contentions of psychologists and spiritualists, I have proved to my complete satisfaction the automatism of life, not only through continuous observations of individual actions, but even more conclusively through certain generalizations. these amount to a discovery which I consider of the greatest moment to human society, and on which I shall briefly dwell.

I got the first inkling of this astonishing truth when I was still a very young man, but for many years I interpreted what I noted simply as coincidences. Namely, whenever either myself or a person to whom I was attached, or a cause to which I was devoted, was hurt by others in a particular way, which might be best popularly characterized as the most unfair imaginable, I experienced a singular and undefinable pain which, for the want of a better term, I have qualified as "cosmic" and shortly thereafter, and invariably, those who had inflicted it came to grief. After many such cases I confided this to a number of friends, who had the opportunity to convince themselves of the theory of which I have gradually formulated and which may be stated in the following few words: Our bodies are of similar construction and exposed to the same external forces. This results in likeness of response and concordance of the general activities on which all our social and other rules and laws are based. We are automata entirely controlled by the forces of the medium, being tossed about like corks on the surface of the water, but mistaking the resultant of the impulses from the outside for the free will. The movements and other actions we perform are always life preservative and though seemingly quite independent from one another, we are connected by invisible links. So long as the organism is in perfect order, it responds accurately to the agents that prompt it, but the moment that there is some derangement in any individual, his self-preservative power is impaired.

Everybody understands, of course, that if one becomes deaf, has his eyes weakened, or his limbs injured, the chances for his continued existence are lessened. But this is also true, and perhaps more so, of certain defects in the brain which drive the automaton, more or less, of that vital quality and cause it to rush into destruction. A very sensitive and observant being, with his highly developed mechanism all intact, and acting with precision in obedience to the changing conditions of the environment, is endowed with a transcending mechanical sense, enabling him to evade perils too subtle to be directly perceived. When he comes in contact with others whose controlling organs are radically faulty, that sense asserts itself and he feels the "cosmic" pain.

The truth of this has been borne out in hundreds of instances and I am inviting other students of nature to devote attention to this subject, believing that through combined systematic effort, results of incalculable value to the world will be attained. The idea of constructing an automaton, to bear out my theory, presented itself to me early, but I did not begin active work until 1895, when I started my wireless investigations. During the succeeding two or three years, a number of automatic mechanisms, to be actuated from a distance, were constructed by me and exhibited to visitors in my laboratory. In 1896, however, I designed a complete machine capable of a multitude of operations, but the consummation of my labours was delayed until late in 1897. This machine was illustrated and described in my article in the Century Magazine of June, 1900; and other periodicals of that time and when first shown in the beginning of 1898, it created a sensation such as no other invention of mine has ever produced. In November, 1898, a basic patent on the novel art was granted to me, but only after the Examiner-in-Chief had come to New York and witnessed the performance, for what I claimed seemed unbelievable. I remember that when later I called on an official in Washington, with a view of offering the invention to the Government, he burst out in laughter upon my telling him what I had accomplished. Nobody thought then that there was the faintest prospect of perfecting such a device. It is unfortunate that in this patent, following the advice of my attorneys, I indicated the control as being affected through the medium of a single circuit and a well-known form of detector, for the reason that I had not yet secured protection on my methods and apparatus for individualization. As a matter of fact, my boats were controlled through the joint action of several circuits and interference of every kind was excluded.

Most generally, I employed receiving circuits in the form of loops, including condensers, because the discharges of my high-tension transmitter ionized the air in the (laboratory) so that even a very small aerial would draw electricity from the surrounding atmosphere for hours. Just to give an idea, I found, for instance, that a bulb twelve inches in diameter, highly exhausted, and with one single terminal to which a short wire was attached, would deliver well on to one thousand successive flashes before all charge of the air in the laboratory was neutralized. The loop form of receiver was not sensitive to such a disturbance and it is curious to note that it is becoming popular at this late date. In reality, it collects much less energy than the aerials or a long grounded wire, but it so happens that it does away with a number of defects inherent to the present wireless devices.

In demonstrating my invention before audiences, the visitors were requested to ask questions, however involved, and the automaton would answer them by signs. This was considered magic at the time, but was extremely simple, for it was myself who gave the replies by means of the device. At the same period, another larger telautomatic boat was constructed, a photograph of which was shown in the October 1919 number of the Electrical Experimenter. It was controlled by loops, having several turns placed in the hull, which was made entirely watertight and capable of submergence. The apparatus was similar to that used in the first with the exception of certain special features I introduced as, for example, incandescent lamps which afforded a visible evidence of the proper functioning of the machine. These automata, controlled within the range of vision of the operator, were, however, the first and rather crude steps in the evolution of the art of Telautomatics as I had conceived it.

The next logical improvement was its application to automatic mechanisms beyond the limits of vision and at great distances from the center of control, and I have ever since advocated their employment as instruments of warfare in preference to guns. The importance of this now seems to be recognized, if I am to judge from casual announcements through the press, of achievements which are said to be extraordinary but contain no merit of novelty, whatever. In an imperfect manner it is practicable, with the existing wireless plants, to launch an airplane, have it follow a certain approximate course, and perform some operation at a distance of many hundreds of miles. A machine of this kind can also be mechanically controlled in several ways and I have no doubt that it may prove of some usefulness in war. But there are to my best knowledge, no instrumentalities in existence today with which such an object could be accomplished in a precise manner. I have devoted years of study to this matter and have evolved means, making such and greater wonders easily realizable.

As stated on a previous occasion, when I was a student at college I conceived a flying machine quite unlike the present ones. The underlying principle was sound, but could not be carried into practice for want of a prime-mover of sufficiently great activity. In recent years, I have successfully solved this problem and am now planning aerial machines *devoid of sustaining planes, ailerons, propellers, and other external* attachments, which will be capable of immense speeds and are very likely to furnish powerful arguments for peace in the near future. Such a machine, sustained and propelled "entirely by reaction," is shown on one of the pages of my lectures, and is supposed to be controlled either mechanically, or by wireless energy. By installing proper plants, it will be practicable to "project a missile of this kind into the air and drop it" almost on the very spot designated, which may be thousands of miles away.

But we are not going to stop at this. Telautomats will be ultimately produced, capable of acting as if possessed of their own intelligence, and their advent will create a revolution. As early as 1898, I proposed to representatives of a large manufacturing concern the construction and public exhibition of an automobile carriage which, left to itself, would perform a great variety of operations involving something akin to judgment. But my proposal was deemed chimerical at the time and nothing came of it. At present, many of the ablest minds are trying to devise expedients for preventing a repetition of the awful conflict which is only theoretically ended and the duration and main issues of which I have correctly predicted in an article printed in the SUN of December 20, 1914. The proposed League is not a remedy but, on the contrary, in the opinion of a number of competent men, may bring about results just the opposite.

It is particularly regrettable that a punitive policy was adopted in framing the terms of peace, because a few years hence, it will be possible for nations to fight without armies, ships or guns, by weapons far more terrible, to the destructive action and range of which there is virtually no limit. Any city, at a distance, whatsoever, from the enemy, can be destroyed by him and no power on earth can stop him from doing so. If we want to avert an impending calamity and a state of things which may transform the globe into an inferno, we should push the development of flying machines and wireless transmission of energy without an instant's delay and with all the power and resources of the nation.

The End

 

Un brașovean a inventat motorul care funcționează cu o sursă inepuizabilă de energie

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Yahoo News/Getty Images - Motorul care functioneaza cu electromagnetism

 

Gabriel Diaconu, un locuitor din județul Brașov, a inventat motorul care funcționează cu o sursă de energie inepuizabilă și nepoluantă, și anume electromagnetismul.  Inovaţia sa ar putea revoluţiona industria energetică. 

Invenţie sa a fost brevetată de Oficiul de Stat pentru Invenţii şi Mărci (OSIM), dar până acum, nici statul și nici un alt investitor nu s-a arătat interesat să finanțeze motorul care funcționează cu electromagnetism. 

„Este vorba despre un motor care funcţioneză cu energia magneţilor permanenţi. Aceasta este o sursă de energie inepuizabilă şi ecologică. Pe viitor, acest motor putând să se autoacţioneze, va înlocui aceste greoaie şi greu de întreţinut sisteme fotovoltaice şi eoliene. Noutatea invenţiei constă în punerea în valoare a energiei magneţilor permanenţi”, după cum a spus Diaconu, citat de bzb.ro.

Acesta studiază puterea magneților de aproximativ 20 de ani, dar a început să se dedice intens cercetării, după ce a ieșit la pensie. 

Până acum, cercetătorul a testat motorul pe un Trabant și a explicat că injectarea energiei magnetice în motoare este posibilă la fel ca orice combustibil.

 

Iata ce spune domnul Ion: De la marea revolta de la Brasov, cand toti cetatenii orasului au fost chinuiti de securitatea lui Ceasca, batuti, mutati, schimbati, inchisi, etc, securizati, Brasovul n-a mai dat nimic bun din punct de vedere tehnic, ba chiar desi acolo se pastra tehnologia autobuzul Bucuresti, ARO Cimpulung-Muscel, Tractorul si Camionul Brasov, (daca se mai pastreaza), toate uzinele coordonate pe vremea lui raposatu din Brasov, au cazut, si desi pare ca a mai ramas camionul, cu 20 specialisti in loc de 20000, nu se prea fabrica mare lucru nici pe acolo. Daca nu aduceau germanii cateva uzine, Brasovul ultrasecurizat si azi de pe vremea revoltei, nu mai producea nimic, si se sufoca. Brasovul e azi o combinata intre securistii duri (dar prosti) ai lui Ceasca, si manadementul occidental. Brasovul nu mai produce rulmentii romano-niponi de mare randament, calitate, si fiabilitate, sau angrenajele de tot felul, sau instalatiile grele pentru platforme, etc, care au dus faima tarii zeci de ani. S-a reluat productia de biciclete, de calitate (putin cam scumpe si cam masive) dar tot m-am bucurat si de asta! Poate maine-poimaine, specialistii reali din Brasov, cu care am lucrat si eu pana-n '88 se strang, si ne cheama "din nou la arme", pentru ca avem specialisti care pot inventa si produce orice, daca sunt pusi la treaba! Bucurestiul, Craiova, Clujul, Sibiul, Ploiestiul, s-au dezvoltat azi exclusiv pe industria externa, si nu au nevoie prea mare de specialistii tarii...
Speram inca ca Brasovul sa se trezeasca, si sa ne cheme sa fabricam noi camioane romanesti de exceptie, pentru inceput, apoi, autobuze, tractoare, tractoare specializate (cum faceam la Braila si Bucuresti), masini de teren, avioane, nave, etc... 
Sincer ma bucur, ca dupa un somn de 24 ani, cei de la Brasov au inceput sa fabrice iar biciclete!

 

Bacauanul Gheorghe Bordeianu a inventat motorul cu apa si otet

 

Hidroliza este procesul de desfacere a unei legături chimice prin combinare cu apa (H2O). Aceasta se realizează prin scindarea moleculei de apă în hidrogen și hidroxil (-OH). Reacția inversă a hidrolizei este reacția de condensare când se acceptă ionul de hidroxil cu formare de apă.

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În acest fel sunt desfăcute în biologie prin procesele metabolice cu ajutorul enzimelor moleculele mari de proteinepolizaharahide sau lipide în molecule mai mici monomere. Sursa de energie necesară reacției o asigură ATP-ul (acidul adenozintrifosforic).

 

Instalatia costa 500 lei si a fost montata pe un Cielo. Functioneaza prin disocierea hidrogenului de oxigen, folosind hidrogenul ca si combustibil, acesta avand o cifra de ardere de 4 - 5 ori mai mare decat a benzinei. Cielo a rulat cu 140 km/h cu pedala de acceleratie la jumatate. Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adugati  oxg1tVayFvk.

 

Despre fratii Panait si Grigore Nica, primul economis, respectiv al doilea inginer, care au proiectat si facut calculul tehnico-economic al unei farfurii zburatoare, proiect depus la OSIM: http://www.obiectezburatoare.20m.com/pages_RO/Partea%20II/disc1_1_ro.html

 

 

 

PROCEDEUL DE CONSTRUIRE, FUNCTIONARE SI DEPLASARE IN ATMOSFERA SI IN COSMOS, -A FARFURIILOR ZBURATOARE (Depozit naţional OSIM nr. a2000/00166 din 15 febr.2000, Certif. De prioritate nr.006/ 25 ian, 2001 si protecţie internaţionala nr. PCT/RO/01/00002 din 14 febr. 2001.) 1. INTRODUCERE

Motto,
Lumina poate veni de oriunde,
trebuie numai sa o vezi !!!

     Inventia se refera la un procedeu ce sta la baza construirii, functionarii si deplasarii unor farfurii zburatoare cu un sistem de propulsie original, capabile sa se deplaseze în toate directiile – (inclusiv traiectorii în zig –zag), sa asigure prin centrifugare atât anularea influentei gravitatiei terestre, o sustentatie în aer datorita depresurizarii permanente de pe partea exterioara de sus cât si o schimbare din mers a regimurilor de lucru a propulsiei, - respectiv de la arderea la presiune constanta la arderea în regim supraalimentat de statoreactor sau de motor racheta la deplasarea în cosmos, fiind caracterizata prin aceea ca ,pot fi construite în serie, mijloace de transport de tip nou, capabile sa asigure transportul ultrarapid de persoane si marfuri atât în atmosfera cât si în cosmos si la viteze ce pot depasi si viteza luminii, -cu respectarea legilor din fizica ( folosind Teorema lui Steiner ) -prin posibilitatea propulsarii si deplasarii inertiale în zig- zag, - suprapusa concomitent peste propulsia de baza.

2. DEZAVANTAJELE SOLUTIILOR EXISTENTE

     Este cunoscut Propulsorul pentru Aeronave cu Decolare si Aterizare Verticala ce face obiectul Brevetului de Inventie nr.110222 C1, publicat la 30/01/1998 în BOPI nr.1/1998. Aceasta inventie raspunde doar în mica masura multiplelor cerinte pe care le solicita omenirea la ora actuala în rezolvarea cerintelor mereu crescânde ale civilizatiei contemporane. Astfel, deplasarea prin acest procedeu este limitata numai la atmosfera terestra si are performante tehnico-economice limitate din numeroase puncte de vedere cum este; viteza de deplasare, accelerarea, frânarea. De asemenea, forta de tractiune este redusa în plan orizontal sau pe directia de deplasare. Manevrarea la schimbarea directiei de zbor si sarcina utila sunt limitate datorita gravitatiei terestre. Stabilitatea în zbor în caz de ploaie torentiala sau furtuna sunt reduse si pot conduce la blocarea supapelor si prabusirea imediata. Exista de asemenea pericolul de rupere a membranelor elastice vibratoare datorita numarului mare de cicluri de solicitari identice ce au drept urmare o scadere rapida a rezistentei la oboseala.

     Este de asemenea cunoscuta, propulsia realizata cu ajutorul tuturor modelelor de motoare turboreactoare clasice folosite curent în aviatie (vezi bibliografie[1] paginile 76-79). Camerele de ardere ale acestor motoare sunt situate întotdeauna între copresorul axial în trepte si turbina. Astfel, într-un spatiu restrâns constructiv, toate paletele de turbina, în timpul unei rotatii, sunt atacate continuu si simultan de gazele fierbinti rezultate din arderea la presiune constanta a amestecului de aer si combustibil. Aceste motoare au restrictii severe constructive datorate diametrelor mici, a sistemelor de racire complicate si încarcarii termice foarte mari a paletelor de turbina. Obtinerea unor rapoarte mari de comprimare se realizeaza numai la turatii foarte mari ceea ce duce la complicatii constructive majore privind ungerea, fenomenele de pompaj si rezonanta etc.

3. PUTINA ISTORIE (PRIVIND STADIUL FOARTE ANTERIOR AL TEHNICII )

     Totodată pentru înţelegerea si compararea acestei invenţii cu ceeace s-a realizat anterior, mă voi referi si la un stadiu foarte anterior al tehnicii cu menţiunea că au fost descoperite chiar si unele probe materiale,(si la noi în tară) înscrisuri sau gravuri vechi, acestea fiind caracterizate prin aceea că, prin acestea se atesta că în trecutul foarte îndepărtat a existat un stadiu al tehnicii ce depasea uneori cu mult cunostintele tehnicii actuale. Astfel, în unele scrieri foarte vechi (conform bibliografie[2 pag. 182] )se vorbeşte despre:

- care ce se pot mişca prin forta proprie, la fel ca o pasare, pe pământ, sau în apă, sau în aer numite <vimaana>;

- secretul construirii aparatelor de zburat care nu pot fi rupte, nu pot fi frânte, nu pot lua foc, nu pot fi distruse;

- secretul de a face aparatele zburătoare sa stea nemişcate;

- secretul de a face aparatele zburătoare invizibile;

- secretul de a obţine imagini din interiorul aparatelor de zbor inamice.

     In zilele noastre, foarte mulţi martori oculari, au văzut de nenumărate ori asemenea nave zburătoare superperformante, uneori de foarte aproape. Totuşi, datorită neântelegerii procedeelor tehnice de construcţie si funcţionare ale acestor obiecte, existenta lor este negata. In cel mai bun caz, ele sunt catalogate drept meteoriţi, fulgere globulare etc., în totală contradicţie cu realitatea constatată de foarte mulţi martori oculari ce au observat uneori în grupuri numeroase asemenea obiecte zburătoare sau în contradicţie cu unele probe materiale foarte evidente si uneori imposibil de contestat.

     Aşa cum voi prezenta în continuare, procedeul de construire, deplasare si funcţionare descrise prin prezenta invenţie oferă o explicaţie convingătoare pentru unele relatări a unor martori oculari de la mică distantă relatări anexate alăturat si extrase din bibliografie[3] pag 184-185 , [4] si [5] pag. 3.

      Astfel, chiar si în tara noastră s-a descoperit o probă materială extraordinară si deosebită: -un obiect dintr-un aliaj complex de aluminiu având o vechime foarte foarte mare conform bibliografie[2] pag. 152-156. Nimeni nu a putut da până în prezent o explicaţie plauzibilă privind destinata acestui obiect. Voi arata în continuare, că această piesă făcea pare dintr-un ansamblu funcţional al unei farfurii zburătoare. Piesa îndeplinea atât rolul unui amplificator hidraulic de fortă si energie cât si rolul de stabilizator progresiv pentru schimbarea la 90 grade a direcţiei forţelor din plan vertical în plan orizontal, cu amplasare circulară si la o distantă (rază) bine determinată fată de axa principală de rotaţie (având în plan orizontal si forma de segment de coroană circulară). Piesa aceasta după cum veţi putea constata din cuprinsul descrierii invenţiei se potriveşte perfect în ansamblul funcţional ce face obiectul prezentei invenţii, conform schemei cinematice prezentate în figura 1, respectiv elementul numărul (21) din figura (1) respectiv Schema cinematica, piesa metalica prezentata mai jos in fig. nr. 3      post-4410-0-83568200-1412263248_thumb.jpFigura numarul 3

      Această piesă metalică, realizată dintr-un aliaj complex de aluminiu prin prelucrare mecanică complexă în trecutul foarte îndepărtat, a fost în mod cert cândva o parte componentă a unui mijloc de deplasare ce funcţiona pe un principiu de construire si deplasare similar cu principiul de construire si funcţionare al unei farfurii zburătoare ce face obiectul prezentei invenţii. Este posibil ca acea piesă dintr-un aliaj complex de aluminiu, (cu calitati de antifricţiune certe la intervale mari de temperatură -datorate elementelor de aliere componente) să fi fost construită ori de către o veche civilizaţie pământeană dispărută ori de către alte fiinţe inteligente venite în trecutul îndepărtat de pe alte corpuri cereşti pe pământul actual al României.

 

De asemenea în mod cert unele civilizaţii aflate la mare depărtare de sistemul nostru solar (de exemplu din constelaţia Orion) si mult mai avansate tehnologic decât civilizaţia noastră actuală, au transmis chiar si unele radiograme cosmice cuprinzând un principiu universal de construire, funcţionare si deplasare a unei farfurii zburătoare, în ideea că si alte civilizaţii din univers cum este si civilizaţia noastră actuală, vor ajunge cândva să înţeleagă si sa se folosească de acest principiu. Din bibliografie[4], pag. 225, se poate vedea o copie a unei radiograme cosmice captate în anul 1962 cu radiotelescopul FORTY de la Blaystoc (Polonia) care nu a fost înţeleasă până acum, radiograma prezentata mai jos in Fig. nr. 4.

post-4410-0-68830900-1412263249_thumb.jpFigura 4

      Această radiogramă, o interpretez astfel: inteligenta este reprezentată printr-o reţea artificială - radiograma exprimând schematic o reţea ca un rezultat al unei activitati intelectuale, respectiv ca o gândire inteligentă, emanată din capul unei fiinţe având corp, cap, mâini si picioare si fiind amplasată în cadrul întregului ansamblu funcţional, respectiv pe o platformă discoidală centrală de mijloc care nu se roteşte (asimetrie) având deasupra si dedesubt pe aceeaşi axă de simetrie verticală cate o platformă rotitoare în sensuri contrare (reprezentarea grafică a creşterii exponenţiale a acceleraţiei, simetria maselor, asimetria succesivă a axei de rotaţie verticală sugerând dezechilibrul controlat al maselor în rotaţie si efectul inerţial al dezechilibrelor, două goluri sugerând înlocuirea mersului biped printr-un sistem artificial de propulsie, goluri care printr-o succesiune logică pe faze redau de fapt în ce consta acea propulsie artificială respectiv ca două camere de ardere diametral opuse si egale, reprezentarea schematică a mersului inerţial în zig zag, creşterea de fiecare dată a vitezelor de deplasare reprezentată grafic prin coloane de puncte care astfel pot fi foarte uşor dublate etc.) si succesiv modificările centrului lor relativ din mişcarea de rotaţie amplasat pe aceeaşi axă de simetrie verticală, unde platforma de dedesubt reprezentată schematic, că are întotdeauna o masă, respectiv un diametru mai mare pentru obţinerea stabilitatii în zbor (efectul giroscopic) fiind prezentat succesiv schematic chiar si modul de deplasare inerţială în zig-zag pentru a se putea obţine (după cum voi prezenta în continuare în descrierea invenţiei) accelerări crescătoare succesive a întregului ansamblu funcţional - independente de viteza de curgere a gazelor printr-un ajutaj reactiv (efuzor), - ca urmare a arderii unui combustibil - datorită acumulărilor si eliberărilor succesive de energie cinetică (Ec) a corpurilor în mişcare de rotaţie respectiv independente de viteza luminii de cca 300.000 km/secundă, putându-se depasi pe baza acestui principiu de zbor continuu inerţial in zig-zag, prin accelerări succesive ce pornesc continuu de la ultima viteza iniţiala atinsă, pragul acestei viteze considerată de noi ca viteză limită a unui corp material, cu avantaje si consecinţe greu de evaluat, de înţeles si de imaginat raportate la stadiul de dezvoltare tehnică atins de civilizaţia noastră contemporană. Intelegerea acestei veritabile Radiograme Cosmice mă îndreptateste si pe această cale să afirm cu certitudine că nu suntem singuri în univers si că în universul observabil există cu siguranţă unele civilizaţii mult mai avansate tehnologic decât noi si care nu au intenţii agresive, din moment ce ne transmit asemenea mesaje.

4. ELEMENTE DE NOUTATE

      Problemele tehnice pe care le rezolvă invenţia, sunt caracterizate prin aceea că, se înlătură toate dezavantajele soluţiilor existente (si în special modalitatea clasică de a învinge gravitaţia si a intra în cosmos prin rachete purtătoare în trepte) si se pot realiza si fabrica în serie, farfurii zburătoare, ca noi mijloace de transport ultrarapide pentru persoane si mărfuri, cu viteze, accelerări si frânări deosebit de mari (folosind din mers sistemul de propulsie rotit cu 180o), cu staţionarea în sustentaţie la punct fix, cu schimbări rapide si controlate ale traiectoriei în orice direcţie, cu deplasarea concomitentă inerţială în zig-zag,- devenind practic posibilă depasirea vitezei luminii dar cu respectarea legilor din fizică cunoscute până în prezent, cu trecerea „din mers” de la propulsia cu ardere la presiune constantă la deplasarea prin atmosferă, la funcţionarea în regim de motor rachetă în cazul deplasării în cosmos, sau în regim de statoreactoare în cazul deplasării la foarte mare altitudine prin atmosfera terestră. cu un nou mod de anulare a influentei gravitaţiei asupra fiecărui sector rotitor ca parte componentă a platformelor discoidale rotitoare datorită forţelor centrifuge si ca efect secundar si un alt efect antigravitational datorită apariţiei unei depresiuni uniform distribuite ce apare pe suprafaţa exterioară a carcasei superioare ca urmare a absortiei aerului de alimentare de către compresorul central centrifugal unic radial cu dublu efect si palete frontale în trepte, intercalate si cu mişcare în sensuri contrare.

      Principalul element de noutate al invenţiei, este caracterizat prin aceea că, întotdeauna platforma rotitoare discoidală superioară (12) solidară cu flanşa (17) si carcasa superioară (25) precum si platforma rotitoare discoidală inferioară (13) solidară cu flanşa (28) si carcasa exterioară inferioară (32), nu sunt o masă compactă indestructibilă ci sunt compuse prin asamblare - dar cu grad de libertate radial -, din perechi de sectoare de coroană circulară egale amplasate diametral opus (de preferinţă cate patru sau câte sase sau în funcţie de mărimea navei din mult mai multe perechi pentru fiecare platformă rotitoare) care fiecare pereche în mişcarea lor de rotaţie (în sensuri contrare) generează forte centrifuge ce tind să le îndepărteze (prin expandate) de centrul instantaneu relativ de rotaţie.

      Fiecare pereche de sectoare fiind amplasate simetric si diametral opus generează forte centrifuge egale ca mărime si diametral opuse ca direcţie având centrul de plecare situat pe axa de simetrie verticală (z-z) a întregului ansamblu funcţional si sunt legate funcţional printr-un circuit hidraulic de forţă si energie. Între carcasele exterioare si platformele rotitoare ce compun fiecare câte un sector de coroană circulară fiind amplasate constructiv, mărfuri, rezerve de hrană, combustibil si oxigen lichid amplasate simetric în cantitati egale în interiorul fiecărui sector discoidal prin segmente volumice de coroană circulară ce alcătuiesc împreună cele doua platforme circulare rotitoare (12) respectiv (13).

      Aceste forte centrifuge sunt însumate de la toate sectoarele cu grad de libertate radial ce alcătuiesc împreună cele două platforme rotitoare datorită amplificatoarelor hidraulice de forţă si energie (21), identice ca formă si uzinare cu piesa prezentată în bibliografie[2, pag. 279], legate prin circuite de conducte hidraulice - în serie- ce leagă între ele toate aceste sectoare de coroane circulare generând prin însumare pentru fiecare platformă rotitoare câte o forţă rezultantă unică amplasată chiar pe axa de simetrie a întregului ansamblu funcţional (z-z), orientată vertical si în sens contrar gravitaţiei conform reprezentării grafice echivalente a acţionarii principalelor forte din Fig. (2).

      Însumarea, amplificarea, autocentrarea si anularea progresivă si concomitentă a jocurilor se realizează pe măsura creşterii progresive a turaţiilor În sensuri contrare a celor două platforme rotitoare, procedeul tehnic fiind realizat în special si datorită efectului de plan înclinat (de pană) existent pe amplificatoare de fortă si energie (21) menţionate si similare cu cel descris si prezentat în [2, pag. 152 - 156], desen reprezentat la pag. 279 si reprezentate ca amplasament în schema cinematică a întregului ansamblu din Fig. nr.(3) respectiv piesele (21)

      Astfel că, cu cât masa acestor sectoare de coroană circulară alăturate si interpătrunse circular ce alcătuiesc platformele rotitoare este mai mare, cu cât raza centrului lor de greutate este mai mare si cu cât viteza de rotaţie unghiulară (w) respectiv turaţia (n) este mai mare, cu atât si forţele centrifuge rezultante vor fi mai mari, respectiv energia cinetică totală acumulată (Ec.tot) datorită rotaţiei, fiind însumată acumulată si conservată de platformele superioară (12) si inferioară (13) va fi mai mare. Această energie cinetică înmagazinată va fi direct proporţională cu aceşti parametrii respectiv direct proporţională cu cuplul motor (Cm) rotitor generat de curgerea gazelor din cele două camere de ardere universale (4) si (5) diametral opuse fixate la extremitatea platformei fixe staţionare(1) capabile sa funcţioneze în cele trei regimuri distincte precizate anterior.

      Forţele centrifuge diametral opuse [legate între ele prin conducte respectiv circuite hidraulice de forţă si energie] generate de sectoarele volumice de coroană circulară diametral opuse sunt acelea care dozate si controlate permanent printr-un sistem de comandă hidraulic integrat si cu presiunea generată de o pompă hidraulică auxiliară - controlată din habitaclu prin telecomanda a două servomotoare - , câte unul pe fiecare platformă rotitoare, activează,- amplifică si reduce si greutatea ansamblului discoidal central respectiv al platformei centrale (1) prin transferul acţiunii greutatii acesteia din direcţie verticală, - sub formă de energie cinetică în planul orizontal de rotaţie al celor două platforme rotitoare, conform schemei cinematice din Fig. nr.(1) si a reprezentării grafice prin schema echivalentă de acţiune a forţelor, din Fig. nr. (2).

      Un alt element de noutate a invenţiei este caracterizat prin aceia că, datorită diametrului foarte mare al compresorului centrifugal radial unic în trepte, prin alimentarea acestuia cu aer ce pătrunde în prima treaptă de comprimare prin orificiile (26) uniform distribuite pe carcasa superioară (25), se obţine si o depresiune specifică uniform distribuite pe carcasa superioară (25), depresiune ce are ca efect imediat o tendinţă de absortie în sus a întregului ansamblu funcţional deci obţinerea unui efect antigravitational secundar. Astfel presupunând ca diametrul exterior al carcasei superioare (25) ar fi de 12 metri respectiv 1200 cm iar diametrul interior de 2 metri respectiv 200 cm, iar depresiunea specifică ar fi de (-0,01) [kg.f/cm2) ar rezulta o suprafaţă activă a carcasei superioare (25) de circa 1.099.000 cm2 inmultită cu 0,01 rezultă o forta ascensională ce reduce greutatea totală la decolare cu circa 10.990(kg), ceea ce nu este deloc puţin mai ales că, la decolare toate solicitările parţilor componente sunt la valoare maximă.

      Un alt element de noutate a invenţiei mai este caracterizat prin aceia că, în regim de zbor în atmosferă, la viteze mari apare necesar dar si favorabil constructiv oportunitatea alimentarii camerelor de ardere reactive(4) respectiv (5) - în paralel, - si prin alimentarea naturală forţată directă în regim de statoreactoare prin pătrunderea respectiv admisia forţată a aerului ce este comprimat natural în fata carcaselor exterioare (35) respectiv (32). Astfel, aerul comprimat natural si captat pe suprafeţe de admisie relativ foarte mare (similare cu un ajutaj convergent aproximativ dreptunghiular dar si divergent datorită suprafeţelor cilindrice curbate) pătrunde înspre statoreactoare prin orificiile (27) uniform distribuite pe circumferinţă supraalimentând compresorul prin comandarea deschiderii sau închiderii controlate a diafragmei inelare (36). Aceasta soluţie tehnică de alimentare - combinată - asigură permanent cantitatea de aer necesară si suficientă pentru ardere ştiut fiind că, la altitudini mari densitatea aerului necesar arderii scade considerabil, însă datorită posibilitatii admisiei, comprimării naturale la viteze mari de deplasare si captării aerului de pe suprafeţe mari si profilate constructiv, se poate asigura admisia unor debite respectiv cantitati mari de aer necesar arderii, datorită fenomenului de comprimare naturală.

      Comparativ, de acest mare avantaj constructiv nu se poate bucura statoreactoarele sau mai ales turboreactoarele clasice folosite curent în aviaţie datorită suprafeţelor relativ reduse ale difuzoarelor de admisie care sunt restricţionate sever - constructiv – datorită secţiunilor de trecere reduse, respectiv a diametrelor reduse ale acestora.

      Tot ca un mare avantaj si favorizat constructiv pe aceasta linie si ca element de noutate a invenţiei este si faptul că datorită rotirii carcasei superioare (12) si inferioară (13) în sensuri contrare, si deplasării la viteze supersonice (mai mari de 1000 m/sec)., comprimarea naturală a aerului aflat în fata direcţiei de înaintare poate fi optimizată si mărită printr-o profilare radială la extremitati in zona orificiilor de admisie (27) - în relief-si adecvată a acestor doua carcase rotitoare, aerul comprimat natural din fata direcţiei de înaintare fiind astfel reţinut, dirijat si captat înspre centrul din planul orizontal al întregului ansamblu unde comprimarea naturală a aerului are valori maxime. Vitezele mari tangenţiale (Vt) necesare ale paletelor etajate în trepte ale compresorului centrifugal unic în trepte care sunt interpatrunse constructiv, sunt foarte uşor de realizat practic si la turaţii deosebit de reduse ale discurilor rotitoare (6) si inferioare (7) solitare fiecare cu platforma rotitoare (12) respectiv (13) conform relaţiei (Vt)=3,14.D.n/60)[metri/sec] unde (Vt) este viteza tangenţiala a platformelor rotitoare , (n) este turaţia unei platforme rotitoare în [rot/min], iar (D) este diametrul mediu de amplasare al paletelor, deci spre exemplu; daca turaţia (n)=200[rot/min] si (D)=15[metri] rezultă; (Vt)=3,14.15.200/60 = 157 [metri/sec] dar cum paletele celor doua discuri rotitoare (6) respectiv (7) au sensuri contrare de rotaţie deci cu dublu efect, rezultă; Vt=314(metri/sec). Această viteză obţinută la o turaţie de numai 200[rot/min] este suficientă pentru a realiza comparativ, rapoarte de comprimare favorabile, practic - după dorinţă, putând realiza uşor si scopul urmărit deoarece vitezele tangenţiale pot fi majorate uşor si - fara restricţii constructive - prin mărirea circumferinţei sau prin creşterea uşoara a turaţiilor platformelor rotitoare.

      Un alt element de noutate a invenţiei este caracterizat prin aceea că, prin acest procedeu de construire a întregului ansamblu funcţional, odată desprinsă de sol, farfuria zburătoare mai poate fi propulsată si prin <păşire> numită si deplasare inerţială în zig-zag, deplasare observată destul de des si la unele O.Z.N.-uri, această deplasare având drept rezultat o accelerare din ce în ce mai mare ajungându-se la viteze greu de imaginat deoarece prin acest principiu viteza luminii nu mai reprezintă o limită, viteza de deplasare a întregului ansamblu funcţional putând deveni astfel uniform crescătoare si independentă de vitezele de curgere limitate a gazelor de ardere prin efuzoarele celor doua propulsoare reactive cu funcţionare în regim de motor rachetă, acest procedeu de deplasare se poate realiza printr-o suprapunere concomitentă si simultană pe procedeul de deplasare si funcţionare descris anterior prin următoarele comenzi suplimentare succesive astfel:

      - se comuta centrul de rotaţie al platformei superioare rotitoare (12) - la extremitatea acesteia, aceasta realizându-se practic prin cuplarea temporară si de foarte scurtă durată a platformei superioare (12) cu platforma staţionară (1) în acelaşi punct de la extremitate aflat la distanta (d) prin saboţii (S1) respectiv (S2) pentru platforma inferioară (13) având ca rezultat imediat obţinerea unei forte ce trage tot ansamblul înainte. Această forţă este evidenţiată prin Teorema lui Steiner din Fizica ce se aplica la mişcarea unui corp aflat în mişcare de rotaţie astfel: cunoscând valoarea momentului de inerţie ce trece prin centrul sau de masă notat cu (I) vom avea; (I)=1/2.M(R.+r.), unde (M) este masa corpului ca inel cilindric, iar (R) si (r) sunt raza exterioară si raza interioară a platformei, se poate calcula momentul de inerţie I1=(I)+(M.d2) respectiv calculând similar energia cinetică; Ec1=1/2(I+M.d2). (w)2 unde (w) este viteza unghiulară, rezultă că la alt centru instantaneu de rotaţie aflat pe axa de rotaţie (z1-z1) paralelă, momentul de inerţie (I1) este cu mult mai mare fată de momentul de inerţie (I) conservat în momentul cinetic respectiv în energia cinetică (Ec) acumulată si conservată prin antrenarea în rotaţie a celor două platforme rotitoare , energia cinetică disponibilă având valoare foarte mare si putând fi eliberată aproape instantaneu si regăsită într-un lucru mecanic util (LM)=(Ftsupl.d,) dar cum D(Ec)=(LM) se poate stabili valoarea forţei de tracţiune suplimentare (Ftsupl) rezultante ca efect al cuplării saboţilor (S1) si analog pentru platforma inferioară prin cuplarea saboţilor (S2).

      Astfel, prin manevre repetate, comandate si controlate din habitaclu, întreg ansamblu funcţional se deplasează inerţial înainte <<pasind>> în zig-zag mărindu-si astfel progresiv si viteza de deplasare si cu marele avantaj că în cazul folosirii frânarii electromagnetice prin intermediul celor doi saboţi de cuplare (S1) respectiv (S2) se poate obţine o energie electrică (datorită căreia uneori pot lua naştere câmpuri electromagnetice de forţă ce pot perturba uneori reţelele electrice de la sol prin suprapunerea frecventelor,- datorită rezonantelor).

      Datorită faptului că energiile cinetice se acumulează si se conservă în cele două platforme rotitoare independent de viteza liniară atinsă pe traiectorie la un moment dat si se poate elibera sub forma de lucru mecanic respectiv forte de tracţiune, deplasarea prin mersul inerţial în zig-zag, poate conduce prin acest procedeu la o creştere continua a vitezei de deplasare a întregului ansamblu independent de valoarea vitezei de curgere a gazelor de ardere ce părăsesc camerele de ardere (4) respectiv (5), gaze de ardere a căror viteze de curgere sunt limitate, însă energia transmisă prin acestea si de acestea poate fi folosită permanent la antrenarea în mişcarea de rotaţie a celor doua platforme rotitoare (12) si (13). Astfel acest procedeu de deplasare inerţial în zig-zag prin cosmos permite atingerea unor viteze liniare progresive pe traiectorie din ce în ce mai mari, respectiv greu de imaginat deoarece viteza luminii nu mai reprezintă o limită maximă.

      Legat de acest procedeu de deplasare în zig-zag ce se suprapune concomitent peste procedeul de propulsie de bază determină astfel creşterea performantelor si manevrabilitatea întregului ansamblu, iar la deplasarea în câmpul gravitaţional terestru, mai apare un alt element de noutate caracterizat prin aceea că, deplasarea inerţială în zig-zag poate fi accelerată si mai mult si printr-un aport de energie cinetică cedată din energia potenţială a platformei centrale (1), energii ce comunică între ele prin intermediul amplificatoarelor de forţă si energie (21) comandate si legate între ele prin conducte hidraulice, dar bineanteles cu o pierdere rapidă în înaltime dar mai ales când se doreşte intenţionat si în anumite scopuri, - acest lucru (deplasare în zig-zag si în picaj foarte rapid), traiectoria si deplasarea prin aceste procedee suprapuse simultan fiind deosebit de greu de stabilit si de localizat ca posibile ţinte, când se doreşte de cineva acest lucru, datorită gradului foarte mare de manevrabilitate a întregului ansamblu aflat în zbor, cât si a traiectoriilor imprevizibile dar intenţionat stabilite prin comenzi digitale anticipate printr-un calculator.

      Un alt element de noutate al acestei invenţii este caracterizat prin aceea că, pentru deplasările în spaţiul extraterestru există volume suficiente în sectoarele rotitoare ce alcătuiesc cele două platforme rotitoare (12) respectiv (13) unde se poate depozita suficient combustibil solid sau lichid necesar funcţionării camerelor de ardere ca motor rachetă si cu avantajul că acestea pot fi folosite cu precădere la altitudini foarte mari si în cosmos, iar în atmosferă putând fi economisit orice alt amestec combustibil folosit pentru propulsia în cosmos când propulsia în atmosferă este asigurată de amestecul aer-combustibil (kerosen) cu ardere la presiune constantă (turboreactoare)

      Un alt element de noutate a invenţiei este caracterizat prin aceea că, sistemul de alimentare si dozare a combustibilului este particularizat si adaptat constructiv acestei invenţii existând două posibilitati. Prima posibilitate constă în injectarea combustibilului indirect prin intermediul unei camere de ardere secundară inelară comună alcătuită din două cavitati de volum mic, separate de grătarul (15), practicate în discurile (6) respectiv (7), [etanşare prin labirint] si comunică prin tuburi ceramice de legătură cu cele două camere de ardere principale fixe (4) respectiv (5) montate la extremitatea platformei fixe (1). În acest caz injectarea combustibilului stocat în sectoarele volumice rotative ce alcătuiesc platformele rotitoare (12) respectiv (13) se poate realiza prin intermediul unor injectoare si supape de dozare montate pe discurile rotitoare (6) respectiv (7) si acţionate prin telecomenzi din habitaclul (2).

      A doua posibilitate de alimentarea celor doua camere de ardere este mai simplu si constă în aducerea combustibilului prin conducte de legătură ce pornesc de la fiecare sector volumic de coroană circulară de unde este stocat combustibilul la o conductă centrală colectoare fixă pe platforma centrala (l), respectiv pentru colectarea din sectoarele de coroană circulară ce alcătuiesc prin montaj cu grad de libertate radial, platformele rotitoare ce se rotesc în sensuri contrare. Colectarea combustibilului devine posibilă deoarece conducta colectoare fixă, este amplasată pe axa de rotaţie (z-z) deasupra si dedesubtul habitaclului (2), legătura hidraulică fiind asigurată prin intermediul a două capete hidraulice similare constructiv cu capetele hidraulice ale pompelor de injecţie rotative folosite la motoarele Diesel, câte unul pt. fiecare platforma rotitoare. De menţionat ca în cazul deplasării în spaţiul cosmic alimentarea cu oxigenul necesar arderii si care poate fi stocat în unele din sectoarele volumice rotitoare se poate face similar ca si la alimentarea cu combustibil după închiderea comandată a admisiei aerului la camera de ardere care va trece din regimul de ardere la presiune constantă, -în regim de funcţionare de motor rachetă.

 

5. AVANTAJE

      Principalele avantaje ale invenţiei fată de soluţiile tehnice prezentate anterior ca stadiul tehnicii actuale în domeniul obiectelor de zbor sunt următoarele:

      - construcţie discoidală simetrică si robustă cu formă aerodinamică.

      - desprindere de sol cu mare usurintă chiar si în cazul unor dimensiuni si greutati foarte mari.

      - comparativ pentru o aceiaşi greutate totală la decolare (Gt), acest procedeu de propulsie, construire si funcţionare poate dispune constructiv prin noul sistem de propulsie de o forţă de tracţiune de cel puţin zece ori mai mare la aceiaşi greutate comparata fată de soluţiile clasice existente si folosite în prezent, obiectele de zbor clasice cunoscute fiind puternic surclasate ca performante si manevrabilitate deoarece invenţia permite vehicularea unor debite deosebit de mari de aer în unitatea de timp, respectiv direct proporţional, -forte de tracţiune deosebit de mari pe orizontală în condiţiile în care influenta gravitaţiei asupra obiectului de zbor,- tinde către zero.

      - posibilitatea creşterii progresive, continue si practic nelimitate a vitezei de deplasare si prin accelerări succesive continue datorită posibilitatii deplasării inerţiale în zig-zag devenind posibil parcurgerea unor distante enorme într-un timp relativ scut prin deplasări mai mari decât viteza luminii, asemenea obiecte comportandu-se ca niste reale masini ale timpului, masini ce pot fi construite cu respectarea legilor din fizica contemporana (depasirea vitezei luminii determinand conform legilor din fizica, ca timpul sa se scurga in sens invers).

      -posibilitatea rămânerii in sustentaţie la punct fix, indiferent de altitudine si schimbarea rapidă „din mers” a traiectoriei, - în orice direcţie.

      - posibilitatea aterizării si decolării la punct fix, fără piste special amenajate.

      -posibilitatea decolării si ieşirii cu foarte mare usurintă în spaţiul cosmic a unei farfurii zburătoare de foarte mari dimensiuni datorită propulsiei de mare putere respectiv a performantelor superioare si a propulsiei ce permite o trecere „din mers” respectiv de la amestecul aer-combustibil, la amestecul specific rachetelor, inclusiv energia atomicăputându-se astfel realiza adevărate oraşe zburătoare pt. călătorii interplanetare.

      -posibilitatea eliminării influentei gravitaţiei terestre prin sectorizarea radială a platformelor rotitoare superioară si inferioară datorită expandarii acestora datorată forţelor centrifuge diametral opuse si egale prin- grade de libertate radiale -precum si posibilitatea suplimentară a eliminării influentei gravitaţiei terestre prin apariţia unei depresiuni uniform distribuite la exteriorul suprafeţei platformei discoidale rotitoare superioare datorită absortiei aerului necesar arderii de către compresorul centrifugal radial în trepte cu dublu efect si de debit foarte mare.

      - posibilitatea creierii unei gravitaţii artificiale la farfuriile zburătoare de dimensiuni foarte mari prin amenajarea unor spatii de locuit la periferia exterioară chiar în sectoarele volumice din care sunt alcătuite ansamblurile rotitoare superior sau inferior în cazul deplasării în cosmos, gravitaţie obţinută constructiv artificial datorită forţei centrifuge , intensitatea acesteia putând fi controlată prin mărirea sau micşorarea vitezelor de rotaţie favorizând călătorii de foarte lungă durată prin cosmos.

      -invenţia, include propulsia cu 2 propulsoare reactive identice de tip nou originale de foarte mare putere cu posibilitatea constructivă de a funcţiona „din mers” după necesitaţi în trei regimuri distincte respectiv, ca motoare turboreactoare –în atmosferă, ca motoare statoreactoare – la înaltă altitudine, sau ca motoare rachetă la înaltă altitudine sau în cosmos.

      -un alt mare avantaj constă in faptul că, camerele de ardere unice ale acestor două propulsoare universale sunt amplasate în afara ansamblului coaxial compresor turbină si sunt alimentate cu aerul necesar arderii, comprimat de la un singur compresor centrifugal special, radial în trepte cu dublu efect, de diametru mediu foarte mare (de ordinul metrilor).

      -avantajul folosirii unui singur compresor centrifugal radial în trepte de presiune si cu dublu efect (palete interpatrunse frontal si în sensuri contrare) pentru alimentarea celor două camere de ardere- cu dublu efect- diametru foarte mare- si turaţie foarte redusă constă în faptul că acesta va fi capabil sa asigure debite de aer deosebit de mari pe unitatea de timp la rapoarte de comprimare net superioare si cu influente favorabile directe asupra forţelor de tracţiune (Ft) {Ex.; Ft=hg.Q/VH in care, (hg) este randamentul global, (Q) este cantitatea de căldură obţinută prin arderea amestecului de combustibil, iar VH este viteza de zbor la o anumită altitudine. Cantitatea de căldura (Q) este dependentă de valoarea debitului de aer Ga=S.V unde (S) este secţiunea de trecere iar (V) este viteza de curgere a aerului prin respectiva secţiune.}

      – obţinerea unor forte de tracţiune specifice foarte mari datorită lipsei unor restricţii constructive la secţiunile de trecere cum este cazul motoarelor turboreactoare clasice menţionate mai sus ce sunt limitate sever ca performante mai ales din acest punct de vedere, {Ex. (Fsp) (tracţiunea dezvoltată de un debit de aer de (1Kg/sec) definită prin raportul; Fsp=Ft/Ga [daN.s/kg] in care (Ft) este forta de tracţiune dezvoltată si (Ga) este debitul de aer ce trece prin motor, rezultă acelaşi lucru respectiv forta de tracţiune creste proporţional cu valoarea debitului de aer (Ga) ce trece prin motor in unitatea de timp, deci secţiunile de trecere de care este condiţionată obţinerea unor debite de aer respectiv forte de tracţiune foarte mari, nu mai sunt restricţionate constructiv comparativ cu motoarele turboreactor clasice.}

      - posibilitatea recuperării sub formă de lucru mecanic util a unei parţi însemnate din energia gazelor de ardere ce părăsesc paletele de turbină la sfârşitul fazei de destindere, gaze având presiunea mai mare decât presiunea atmosferică si o temperatură relativ ridicată respectiv o energie cinetică ce se pierde.{ Ex; prin procedeul ce face obiectul prezentei invenţii acest dezavantaj este parţial înlăturat constructiv conform principiului acţiunii si reacţiunii forţelor. Presiunea de ieşire (Pe)>(Patm) ce se manifesta ca o presiune specifica pe întreaga secţiune ca suprafaţa de ieşire a gazelor din camera de ardere generează o forţă de tracţiune suplimentara (Fsupl) cu influente directe asupra randamentului global (hg) respectiv si a consumului de combustibil conform relaţiei Fsupl=pe.S (kgf) asigurându-se concomitent atât tracţiune pe orizontală cat si rotirea în sensuri contrare a celor doua platforme rotitoare respectiv antrenarea compresorului de alimentare.}

      - paletele de turbină nu mai sunt atacate toate simultan de gazele de ardere fierbinţi ci numai tangenţial pe o singură parte astfel că, constructiv, timpii de răcire al paletelor de turbină la parcurgerea unei rotaţii complete devin foarte mari deoarece numărul de palete pe circumferinţă este de asemenea cu mult mai mare rezultând că fiecare paletă de turbină lucrează de această dată la regimuri medii de temperatură mult mai scăzute si cu posibilitatea constructivă a unei foarte bune disipare a căldurii, paletele de turbină putând astfel prelua solicitări mecanice cu mult mai mari, iar materialele din care sunt alcătuite precum si tehnologiile de fabricaţie fiind cu mult mai ieftine .

      - la funcţionarea celor două propulsoare a farfuriei zburătoare în regim de motor de rachetă, învingerea gravitaţiei si plasarea pe orbita terestră se poate face din mers si cu foarte mare usurintă fără folosirea unor rachete purtătoare suplimentare iar la reintrarea în atmosferă, propulsia poate fi folosită tot din mers pentru frânare sau oprire totală si staţionare în sustentaţie – fără a fi nevoie de o protecţie termică specială a carcaselor exterioare.

      - farfuriile zburătoare conform procedeului, se pot deplasa concomitent si în zig-zag si cu o creştere continuă si progresivă a vitezei de deplasare a întregului ansamblu funcţional, independent de viteza de curgere limitată dealtfel, a gazelor de ardere prin ajutajele reactive (efuzoare).

      - din punct de vedere economic, pe plan naţional, aplicarea în practică a invenţiei prin producerea în tară în serie a unor farfurii zburătoare inclusiv pentru ieşiri si călătorii în spaţiul cosmic, creează posibilitatea atragerii masive imediate de capital străin (de multe miliarde de dolari) prin firme mixte, activarea imediată a unor spatii de producţie dezafectate, activarea si folosirea imensei forte de muncă superior calificată si disponibilă din cercetare si proiectare, crearea unui mare număr de locuri de muncă, creşterea puterii economice a tării si ridicarea nivelului de trai, infiintarea si menţinerea unui monopol asupra unui nou sistem ultrarapid de transporturi internaţionale de persoane si mărfuri, creşterea prestigiului naţiunii romane pe plan mondial etc.

 

 

6. DESCRIEREA INVENTIEI

Se dă în continuare, un exemplu de realizare a invenţiei, în legătură si cu fig. 1 si 2 care reprezintă;

-      fig. 1, - schema cinematică - secţiune in plan vertical a unei farfurii zburătoare

-      fig. 2, - reprez. grafică echivalentă a principalelor forţe – conform invenţiei, în patru faze succesive.

precum si un exemplu privind modul de funcţionare la pornire si decolare.

post-4410-0-13279700-1412263250_thumb.gi

      O farfurie zburătoare conform procedeului de construire, funcţionare si deplasare a prezentei invenţii este compusă din trei parţi discoidale principale interdependente funcţional, respectiv ansamblul principal central ne rotitor, un ansamblu superior rotitor si un ansamblu inferior ce se roteşte în sens contrar ansamblului superior, având fiecare aceiaşi axă comună de simetrie verticală (z-z) respectiv câte un centru instantaneu de rotaţie relativ si cate un centru de greutate situat pe aceiaşi axă de simetrie verticală (z-z) aşa după cum este reprezentată în schema cinematică a întregului ansamblu din figura (1) si anume;

-      Ansamblul principal discoidal central din mijloc - sau domul central - compus dintr-o platformă centrală circulară (1) a carei viteză de rotaţie în jurul axei comune de simetrie verticală (z-z) este aproape întotdeauna zero sau aproape de zero. Pe această platformă si solitară cu aceasta aflându-se întotdeauna cabina de comandă [habitaclu] (2) si fiinţele vii, suportii de decolare -aterizare (3), la extremitati si diametral opus cate o cameră de ardere - reactiva ce pot funcţiona în regim de ardere la presiune constantă, de statoreactor sau motor rachetă, respectiv în partea stângă (4) si în partea dreaptă (5), cu excepţia mărfurilor, combustibilului si o parte a sistemului de propulsie folosit ce sunt amplasate pe celelalte două ansamble principale rotitoare de care sunt fixate discurile compacte rotitoare (6) si (7) unde sunt fixate radial si se interpatrund frontal si succesiv paletele (8) si (9)) ale unui compresor centrifugal unic radial în trepte cu dublu efect si cu aceiaşi axa de simetrie (z-z) a întregului ansamblu, paletele de turbina (10) si respectiv (11). Echipamentele auxiliare si rezervele de oxigen lichid pentru deplasare în cosmos etc. sunt amplasate pe celelalte două ansamble discoidale ca platforme rotitoare, respectiv superioară (12) si una inferioară (13).

      Cele două camere de ardere sunt fixate la extremitatile platformei circulare fixe (1) ce se continuă spre exterior prin intermediul grătarului profilat (15) si asigură fiecare (1/2) din forta de tracţiune în plan orizontal (Ft), gazele de ardere ale camerei (4) asigurând concomitent si antrenarea în mişcarea de rotaţie a platformei superioare (12) datorită lovirii paletelor de turbină amplasate la extremitati pe întreaga circumferinţă a discului platformei superioare (6) solitar cu platforma rotitoare superioară (12), deci (Vt=3,14.r.n./30)[metri/sec] unde (Vt) este viteza tangenţială - (r) este raza de amplasare a paletelor de turbină, iar - (n) este turaţia în (rot/min) a unei platforme rotitoare, iar gazele de ardere ce părăsesc camera de ardere la presiune constantă (5) asigurând si antrenarea discului platformei rotitoare inferioare (7) solitar cu platforma rotitoare inferioară (13). Compresorul central radial unic centrifugal în trepte cu un diametru mediu foarte mare, asigură rapoarte de comprimare si randamente net superioare, datorită ruperii (forfecării) aerului la circa 90 grade ce curge la viteze tangenţiale foarte mari cât si datorită paletelor interpătrunse intre două trepte de comprimare despărţite doar prin grătarul staţionar (15) cu orificiile (16) uniform distribuite si direcţionate radial sub un unghi optim în plan orizontal de circa 45 grade si profilate. Grătarul profilat circular staţionar (15) leagă constructiv înspre exterior, întreaga circumferinţa a platformei centrale fixe (1) si are aceiaşi axa de simetrie (z-z), comuna cu a întregului ansamblu.

-      Ansamblul superior discoidal, format din platforma rotitoare discoidală superioară (12),are acelaşi centru instantaneu de rotaţie relativ situat pe axa de simetrie verticală (z-z) a platformei centrale (1) si aproximativ acelaşi diametru exterior si cu posibilitatea rotirii in jurul axei de simetrie verticale (z-z) si comune celor trei platforme ce alcătuiesc întregul ansamblu. De asemenea, mai are în componentă flanşa superioară (17) ce este compusă din mai multe perechi de sectoare de coroană circulară cu posibilitatea rotirii pe rulmenţii (18) amplasaţi înspre interior si fixării pe platforma rotitoare superioară (12) compusă tot din perechi de sectoare de coroană circulară. În partea interioară a flanşei superioare (17) se află flanşa fixă (19) sudată la interior de carcasa cilindrică (2) a habitaclului. Pe flanşa fixa (19) se poate roti prin alunecare discul compact (20) pe care sunt fixate în direcţie radială si cu grad de libertate radial amplificatoarele hidraulice de forţă si energie (21) ce are în componentă pistonul (22) cu axa de simetrie verticală si pistonul (23) cu axa de simetrie în plan orizontal si acţionat prin sprijinirea pe rulmenţii (24) ce au axa de simetrie verticală si rulează pe diametrul interior al flanşei statice fixe (19). Tot solidar cu platforma rotitoare superioară (12) este fixată carcasa exterioară superioară (25) în care sunt prevăzute orificii de admisie uniform distribuite (26) si orificii de evacuare - admisie uniform distribuite (27). În staţionare când platforma rotitoare superioară nu se roteşte, jocurile (a) din Fig. (1) sunt egale cu zero iar jocurile ( b ) sunt de asemenea egale cu zero.

-      Ansamblul discoidal inferior format din platforma rotitoare discoidală inferioară (13), care este identică ca descriere cu platforma discoidală superioară (18) cu diferenţa ca flanşa (18) este preluat constructiv de rulmenţii (29) amplasaţi de data aceasta la interiorul platformei rotitoare inferioare (13). Flanşa (30) este identică si fixă ca si flanşa (19) iar discul compact (31) este identic cu discul compact (20). De platforma rotitoare inferioară (13) este fixată solidar carcasa inferioară (32) ce se sprijină pe rulmenţii (33) similari cu rulmenţii (18). În partea de jos a cilindrului central [habitaclul] (2) se află trapa de acces (34) iar în partea de sus, hublourile (35). Din motive de stabilitate în plan orizontal, platforma rotitoare inferioară (13) va avea întotdeauna o greutate totală (în staţionare) mai mare [centrul total de greutate al întregului ansamblu funcţional trebuind sa se afle pentru menţinerea stabilitatii, întotdeauna sub centrul de greutate al platformei centrale (1)], iar sensul de rotaţie va fi întotdeauna în sens contrar sensului de rotaţie a acesteia fiind permanent controlată si corelată cu viteza de rotaţie a platformei rotitoare discoidale (12) prin dozarea controlată a forţelor de tracţiune dezvoltate de cele două camere de ardere (motoare reactive) amplasate fiecare diametral opus la extremitatile platformei centrale staţionare (1) menţinută astfel permanent fără o mişcare de rotaţie dar cu posibilitatea schimbării direcţiei de deplasare rectilinie si în plan orizontal a întregului ansamblu prin dozarea corespunzătoare a combustibilului respectiv a forţelor de tracţiune diametral opuse si de acelaşi sens realizându-se posibilitatea frânarii întregului ansamblu prin rotirea controlată a platformei staţionare (1) [care nu se roteşte în raport cu celelalte platforme (12) respectiv (13)] la un unghi de (180) grade fată de direcţia de mers iniţială. Stabilitatea platformei fixe (1) împotriva rotaţiei necontrolate fiind asigurata constructiv, datorită dozării controlate a forţelor de tracţiune în plan orizontal si diametral opuse ce acţionează la extremităţile platformei (1) obţinute de la camerele de ardere (4) respectiv (5) deci la distante mari fată de axa de rotaţie (z-z), cuplurile de rotaţie rezultante, - anulându-se reciproc.

      Pentru calculul principalelor forte ce acţionează simultan si determină împreună obţinerea performantelor si a avantajelor conform invenţiei, pentru întregul ansamblu funcţional reprezentat prin schema cinematică din fig.(1) si descris prin exemplu de mai sus, prin reprezentarea grafică a schemei cinematice echivalente - a principalelor forte redată în fig. (2), in situatiile a, b, c si d, rezultând;

post-4410-0-55420400-1412263250_thumb.gi

      În fig. (2) litera (a), este prezentată situaţia echivalentă când întregul ansamblu staţionează,- fiind în stare de repaos la sol.

      Din compunerea vectorială a forţelor din plan vertical rezultă; (Grot) + (Gst)=(Gtot) respectiv, pe cale analitică rezultă; Gst = 2 f1.cos(b/2)

      În fig. (2) litera ( b ) este reprezentată situaţia intermediară după începerea rotirii unei platforme rotitoare până la atingerea turaţiei minime (n.min)>(0)

      Din compunerea vectorială a forţelor rezultă: (Rrot)=(Fc)+(Grot) sau analitic; tg (a) =(Fc/Grot)=(Vt)2 /r.g [deoarece, Fc=m.(Vt)2/r si (G)=(m.g)] une : (Vt) este viteza tangenţială a segmentelor de coroană circulară aflate în mişcare de rotaţie, (r) este raza medie de rotaţie a centrelor de greutate a segmentelor de coroană circulară, (Fc) este forta centrifugă, (Grot) este greutatea segmentelor rotitoare, dar cunoscând că atunci când unghiul(a)=0 si tg(a)=(0), deci; (Fc)=(Grot), iar (Vt)2=(r.g) dar cum contructiv, (Grot)>(Gst) rezultă că în prima faza la punerea în mişcare a celor doua platforme rotitoare si înainte de atingerea turaţiei minime, deci când (n<nmin), unghiul b=180o, deja greutatea platformei staţionare (Gst)=(0) deoarece cos(b/2) =(0), datorita preluării acţiunii acesteia de forţele centrifuge.

      Pentru calcularea turaţiei minime (nmin) când forţele centrifuge înving în totalitate acţiunea greutatii totale (Gtot) a întregului ansamblu, cunoaştem ca viteza tangenţiala (Vt) mai poate fi calculată in funcţie de turaţia (n) si cu ajutorul relaţiei; (Vt)=(r.w) unde (w), este viteza unghiulară, sau (Vt)=(p.n.r./30)[metri/sec] unde turaţia (n) este în [rot/min]. Egalând cele două relaţii a vitezelor tangenţiale atunci când; tg(a)=(0) si cos(b/2)=(0) deci când forţele centrifuge înving acţiunea tuturor greutatilor de pe verticală (z-z) si le aduc în plan orizontal, avem posibilitatea determinării turaţiei minime din relaţia matematică; (p.n.r/30)2=r.g .

      Din aceste relaţii se poate constanta foarte uşor că turaţia minimă necesară anulării efectului gravitaţiei nu depinde de greutatile ce compun ansamblul funcţional ce poate fi realizat prin procedeul de construire si funcţionare ce face obiectul prezentei invenţii.

      Altfel spus, într-un sistem aflat în rotaţie în plan orizontal, masa unui corp(m)=(G/acp), dar cum acceleraţia centripetă (acp) poate atinge valori foarte mari, rezultă că si masa (m) a sistemului aflat în echilibru prin forte centrifuge diametral opuse si egale, raportat la câmpul gravitaţional terestru, va capata valori din ce în ce mai mici odată cu creşterea turaţiilor, - tinzând către zero.

      Cum sistemul aflat în rotaţie dispune concomitent si de o propulsie proprie reactivă (Ft) în plan orizontal, nu este greu de calculat conform relaţiei (Ft)=(m).(a), unde (a) este acceleraţia liniară pe orizontală, ce valori poate căpăta acceleraţia (a) când cunoaştem că sistemul dispune de propulsia originală ce asigură concomitent si forte de tracţiune pe pe orizontală de valori foarte mari, iar masa (m) din sistem, - tinde către zero.

      Astfel, în baza acestor considerente, se poate spune că distantele [(S) = (V2/2.a)] interplanetare atunci când vitezele de deplasare (V) si acceleraţiile (a) pot atinge pe baza acestui procedeu de propulsie valori foarte mari, acestea încep sa ni se pară mult <mai pământene> ţinând cont si de faptul că tot concomitent, sistemul mai dispune si de o forţă suplimentară (Ftsupl). Datorită propulsiei suplimentare inerţiale în zig-zag, suprapuse, vitezele succesiv crescătoare obţinute sunt independente si ne condiţionate de vitezele limitate de curgere a agentului termic printr-un ajutaj reactiv, fapt ce pe mine personal nu mă mai miră de ce din când în când apar ştiri despre vizite extraterestre, deoarece respectând legile din fizica cunoscută, acest lucru devine posibil ca in viitorul destul de apropiat să fim si noi la rândul nostru luaţi drept extraterestri, - de către alte civilizaţii posibil existente în univers.

7. MODUL DE FUNCTIONARE LA PORNIRE SI DECOLARE

      Pornirea, respectiv aprinderea în cele două camere de ardere reactive la presiune constantă se realizează prin antrenarea în sensuri contrare a celor două platforme rotitoare (12) respectiv (13) de către o sursă motoare auxiliară ce poate fi mecanică sau electrică. După atingerea succesivă a turaţiilor minime (nmin) se măreşte progresiv sub control din habitaclu presiunea în cele două circuite hidraulice înseriate si integrate de pe platformele (12) si (13), care până atunci se sprijineau pe discurile compacte inelare (6), respectiv (7), fapt ce conduce la apariţia si creşterea tot progresivă si controlată a forţelor centrifuge generate de toate sectoarele de coroane circulare ce alcătuiesc cele două platforme rotitoare (12) si (13) si concomitent si la reducerea progresiva până la anulare a influentei gravitaţiei. Aceste fenomene, corelate si cu fenomenul scăderii presiunii specifice uniform distribuite de pe suprafaţa utilă a carcasei superioare (25) si corelat si cu cele două forte de tracţiune de acelaşi sens si diametral opuse generate de cele două camere de ardere reactive (4), respectiv (5), - determină împreună desprinderea de la sol de la punct fix.

      Manevrele în stânga si în dreapta direcţiei de deplasare se realizează aşa cum am mai menţionat, prin controlul puterii respectiv prin dozarea celor două forte de tracţiune, egale, diametral opuse si de acelaşi sens, generate de camerele de ardere reactive (4) respectiv (5), prin dozaj si sub control permanent din habitaclu, respectiv mărirea sau micşorarea a uneia dintre ele având drept consecinţă schimbarea direcţiei de zbor spre stânga sau spre dreapta.

      Manevrele pe verticală în sus si în jos fată de direcţia de zbor, se realizează de asemenea foarte uşor fie prin poziţionarea corespunzătoare a centrului de greutate a platformei fixe (1), fie prin rotirea axei orizontale (x-x) la un unghi până la (90) de grade, axa ce trece prin centrul de greutate al celor două camere de ardere (4) respectiv (5), manevra ce se poate realiza cu ajutorul unor deflectoare ce schimbă după dorinţă direcţia de curgere a gazelor de ardere ce parasesc cu mare viteză ajutajele (efuzoarele) celor două camere de ardere (4) respectiv (5), după care, actionandu-se identic ca la manevrarea stânga-dreapta se realizează urcarea sau coborârea rapidă a întregului ansamblu prin acest procedeu, procedeu ce poate fi suprapus concomitent cu procedeul de deplasare inerţială în zig-zag descris anterior care ambele suprapuse si îmbinate armonios conduc la obţinerea unor performante excepţionale foarte greu de egalat, - dar nu imposibil.

      In timpul zborului pe traiectorie, apare o tendinţă de rotire ne controlată a axei orizontale (x-x) din plan orizontal datorită unui cuplu generat de camerele de ardere reactive (4) respectiv (5) [ce determină concomitent si rotirea platformelor rotitoare (12) respectiv (13)] direcţia gazelor de ardere fiind orientate prin deflectoare sub un unghi mic, variabil în jos către paletele (11) de turbină, respectiv ale camerei de ardere (5) si în sus către paletele de turbină (10). Această tendinţă însă este contracarată atât prin poziţionarea corespunzătoare a celor două deflectoare aflate la ieşire a gazelor din cele două camere de ardere, cat si datorită efectului giroscopic mare datorat rotirii celor două platforme rotitoare (12) respectiv (13), a inerţiei si stabilitatii datorată deplasării rectilinii si a stabilirii corespunzătoare a centrului de greutate a platformei centrale fixe (1 ) încă de la proiectare precum si a multiplelor posibilitati si obtiuni de manevrare rapidă,- printr-un calculator de bord.

      Calculul parametrilor de zbor în cazul deplasării inerţiale în zig-zag, are la bază folosirea energiilor cinetice (Ec) acumulate în rotaţia celor două ansamble discoidale rotitoare, eliberarea acestor energii conservate si transformarea lor într-un lucru mecanic util, respectiv într-o forţă suplimentară de tracţiune în plan orizontal, fiind posibilă prin deplasarea instantaneu forţată si succesiv a centrelor instantanee de rotaţie aflate pe axa (z-z) pe o alta axa de rotaţie paralelă (z1-z1) ce trece succesiv prin punctele de cuplare a saboţilor (S1) respectiv (S2) ce pot fi actionati alternativ pe măsura acumulării progresive de energie cinetică (Ec) care creste proporţional cu creşterea turaţiilor celor două platforme rotitoare , astfel prin cuplarea succesivă si momentană a saboţilor, ia naştere un mare dezechilibru de mase aflate in rotaţie (peste turaţia nmin) având drept rezultat practic o aruncare tangenţială succesivă a întregului ansamblu înspre înainte, deoarece turaţiile succesive ale unei platforme rotitoare tinzând brusc către zero si energia cinetică conservată în aceste platforme rotitoare tinde sa fie eliberată tot brusc (instantaneu) prin transformarea tot instantaneu sub forma de lucru mecanic util (Lu)=(Ftsupl).(d), respectiv într-o forţă de tracţiune suplimentară (Ftsupl) pe o distantă (d) reprezentând distanta parcursă într-un singur zig-zag, (conform principiului, conservării, - nimic nu se pierde, - nimic nu se câştigă, - ci totul se transformă) valoarea energiei cinetice eliberate si transformată într-un lucru mecanic util, fiind proporţională cu <căderea> de turaţie în intervalul de timp necesar parcurgerii distantei (d), această forţă de tracţiune suplimentară ce conduce la creşterea suplimentară succesivă a vitezei medii de deplasare a întregului ansamblu într-un plan perpendicular pe axa de rotaţie (z-z) poate fi calculată prin aplicarea teoremei lui Steiner din Fizica pe axele (z1-z1) respectiv în centrul sabotului (S1) pentru ansamblul rotitor superior, si centrul sabotului (S2) pentru ansamblul rotitor inferior conform relaţiei: I1=(I)+(M.d2unde (I) reprezintă momentul cinetic al ansamblului discoidal rotitor superior fată de centrul sau de rotaţie relativ, situat pe axa de simetrie comună (z-z), (I1) reprezintă momentul cinetic al ansamblului rotitor superior, fată de un centru de rotaţie relativ situat pe axa verticală (z1-z1) aflată la distanta (d) fată de axa de simetrie verticală (z-z) iar din tabele cunoaştem că spre exemplu pentru un inel cilindric I=1/2M.(R2+r2) unde (R) este raza exterioară iar (r) este raza interioară a inelului cilindric, iar (M) este masa unui ansamblu rotitor.

      Similar se poate calcula valorile pentru cazul cuplării sabotului simetric (S2) si tot similar, cunoscând toate aceste valori se poate folosi Teorema lui Steiner si pentru calculul energiilor cinetice cu ajutorul relaţiei; Ec=1/2.I1.(w)2 -deci pentru axa de rotaţie (z1-z1) va rezulta; Ec1=1/2(I+M.d2).(w)2 unde (w) este viteza unghiulară.

      Aplicând succesiv această teoremă si cunoscând o anumită viteză iniţială medie de deplasare a întregului ansamblu, traiectoria rezultantă fiind axa de simetrie a <paşilor> (zig-zag-urilor) si admiţând forte simetrice si egale valoric aplicate asupra saboţilor (S1) si succesiv (S2), se poate determina câştigul de viteză în unitatea de timp pentru spaţiul egal cu pasul unui zig-zag, respectiv pot fi calculaţi la proiectare parametrii de bază în vederea dimensionării corespunzătoare deoarece; D(Ec)=(LM)=[(Ftsupl).(d)] dar, bineânteles ţinând cont de fiecare dată si de inerţia si influenta platformei staţionare (1).

Bucureşti, 15 febr 2000

AUTOR, ing. Nica Grigore

      Obs.

      Atât descrierea cât si cele câteva elemente de noutate prezentate au un caracter foarte general. Atât forma exterioară cât si particularitatile specifice în detaliu pentru realizarea în practică, au un caracter confidenţial si vor fi puse numai la dispoziţia unor potenţiali investitori, în baza unor înţelegeri contractuale specifice din toate punctele de vedere, contracte ce vor putea fi încheiate cu firma s.c. DIESEL SERVICE s.r.l., care a fost mandatată să mă reprezinte si a cărei Administrator sunt.

 

PROCEDEUL DE CONSTRUIRE, FUNCTIONARE SI DEPLASARE A UNUI MIJLOC DE TRANSPORT - UNIVERSAL - DE FORMA SFERICA - CU GEOMETRIE VARIABILA (PROTECTIE OSIM a2000/00184 din 21 Febr.. 2000 SI INTERNATIONALA –PCT/RO 01/00005 din 20 Febr. 2001) 1. INTRODUCERE

      Inventia, se referā la un procedeu de construire, functionare si deplasare a unui mijloc de transport universal, capabil sā se deplaseze în teren accidentat, pe ape sau sub ape, în atmosferā sau în cosmos, fiind o Inventie de Perfectionare a Inventiei din Cererea de Brevet de Inventie nr. A00166 din 15 febr. 2000, prezentata anterior, înregistrata la OSIM Bucureşti, sub nr, Aoo184 din 21 febr. 2000, având domeniul de aplicare atât pentru transportul ultrarapid de persoane si mārfuri, cât si pentru explorarea unor corpuri ceresti, ca sonde spatiale capsulate si cu posibilitatea fabricarii in serie a acestora.

2. DEZAVANTAJELE INVENTIEI DE BAZA

      Astfel, Inventia privind Procedeul de construire, functionare si deplasare în atmosferā si în cosmos a farfuriilor zburatoare are dezavantajul ca domeniul de aplicare este limitat numai la transportul ultrarapid de persoane si mārfuri prin atmosfera terestrā si în cosmos, dezavantaje inlaturate de prezenta inventie datoritā faptului ca mediile prin care se poate efectua deplasarea, respectiv domeniile de utilizare devin mult mai extinse.

3. PUTINA ISTORIE

      Totodatā, pentru înţelegerea si compararea acestei Inventii cu ceeace sa realizat anterior, ne vom referi si la un stadiu foarte anterior al tehnicii conform unor înscrisuri foarte vechi si bine conservate la care s-a reuşit traducerea existând menţiuni privind aparate de zbor caracterizate printre altele- ca sunt indestructibile.

      Aceastā menţiune apare si în Bibliografie (1) la pag. 182 (copie xerox anexatā) unde printre alte caracteristici remarcabile ale unor asemenea obiecte de zbor este consemnatā si una – de excepţie si aparent incredibilā si anume; - secretul construirii aparatelor de zbor care nu pot fi rupte, nu pot fi frânte, nu pot lua foc, nu pot fi distruse.

      Deşi cele menţionate par cel puţin ridicole lāsând sa se înţeleagā mai degrabā o traducere greşitā a textelor vechi, totuşi conform acestei Invenţii putem afirma anticipat cā textele vechi au fost traduse cu foarte mare exactitate si ca întradevar performantele – de excepţie – conform traducerii din textele vechi pot fi atinse în mod practic si in zilele noastre aproape în totalitate prin aceasta invenţie de perfecţionare.

      Mai mult, conform Bibliografie (1) pag. 256 (anexatā în copie xerox) se poate constata ca chiar în zilele noaste, obiecte cu caracteristici similare si de dimensiuni foarte reduse au fost <pipāite> si de oameni contemporani nouā care probabil mai sunt încā în viatā, ştirea publicata având urmātorul conţinut;

      Misterioasa sferā de otel descoperitā zilele trecute… continuā sā intrige pe specialiştii care o examineazā. Ea cântareste 10kg, are un diametru de 20cm si se comportā de o manierā neobişnuitā : când este mişcatā de la locul ei, se deplaseazā pânā la un anumit punct, revine la locul de plecare, apoi porneşte în alta direcţie, revine din nou în punctul iniţial si aşa mai departe de aproximativ douāsprezece ori. Experţii laboratorului de cercetāri marine „omega minus one” din Baton Rouge – S.U.A. care au examinat timp de sase ore obiectul, au constatat cā emite unde radio si este înconjurat de un câmp magnetic. Dupā ce au radiografiat sfera, cercetātorii americani au declarat cā nu sunt in māsurā sa determine originea misteriosului obiect...

      In Florida, au fost gāsite acum doua bile de otel inoxidabil, a cāror apariţie nu a putut fi explicatā de cinci profesori renumiţi. Cu douā saptamani mai înainte, o doamnā din insula Fort George a gāsit în gradina din fata casei un astfel de obiect strālucitor. Era greu de 10kg, ceva mai mare decât o minge de fotbal si gol la interior, dar femeia a alarmat marina : „Bila se rostogoleşte încolo si încoace mişcatā de o putere misterioasā”. Un bārbat din Jacksonville a gāsit acum o bila similara care se plimba. Marina a sosit, a cercetat bila si a conchis: bilele sunt simple bile... ...

      Prin gāsirea misterioaselor bile de otel din Florida, s-a fācut cunoscut faptul ca înainte cu sase ani, la Bratislava în fosta R.S.Cehoslovacia, - au cāzut din cer trei bile asemānātoare. Experţii de la Institutul de Metalurgie din Bratislava au cercetat bilele si au stabilit precis: în lume nu existā cunoscut vreun otel cu o astfel de duritate , „metalul nu poate fi zgâriat nici cu diamant.

      Aceste descrieri din zilele noastre dupā cum se poate constata, unele sunt identice cu descrierile din textele vechi conform traducerii de cātre preoţii stiintelor.

4. ELEMENTE DE NOUTATE

      Problemele tehnice pe care o rezolvā Invenţia de Perfecţionare sunt caracterizate prin aceea ca se înlāturā dezavantajele Invenţiei de bazā, se māresc performantele si se lārgeste si domeniul de aplicare putându-se realiza obiecte de zbor de formā sfericā si cu geometrie variabilā, de tip nou, capabile sā se deplaseze în mai multe medii si la diferite regimuri de lucru.

      Principalul element de noutate este caracterizat prin aceea cā, se pot realiza mijloace transport universale pentru transport ultrarapid de persoane si mārfuri - de formā sfericā, capabile sā se deplaseze atât pe sol, prin rostogolire în terenuri foarte accidentate cat si pe apā sau sub apā, în atmosferā, în cosmos sau ca sonde spaţiale capsulate în vederea explorārii unor corpuri cereşti din sistemul solar, invelisul sferic având în interior o farfurie zburātoare cu un sistem de propulsie identic cu cel al Invenţiei de bazā sau cu un sistem de propulsie electric, original de tip nou, farfuria zburātoare din interiorul carcasei sferice sprijinindu-se în douā puncte exterioare pe o axa (x-x) prin intermediul a douā lagāre de invelisul carcasei sferice ce trece prin centrul acesteia, carcasa putând fi capsulatā în cazul propulsiei electrice sau ne capsulatā (grātar sferic în cazul in care are loc un schimb de gaze cu mediul exterior), deplasarea prin rostogolire pe sol realizându-se atât datoritā propulsiei farfuriei zburātoare din interior cat si datorita faptului ca centrul de greutate (Cg) al farfuriei zburātoare din interiorul carcasei sferice este situat sub axa de rostogolire (x-x), inveisul sferic (carcasa) putând fi si elasticā (grilaj din sarma de otel) pentru amortizarea şocurilor datorate denivelārilor din teren sau impactului cu obstacole dure sau cu modificarea formei exterioare prin comprimarea polilor pe axa (z-z) [pentru o formā mai aerodinamicā].

5. AVANTAJE

      Principalele avantaje ale acestei Invenţii de Perfecţionare sunt urmātoarele;

      - deplasare cu usurintā prin rostogolire pe orice formā de teren accidentat cu posibilitatea urcārii sau coborârii lente a unei suprafeţe verticale si accidentate

      - posibilitatea anulārii influentei atracţiei gravitaţionale asupra întregului obiect sferic

      - posibilitatea folosirii sistemului de propulsie descris în Invenţia de bazā, cu folosirea unui invelis exterior sferic rigid sau elastic din grilaj metalic elastic pt. preluarea unor şocuri din teren accidentat, sau folosirea în funcţie de scopuri a unei carcase sferice capsulate etanşe în cazul propulsiei electrice (în imersiune sau în cosmos)

      - posibilitatea deplasārii pe apā, sub apā, în atmosferā sau în cosmos.

      - posibilitatea schimbārii formei invelisului exterior pentru obţinerea unor forme aerodinamice mai bune, camuflaj sau confuzie intenţionatā

      - posibilitatea folosirii ca sonde spaţiale de mici dimensiuni teleghidate sau programate pentru explorarea cu usurintā a altor corpuri cereşti la preturi de cost mici si cu maximā eficientā

      - posibilitatea construirii unor mijloace de transport terestre, capabile sā surclaseze mijloacele de transport clasice prin simplitate, siguranţā în deplasare, încarcaturi utile mari,construcţie fara roti sau senilefārā necesitatea unor drumuri amenajate, fārā a deteriora solul pe unde se deplaseazā (la nevoie pe soluri mlastinoase se poate desprinde cu usurintā de sol)

      - deschide noi perspective cercetārii romaneşti în aplicarea tehnologiilor foarte avansate, activarea unor spatii de producţie disponibile dezafectate sau aflate în conservare si încadrarea in munca a personalului calificat si disponibilizat.

 

6. DESCRIREA INVENTIEI

      Se da în continuare un exemplu de realizare a Invenţiei în legătură si cu Fig.( 1), care reprezintă schema cinematică si constructivă, -precum si un exemplu privind modul de deplasare în teren accidentat, un exemplu privind modul de funcţionare la suprafaţa apei sau a altui lichid si un exemplu privind modul de funcţionare în atmosferă sau în cosmos, după cum urmează:

post-4410-0-06211900-1412263251_thumb.gi

      Un mijloc de transport universal conform acestei Invenţii de Perfecţionare, este alcătuit din patru parţi principale interdependente constructiv si funcţional astfel;

      Invelisul exterior sferic (1), construit fie din metal, în cazul unui mijloc de transport universal folosit în special ca sonde spaţiale, fie din plasă (grilaj) metalică când este folosit pentru deplasări prin sprijinire pe diferite forme de relief. Pe o axa de simetrie (x-x) din plan orizontal, se sudează pe interiorul carcasei sferice (1), diametral opus carcasele (2) în dreapta respectiv (3) în stânga a unor lagăre elastice (4) respectiv (5) având prevăzute între ele si carcasele respective resoartele (6),(7) si (8), pentru atenuarea eventualelor şocuri .

      Pe lagărele(4) respectiv(5), se sprijină cate două braţe de susţinere (9) în stânga, respectiv(10) în partea dreaptă, ambele braţe sustinand de fapt restul de trei ansamble funcţionale.

      Ansamblul central fix – de mijloc, este alcătuit din carcasa habitaclului (11) de care sunt sudate diametral opus braţul de susţinere (9) din stânga, care la extremitate în partea de jos are prevăzut bobinajul pe miez de fier(14) [solenoid cu miez dublu] respectiv pe braţul de susţinere din dreapta (10) având prevăzut bobinajul cu miez de fier(15) [tot un solenoid de aceiaşi dimensiune – cu miez dublu]

      In habitaclu în partea de jos sunt fixate surse de energie electrică, cablajele de legătură de forţă, cablajele de comandă, calculatoarele de bord si spaţiul util pentru transport de mărfuri si persoane.

      Ansamblul discoidal rotitor superior, alcătuit din segmente de coroană circulară interpatrunse dar cu grad de libertate radial ce constituiesc împreună platforma superioară (12) similară constructiv cu platforma superioară (12) a Invenţiei de bază, cu diferenţa ca paletele compresorului centrifugal unic, cele două camere de ardere diametral opuse precum si paletele de turbină pot fi substituite prin acţionarea si rotirea platformelor rotitoare cu ajutorul energiei electrice, eliminându-se în acest caz un schimb de gaze cu mediul ambiant, antrenarea în mişcarea de rotaţie realizându-se prin intermediul motoarelor electrice de curent continuu liniare-radiale[solenoizii cu miez dublu(14) respectiv(15)], fixate la extremitatile celor două braţe de susţinere(9) respectiv(10), iar bobinajele rotoarelor mobile, practicate în sectoarele de coroană circulară rotitoare, motoare care conform principiului acţiunii si reacţiunii forţelor vor genera fiecare atât o rotire a ansamblului superior si inferior în sensuri contrare cat si realizarea datorită reacţiunii a celor doua forte de tracţiune diametral opuse paralele si egale generate de propulsie, tinzând sa tragă braţele fixe(9) respectiv(10) înspre înainte si totodată sa menţină

      întreg ansamblu fix împreună cu habitaclu si carcasa sferică (1) în echilibru (nu se roteşte).

      In sectoarele discoidale volumice, în funcţie de sistemul de propulsie folosit, pot fi depozitate fie rezerve de oxigen si combustibil, în cazul acesta carcasa sferică exterioară (1), putând fi confecţionată dintr- un grilaj sferic ce poate fi elastic pentru atenuarea şocurilor sau metalica compactă, sau metalică elastică pentru a putea lua la comandă o formă turtită mai aerodinamică prin dispozitive de tragere înspre interior pe axa (z-z)} când în sectoarele rotitoare volumice pot fi depozitate surse suplimentare de energie pentru propulsia electrică (pile electrice nucleare), legăturile cu habitaclu putând fi realizate prin intermediul unor perii colectoare(16), platforma rotitoare superioară sprijinindu-se pe carcasa habitaclului(11) prin intermediul lagărelor(17) si (18).

      Ansamblul discoidal rotitor inferior, este alcătuit din platforma discoidală rotitoare (13) similară constructiv cu platforma superioară (12) dar cu sens de rotaţie contrar acesteia, segmentele volumice de coroană circulară interpatrunse, având de asemenea grad de libertate radial pentru a genera în rotaţie forte centrifuge diametral opuse si egale, activate sau dezactivate la comandă prin intermediul amplificatoarelor hidraulice de forţă si energie in vederea reducerii influentei gravitaţiei, conform descrierii din Invenţia de bază, platforma rotitoare inferioară (13) sprijinindu-se pe carcasa habitaclului(11), prin intermediul lagărelor(19) si (20).

      La alimentarea simultană cu energie electrică de curent continuu a celor doua bobinaje fixate la extremitatile celor doua braţe fixe diametral opuse si sudate de carcasa habitaclului(11), se va produce atât rotirea în sensuri contrare a ansamblelor rotitoare superior si inferior cu generarea comandată a unor forte centrifuge de către sectoarele volumice de coroană circulară din care sunt alcătuite prin interpatrundere, cat si apariţia a două forte de tracţiune pe orizontală datorită reacţiunii forţelor ce determină carcasa sferei exterioare(1) să se rostogolească înspre înainte, stabilitatea platformelor în plan orizontal fiind asigurată atât gratie efectului giroscopic generat de rotaţiile platformelor rotitoare cât si de faptul că centrul de greutate(Cg) a întregului ansamblu funcţional va fi situat sub axa de simetrie orizontală (x-x).

      Totodată prin creşterea progresivă a turaţiilor în sensuri contrare a tuturor segmentelor volumice de coroană circulară va determina eliminarea tot progresiv si controlat, anularea influentei atracţiei gravitaţionale asupra întregului ansamblu funcţional ce se poate la nevoie desprinde cu usurintă de sol si zbura, sau poate determina datorită celor două forte de tracţiune diametral opuse si de acelaşi sens, rostogolirea carcasei sferice(1) prin aceste forte ce apasă pe lagărele elastice(4) respectiv(5).

      In funcţie de comenzile telecomandate pentru valorile tensiunilor si a amperajelor celor două propulsoare electrice, care în cazul schimbării polaritatilor prin intermediul unor relee inversoare se poate realiza la deplasarea în atmosfera sau în cosmos, simultan si deplasarea întregului ansamblu funcţional in zig-zag, deoarece motoarele electrice datorită bobinajelor pe miez de fier dublu, miezul din mijloc putându-se deplasa pe verticală, având posibilitatea contactului cu segmentele volumice de coroana circulara , (placate cu materiale de fricţiune) se pot comporta pe rând ca frâne electrice si mecanice, schimbând instantaneu axa instantanee de rotaţie a ansamblelor discoidale rotitoare de pe axa (z-z), pe o altă axa de rotaţie paralelă instantanee(z1-z1) ce trece prin centrele bobinajelor stânga respectiv dreapta, aruncând astfel tangenţial si succesiv întreg ansamblu funcţional înspre înainte, comportament similar si echivalent ca în cazul cuplării succesive a saboţilor de cuplare (S1) si (S2) conform descrierii din Invenţia de bază, mărindu-se astfel toate performantele acestui mijloc de transport universal de forma sferica si cu geometrie variabilă

7. MODURI DE FUNCTIONARE (exemple)

      Exemplu privind modul de deplasare în teren accidentat, - inclusiv de pe alte corpuri cereşti.

      Procedeul, conform Invenţiei de Perfecţionare, permite deplasarea prin rostogolire si pe un teren foarte accidentat datorită următoarelor motive:

      Cele două forte de tracţiune, diametral opuse, paralele, egale si de acelaşi sens, [obţinute atât în cazul funcţionării în sistem deschis prin carcasa sferica exterioară (1) ce poate fi confecţionată din grilaje metalice (otel arc) ce permit comunicarea cu mediul ambiant respectiv permite realizarea unui schimb de gaze cu exteriorul ca ciclu termodinamic prin camere de ardere deschise(ardere la presiune constanta) sau închise, ca motor rachetă, conform procedeului din Invenţia de bază cat si din două carcase semisferice ce pot alcătui împreună printr-o asamblare demontabilă pe filet sau şuruburi, sau nedemontabilă prin sudură, în cazul unor sonde teleghidate sau programate construite din otel inox , a carcasei sferice exterioare(1)] vor determina rostogolirea carcasei sferice(1), respectiv o deplasare pe sol a întregului ansamblu pe o traiectorie perpendiculară pe axa orizontală de simetrie (x-x) ce trece prin centrul lagărelor elastice(4) respectiv(5) ce au si rolul de a atenua eventualele şocuri prin intermediul resoartelor ce acţionează simetric fiind montate pretensionat in vederea menţinerii lagărelor pe axa de simetrie (x-x).

      Deplasarea înspre stânga sau dreapta fata de traiectorie se poate realiza prin dozajul controlat al celor două forte de tracţiune diametral opuse, egale si de acelaşi sens, generate de sistemul de propulsie sau în funcţie de necesitaţi prin controlul dozajului unei singure forte ştiut fiind ca orice diferenţa valorica ca mărime dintre ele, va determina o schimbare a traiectoriei iar o întoarcere din mers la 180 de grade va determina o frânare a rostogolirii carcasei sferice exterioare(1) comportament similar cu al bilelor sferice descoperite in zilele noastre in Florida.

      La apariţia unui obstacol major ce poate împiedica rostogolirea pe traiectoria iniţială, mijlocul de transport de formă sferică poate continua rostogolirea fie prin manevre de evitare stânga – dreapta fie prin creşterea puterii din sistemul de propulsie care va determina concomitent atât o apăsare asupra obstacolului din faţa sa, cu efectul creşterii aderentei respectiv a forţei de frecare spre exemplu cu o suprafaţa verticală aflată în fata sa, cât si datorită creşterii turaţiilor celor două platforme rotitoare respectiv a creşterii forţelor centrifuge generate de sectoarele volumice ce alcătuiesc prin interpatrundere platformele discoidale volumice rotitoare(12) respectiv(13), o reducere progresivă a influentei gravitaţiei terestre determinând rostogolirea cu usurintă si urcarea pe fata verticală a obstacolului respectiv pană la depăşirea acestuia, coborârea din vârful obstacolului putând fi realizată prin rotirea comandată a carcasei sferice(1) la 180 de grade, propulsia actionand ca o frână ce va determina o rostogolire lenta si controlată a carcasei sferice exterioare(1) pe orice suprafaţă indiferent de mărimea pantei de coborâre a suprafeţei de relief respective.

      Exemplu privind modul de deplasare la suprafaţa apei sau a altui lichid.

      Deplasarea la suprafaţa apei sau a altui lichid, se poate realiza prin doua posibilităţi, si anume;

      Prima posibilitate când se urmăreşte proiectarea specială, deplasarea prin acest mediu se poate realiza prin confecţionarea carcasei sferice exteroare (1) din două semisfere montate fată in fată, respectiv o semisferă superioară confecţionată dintr-un grilaj semisferic si o semisferă inferioară confecţionată etanş din tablă de otel .

      Deplasarea pe orizontală putând fi astfel realizată prin blocarea comandată simultan a lagărelor(4) respectiv(5) si activarea sistemelor de propulsie , astfel cele două forte de propulsie paralele egale si de acelaşi sens, vor determina o deplasare in mediul lichid pe orizontală, concomitent cu o reducere controlată a influentei gravitaţiei asupra întregului ansamblu, determinând ca urmare a reducerii greutatii, o ridicare pe verticală a carcasei sferice exterioară (1), respectiv o micşorare controlată a petei de contact cu mediul lichid, respectiv si o reducere considerabilă a frecării deci si o reducere a consumului de combustibil, practic carcasa sferică exterioar (1) putând pluti la nevoie pe crestele de valuri.

      A doua posibilitate de deplasare într-un mediu lichid se poate realiza prin rostogolirea carcasei sferice(1) pe suprafaţa unui lichid, procedeul fiind similar cu deplasarea pe un teren accidentat dar cu sudarea unor palete (zbaturi) pe exteriorul suprafeţei carcasei sferice exterioare(1) ce determină rostogolirea într-un mediu lichid, legătura cu mediul ambiant putând fi realizată prin nişte orificii de intrare ieşire practicate în carcasa exterioară (1) în jurul carcaselor lagărelor elastice(2) respectiv(3) si a unor ferestre din material transparent.

      Exemplu privind modul de deplasare în atmosfera sau in cosmos.

      Procedeul este similar cu procedeul de deplasare din Invenţia de bază, cu următoarele particularitati;

-      carcasa sferică exterioară poate fi construită etanş (capsulată) sau din grilaj metalic în cazul utilizării sistemelor de propulsie conform Invenţiei de bază

-      în cazul folosirii unei surse de energie electrica de curent continuu pentru propulsie, se poate folosi simultan si sistemul de deplasare inerţiala în zig – zag prin inversarea succesivă si temporară pe rând a polaritatii la alimentarea unui bobinaj (solenoid) care prin intermediul miezului sau mobil ce este împins electromagnetic înspre exterior, acesta putând functioa si ca sabot de frâna deoarece poate fi placat cu materiale de fricţiune realizantu-se astfel o cuplare momentană a platformei discoidale rotitoare cu extremitatea barelor de susţinere fixe, deci o schimbare momentană comandată a centrului instantaneu de rotaţie relativ, de pe axa de simetrie (z-z) pe o axa de simetrie tot verticală si paralelă (z1-z1) aruncând astfel tangenţial înspre înainte întregul ansamblu funcţional, astfel prin manevre succesive se obţine si o deplasare inerţiala în zig - zag, cu o creştere progresivă si nelimitată a vitezei de deplasare ce poate depasi si viteza luminii, iar in cazul unor mijloace de transport universal de mici dimensiuni, acestea pot demara de pe loc prin acest procedeu de propulsie simultană, cu foarte mare viteză, viteza fiind uniform si nelimitat crescătoare crescând toate performantele de zbor, putând fi parcurse distantele deosebit de mari dintre două corpuri cereşti într-un interval de timp relativ scurt

-      pentru reducerea frecării la deplasarea prin atmosferă, braţele de susţinere(9) respectiv(10), pot fi telescopice, iar carcasa metalică exterioară (1) poate fi elastică, putând fi modificată ca formă exterioară prin tragerea înspre interior pe axa de simetrie (z-z) prin dispozitive mecanice sau electrice realizându-se astfel o formă mult mai aerodinamică

-      frânarea se realizează tot prin rotirea din mers a întregului ansamblu la 180 de grade în jurul axei de simetrie verticale (z-z) prin dezechilibrarea mărimii celor două forte de tracţiune generate de sistemul de propulsie, acesta astfel putând funcţiona din mers ca sistem de frânare pe traiectoria respectivă

-      la deplasarea în cosmos, procedeul este identic cu deplasarea în atmosferă, cu particularitatea că în cazul în care carcasa sferică exterioară (1) este din grilaj metalic (deschisă) propulsia poate fi identică cu cea de la Invenţia de bază respectiv în sectoarele de coroana circulară ce alcătuesc cele două platforme (12) respectiv(13) poate fi stocat combustibil si oxigenul necesar arderii, iar in cazul propulsiei prin energie electrică, carcasa sferică exterioară (1) poate fi capsulată etanş iar în sectoarele de coroane circulară ce alcătuesc prin interpatrundere cele două platforme discoidale rotitoare pot fi instalate surse nucleare de producere a energiei electrice necesară propulsiei în circuit închis, energie ce poate fi transferată prin habitaclul fix si ne rotitor, – prin intermediul periilor colectoare(16).

 

 

Teorema lui Steiner

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 

Teorema lui Steiner sau teorema Huygens-Steiner sau teorema axelor paralele este utilizată în mecanică și permite calculul momentului de inerție al unui solid rigid fața de o axă, cunoscând momentul de inerție față de oaxă paralelă cu prima și care trece prin centrul de masă al corpului.

200px-Parallelaxes.png
 
Solidul rigid A având CG ca centru de masă, prin care trece axax care este paralelă cu z
Formulare[modificare | modificare sursă]

Se consideră un solid rigid A, care se rotește in jurul unei axe z paralelă cu axa x care trece prin centrul de masă CG al acestuia. Momentul de inerție față de axa z este dat de:

134433f4bce47236caf8104488b62770.png

unde:

2626c827597c47b819b5d905537cf6a4.png este momentul de inerție al obiectului față de centrul de masă; d6ab8f047463e20a55dc3c7a3c040b7c.png este masa obiectului; e2b99dbe5e5b659c32821bd4f044228e.png distanța dintre cele două axe paralele.

 

 

Despre nava spatiotemporala superluminica la care lucreaza NASA: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati  YzpJM8TJ2hk, jRn4WpoNAyo, 4zPOxm6r__A, vKTgNCGhq9Y.

Despre pregatirea apararii pamantului de una din cele 5 rase cunoscute (cu omuletii gri din Zeta Reticuli de la 39 ani lumina suntem aliati si ne-au oferit tehnologie inca din 8 iulie 1947 - incidentul de la Roswell - New Mexico, unde unul din cei 10 ocupanti ai celor doua farfurii zburatoare prabusite (cel care a supravietuit), a oferit informatii timp de 5 ani - de fapt s-a incheiat si o alianta cu rasa lor - The Greada Treaty - 1954, presedintele USA Einsenhauer, hotararea membrilor Majestic 12 (MJ 12): Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati  S8WJ7qfI-Rw.

 

Majestic 12 (alte denumiri Majic 12Majestic TrustM12MJ 12MJ XIIMajority 12 sau Mars-Jupiter 12) este numele de cod al unui presupuse comisii secrete, formată din oameni de știință, lideri militari și oficiali guvernamentali. Acest proiect se presupune că a fost creat în 1947 printr-un ordin executiv al președintelui american Harry Truman. Scopul acestei comisii ar fi fost acela de a investiga activitatea OZN în urma incidentului de la Roswell-presupusul accident al unei nave extraterestre lângă Roswell, New Mexico, în iulie 1947.

 

Cuprins

  [ascunde

·                    1 Istoric

·                    2 Cei 12 membri

·                    3 Note

·                    4 Vezi și

·                    5 Legături externe

·                    6 Referințe

 

Majestic-12 a luat ființă în 1947, documentul de constituire fiind semnat de Harry Truman, al 34-lea președinte al S.U.A. Scopul declarat era acela de investigare a existenței obiectelor zburătoare neidentificate (OZN) și a activității acestora, ca urmare a prăbușirii unui astfel de aparat nonterestru la Roswell, în iulie 1947. Informarea mai confirma capturarea cadavrelor unor mici ființe umanoide. Se făcea aluzie și la o a doua prăbușire, a unui obiect similar.

Documentul de constituire afirma că la 24 septembrie 1947 președintele Truman a autorizat secretarul de stat pentru apărare James Forrestal să înființeze un grup de lucru ultrasecret, numit Majestic-12, pentru monitorizarea de la cel mai înalt nivel a fenomenului OZN. Grupul urma să răspundă doar în fața președintelui. Majestic-12 era alcătuit din 12 personalități de prim rang din acea perioadă.

Primele documente revelatoare asupra Majestic 12 apar în anul 1980 când ufologii Stanton T. FriedmanBill More și cineastul Jaime Shandera proiectau realizarea unui film despre OZN-uri. Filmul nu a mai fost făcut, dar la 11 decembrie 1984 Shandera a primit prin poștă de la un expeditor necunoscut din Albuquerque, New Mexico, o rolă de film de 35 mm alb/negru, nedevelopat. După developare, s-a văzut că filmul conținea fotocopiile unui document de opt pagini clasificat „Top Secret/Majic”. Documentul era făcut în 18 noiembrie 1952 de contraamiralul Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (fost director al CIA) și era destinat generalului Dwight D. Eisenhower, noul președinte ales al SUA.

În martie 1985 Jaime Shandera și Bill Moore intră în posesia unui alt document, trimis la 14 iulie 1954 generalului Twining, de Robert Cutler, asistent special al președintelui Eisenhower și făcând referire la „MJ-12 Proiect de studii speciale”. Ulterior vor apărea numeroase alte scrieri și documente în care grupul Majestic-12 poartă denumirile de Majic-12, MJ-12, Majority-12, Majesty-12 etc.

Copii ale documentelor au fost trimise și altor ufologi cunoscuți, între care lui Jenny RandlesWhitley Strieber șTimothy Good. Acesta, renumit investigator OZN britanic, a introdus documentele în cartea Above Top Secret (1988) pe care o avea sub tipar.

Cei 12 membri[modificare | modificare sursă]

·        Dr.Vannever Bush: considerat conducătorul grupului, fost director al Joint Research and Development Board după al doilea război mondial; anterior a deținut funcții de conducere în cadrul National Research Council și Office of Scientific Research and Development (unde s-au condus cercetările în cadrul Proiectului Manhattan, la Alamogorodo, New Mexico)

·        Roccoe Hillenkoetter (vice amiral): primul director al CIA; după trecerea sa în rezervă, a devenit membru NICAP (National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena)

·        Dr.Detlev Wulf Bronk: om de știință, fost președinte al National Research Council, consilier al Comisiei pentru Energie Atomică; a fost șeful echipei de autopsie a extratereștrilor care au fost găsiți lângă OZN

·        James Forrestall: secretar al U.S.Navy, secretar al Ministerului Apărării

·        Gordon Gray: secretar asistent al U.S. Navy; asistent special al președintelui Truman pentru probleme de securitate națională; director de securitate naționala al Comisiei pentru Strategii Psihologice a CIA

·        Dr. Jerome Hunsaker: șef al departamentului de inginerie mecanică și aeronautică

·        Dr.Donald Menzel: specialist în astronomie

·        Gen.Robert Mantague: comandant al Bazei Aeriene Sandia din Albuquerque, New-Mexico

·        Sidney Souers: fost director al CIA și secretar executiv al National Security Council (NSA)

·        Gen.Nathan Twining: comandant al Air Matterial Command cu sediul la Baza Aeriană Wright-Patterson

·        Loyd Brenke: secretar executiv la Joint Research and Development Board

·        Hoyt Vanderberg: fost director al CIA; în anul 1948 deținea funcția de șef al Marelui Stat Major al United States Airforce (USAF).[1]

În prezent toți acești 12 membri sunt decedați.

Majestic 12 este o parte importantă a teoriei conspirației OZN despre guvernele care mușamalizează informații despre OZN-uri. Biroul Federal de Investigații a ajuns la concluzia că documentele asociate comisiei Majestic 12 sunt complet false.[2] În 1996, după cercetarea și de fapt verificarea documentelor Majestic 12, Stanton T. Friedman a spus că nu există niciun motiv de fond pentru a respinge autenticitatea lor.[3]

1.                             ^ http://wwwdeiro-cei.blogspot.com/2010/10/operatiunea-majestic-12.html

2.                             ^ "The FBI reading room B". An FBI archive containing details of "Majestic 12". Adus la 12 februarie 2010.

3.                             ^ Friedman, S.T. (1996). Top Secret/MAJIC: Operation Majestic-12 and the United States Government's UFO Cover-Up. New York: Marlowe & Company. ISBN 978-1-56924-342-8

·                    Incidentul OZN de la Roswell

·                    Incidentul OZN de la Aztec, New Mexico

·                    Viață extraterestră

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]

·                    Majestic 12 - documente scanate pdf

·                    http://www.majestic12.co.uk/

·                    http://www.thewhyfiles.net/majestic12.htm

·                    http://vault.fbi.gov/Majestic 12/Majestic 12 Part 1 of 1/view

·                    http://www.ufocasebook.com/documents.html Membrii Majestic 12

·                    http://www.ufos-aliens.co.uk/cosmicmaj.html

·                    http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread60567/pg1 Majestic 12 and The Secret Government

·                    http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/majestic12.htm

·                    http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_sociopol_mj12.htm Majestic 12 la Bibliotecapleyades

·                    Listă cu mai multe documentare despre Majestic-12 la YouTube

·                    http://filmedocumentare.com/alien-autopsy-autopsia-unui-extraterestru/

·                    Autopsia unui extraterestru Fișier YouTube

·                    Misteriosul grup Majestic-12

·                    http://wwwdeiro-cei.blogspot.com/2010/10/operatiunea-majestic-12.html

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Teoria conspirației șNoua Ordine Mondială

 

 

Categorii

·                                 Proiecte secrete

·                                 OZN

·                                 Controverse

·                                 Societăţi secrete

 

Despre farfuriile zburatoare naziste: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati ibrZvNm8T8g.

Despre VW cu dispozitivul Thule Gyro Tahionator - Schumann Levitator (giroscop electrogravitational), care leviteaza (zboara) : Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati aDWh73dzmOg.

Despre fizica discurilor zburatoare cu levitatie magnetica, fizician japonez Michio Kaku: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati F-ZCn-E39MA.

Despre planetele cu viata: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati  5HZsFMqqGJo.

Despre galaxia noastra Calea Lactee (se vede pe cer ca o dara alba, ca si cum ar fi laptele tasnit din sanul zeitei Hera, sotia lui Zeus, mama lui Herakle: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati  bV10JQcTVEA.

Despre baze pe Luna si colonii pe Marte si atmosfera respirabila de pe Marte: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati  OKAyH6_96oQ.

Despre noi ca fiinte vibrationale: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati  VjpCKZ7cEoY.

      Despre civilizatiile capabile de calatorii interstelare si despre inventatorii pamanteni de generatoare de energie libera electromagnetica (aromanul Nicolae Teslea = Nikola Tesla, s.a.m.d.): Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati qTb2T0G2kpc.

      Despre un britanic care a avut contact de mic cu extraterestrii si despre metempsomatoza: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Igs5LahKkIQ.

      Despre tunul electromagnetic capabil sa traga cu 10 Mach (12240 km/h, de zece ori viteza sunetului), inventat in 1944 de nazisti: Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati wa_vuX5_oAk.

 

Railgun

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

For railroad artillery, see Railway gun. For other uses, see Rail-gun (disambiguation).

See also: Coilgun

 

Naval Surface Warfare Center test firing in January 2008[1]

railgun is an electrically powered electromagnetic projectile launcher based on similar principles to the homopolar motor. A railgun comprises a pair of parallel conducting rails, along which a sliding armature is accelerated by the electromagnetic effects of a current that flows down one rail, into the armature and then back along the other rail.[2]

Railguns have long existed as experimental technology but the mass, size and cost of the required power supplies have prevented railguns from becoming practical military weapons. However, in recent years, significant efforts have been made towards their development as feasible military technology. For example, in the late 2000s, the U.S. Navytested a railgun that accelerates a 3.2 kg (7 pound) projectile to hypersonic velocities of approximately 2.4 kilometres per second (8,600 km/h), about Mach 7.[3] They gave the project the Latin motto "Velocitas Eradico", Latin for "I, [who am] speed, eradicate".

In addition to military applications, railguns have been proposed as non-rocket spacelaunch technology for spacecraft;[4] however, unless the launching track was particularly long, and the acceleration required spread over a much longer time, such launches would necessarily be restricted to unmanned spacecraft.

Contents

  [hide

·                                 1 Basics

·                                 2 History

·                                 3 Design

o                                        3.1 Theory

o                                        3.2 Mathematical formula

o                                        3.3 Considerations

o                                        3.4 Materials used

o                                        3.5 Heat dissipation

·                                 4 Applications

o                                        4.1 Launch or launch assist of spacecraft

o                                        4.2 Weaponry

§                                                 4.2.1 Tests

§                                                 4.2.2 U.S. Military tests

§                                                 4.2.3 U.S. Navy Tests

o                                        4.3 Trigger for inertial confinement fusion

·                                 5 See also

·                                 6 References

·                                 7 External links

Basics[edit]

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Schematic diagram of a railgun

The armature may be an integral part of the projectile, but it may also be configured to accelerate a separate, electrically isolated or non-conducting projectile. Solid, metallic sliding conductors are often the preferred form of railgun armature but "plasma" or "hybrid" armatures can also be used. A plasma armature is formed by an arc of ionised gas that is used to push a solid, non-conducting payload in a similar manner to the propellant gas pressure in a conventional gun. A hybrid armature uses a pair of "plasma" contacts to interface a metallic armature to the gun rails. Solid armatures may also "transition" into hybrid armatures, typically after a particular velocity threshold is exceeded.

In its simplest (and most commonly used) form, the railgun differs from a traditional homopolar motor in that no use is made of additional field coils (or permanent magnets). This configuration is thus a self-excited linear homopolar motor formed by a single loop of current. A relatively common variant of this configuration is the augmented railgun in which the driving current is channelled through additional pairs of parallel conductors, arranged to increase ("augment") the magnetic field experienced by the moving armature.[5] In electric motor terminology, augmented railguns are usually series-wound configurations.

A railgun requires a pulsed, direct current power supply. For potential military applications, railguns are usually of interest because they can achieve much greater muzzle velocities than guns powered by conventional chemical propellants. Increased muzzle velocities can convey the benefits of increased firing ranges while, in terms of target effects, increased terminal velocities can allow the use of kinetic energy rounds as replacements for explosive shells. Therefore, typical military railgun designs aim for muzzle velocities in the range of 2000–3500 m/s with muzzle energies of 5–50 MJ. For comparison, 50MJ is equivalent to the kinetic energy of a school bus weighing 5 metric tons, travelling at 509 km/h (316 mph).[6] For single loop railguns, these mission requirements require launch currents of a few million amperes, so a typical railgun power supply might be designed to deliver a launch current of 5 MA for a few milliseconds. As the magnetic field strengths required for such launches will typically be approximately 10 T, most contemporary railgun designs are effectively "air-cored", i.e. they do not use ferromagnetic materials such as iron to enhance the magnetic flux.

It may be noted that railgun velocities generally fall within the range of those achievable by two-stage light-gas guns; however, the latter are generally only considered to be suitable for laboratory use while railguns are judged to offer some potential prospects for development as military weapons. In some hypervelocity research projects, projectiles are "pre-injected" into railguns, to avoid the need for a standing start, and both two-stage light-gas guns and conventional powder guns have been used for this role. In principle, if railgun power supply technology can be developed to provide compact, reliable and lightweight units, then the total system volume and mass needed to accommodate such a power supply and its primary fuel can become less than the required total volume and mass for a mission equivalent quantity of conventional propellants and explosive ammunition. Such a development would then convey a further military advantage in that the elimination of explosives from any military weapons platform will decrease its vulnerability to enemy fire.

History[edit]

 

German railgun diagrams

In 1918, French inventor Louis Octave Fauchon-Villeplee invented an electric cannon which is an early form of railgun. He filed for a US patent on 1 April 1919, which was issued in July 1922 as patent no. 1,421,435 "Electric Apparatus for Propelling Projectiles".[7] In his device, two parallel busbars are connected by the wings of a projectile, and the whole apparatus surrounded by a magnetic field. By passing current through busbars and projectile, a force is induced which propels the projectile along the bus-bars and into flight.[8]

In 1944, during World War II, Joachim Hänsler of Germany's Ordnance Office built the first working railgun, and an electric anti-aircraft gun was proposed. By late 1944 enough theory had been worked out to allow the Luftwaffe's Flak Command to issue a specification, which demanded a muzzle velocity of 2,000 m/s (6,600 ft/s) and a projectile containing 0.5 kg (1.1 lb) of explosive. The guns were to be mounted in batteries of six firing twelve rounds per minute, and it was to fit existing 12.8 cm FlaK 40 mounts. It was never built. When details were discovered after the war it aroused much interest and a more detailed study was done, culminating with a 1947 report which concluded that it was theoretically feasible, but that each gun would need enough power to illuminate half of Chicago.[8]

During 1950, Sir Mark Oliphant, an Australian physicist and first director of the Research School of Physical Sciences at the new Australian National University, initiated the design and construction of the world's largest (500 megajoulehomopolar generator.[9] This machine was operational from 1962 and was later used to power a large-scale railgun that was used as a scientific experiment.[10]

Design[edit]
Theory[edit]

A railgun consists of two parallel metal rails (hence the name) connected to an electrical power supply. When a conductive projectile is inserted between the rails (at the end connected to the power supply), it completes the circuit. Electrons flow from the negative terminal of the power supply up the negative rail, across the projectile, and down the positive rail, back to the power supply.[11]

This current makes the railgun behave as an electromagnet, creating a magnetic field inside the loop formed by the length of the rails up to the position of the armature. In accordance with the right-hand rule, the magnetic field circulates around each conductor. Since the current is in the opposite direction along each rail, the net magnetic field between the rails (B) is directed at right angles to the plane formed by the central axes of the rails and the armature. In combination with the current (I) in the armature, this produces a Lorentz force which accelerates the projectile along the rails, away from the power supply. There are also Lorentz forces acting on the rails and attempting to push them apart, but since the rails are mounted firmly, they cannot move.

By definition, if a current of one ampere flows in a pair of infinitely long parallel conductors that are separated by a distance of one metre, then the magnitude of the force on each metre of those conductors will be exactly 0.2 micro-newtons. Furthermore, in general, the force will be proportional to the square of the magnitude of the current and inversely proportional to the distance between the conductors. It also follows that, for railguns with projectile masses of a few kg and barrel lengths of a few m, very large currents will be required to accelerate projectiles to velocities of the order of 1000 m/s.

A very large power supply, providing on the order of one million amperes of current, will create a tremendous force on the projectile, accelerating it to a speed of many kilometres per second (km/s). 20 km/s has been achieved with small projectiles explosively injected into the railgun. Although these speeds are possible, the heat generated from the propulsion of the object is enough to erode the rails rapidly. Under high-use conditions, current railguns would require frequent replacement of the rails, or to use a heat-resistant material that would be conductive enough to produce the same effect.

Mathematical formula[edit]

The magnitude of the force vector can be determined from a form of the Biot–Savart law and a result of the Lorentz force. It can be derived mathematically in terms of the permeability constant (), the radius of the rails