vladisto

articole Tehnica Germana Uitata - Linkuri

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Am scris despre discul zburator RFZ (Rund Flug Zeug = Avion Rotund) BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke = Fabrica de Motoare din Bayer) Flugelrad (Aripa Rotativa) III, clopotul zburator electrohidrodinamic Repulsin 2, Vril 9 si Haunebu IV (120 metri diametru), cat si nava cilindrica Andromeda (139 metri lungime), purtatoare de doua giroscoape electrogravitationale Vril 1, doua Vril 2 si un Haunebu II (9-11 metri inaltime si 25 metri diametru), aerodina lenticulara a lui Henri Marie Coanda si multe alte sisteme de propulsie ale farfuriilor zburatoare.

 

“Iubirea mea eterna

                                                                     

             poezie scrisa de Vladimir Stoica in 1987 la Bacau, U. M. 01184,  artilerie terestra, dupa admiterea la facultate, in timpul stagiului militar obligatoriu de 9 luni de dinainte de a incepe facultatea de ingineria instalatiilor

 

                            “Privesc al Universului nemarginit ocean,

                             Prin care, de fildes roiuri de galaxii spirale,

                             Rotindu-se-n abisul sideral, de-obsidian,

                             Refac de-a lungul timpului etern, aceeasi cale.

 

                            Privesc adanc angelicii tai ochi, de chihlimbar,

                            Prin care, ale Iubirii coloane infinite,

                            Rotindu-se-n sufletele noastre, turbionar,

                            Refac de-a lungul timpului etern, viata si moarte.”

 

"Având în vedere milioanele de miliarde de planete asemănătoare Pământului, viața în altă parte în Univers, fără îndoială, există. În vastitatea Universului nu suntem singuri." Albert Einstein (1880 - 1955)

 

 

"Oricine se implică serios în căutarea de știință este convins că există un spirit care se manifestă în legile universului, o constiinta net superioară celei a omului." Albert Einstein

 

"Un nou mod de gandire. Este esential pentru supravietuire si trecerea la o noua faza a evolutiei." Albert Einstein

 

Toată materia are originea și există doar în virtutea unei forțe. Trebuie să acceptam ca în spatele acestei forțe se manifesta existența unei minți conştiente și inteligente. Această minte este matricea intregii materii." Max Planck - Tatăl fizii cuantice (1858 - 1947)

"Tot adevarul trece prin trei etape. In primul rand , este ridiculizat, in al doilea rand este violent opus, si in al treilea rand, este acceptat ca de la sine inteles." Arthur Shopenhauer (1788 - 1860)

 

"Cea mai frumoasă şi mai profundă trăire omenească este misterul."  Albert Einstein

"Adevăratul semn de inteligență nu este cunoașterea, ci imaginația." Albert Einstein

 

„Mi-e teama de ziua in care tehnologia va depasi interactiunea umana. Lumea va avea o generatie de idioti” Albert Einstein

 

"Paris Hilton: celebritate talent. Are o avere de 100 milioane dolari. Nikola Tesla: Unul dintre cei mai importanti inventatori din istorie. A murit sărac și în datorii. Pentru că capitalismul asigură că numai si numai cei mai buni și mai strălucitori devin bogati și de succes. "

"În măsura în care legile matematicii se refera la realitate, ele nu sunt sigure, și în măsura în care acestea sunt sigure, ele nu se referă la realitate." Albert Einstein (1880 - 1955)

 

 

"Nu incerca sa devii o persoana de succes, ci mai degraba incearca sa devii o persoana de valoare." Albert Einstein

 

"Daca albinele ar disparea de pe pamant, oamenii ar mai avea 4 ani de trait." Albert Einstein

 

"Al patrulea razboi mondial se va desfasura cu bate." Albert Einstein

 

„Ai un creier. Foloseste-l. E gratis!” Dr. Gregory House (interpretat de actorul britanic Hugh Laurie)

 

"Când un geniu adevărat apare în lume, îl poţi cunoaşte după acest semn, că toate întâmplarile sunt în confederație împotriva lui." Jonathan Swift

 

 

"Era de amânare, de jumătăți de măsură, de expediente liniștitoare și derutante de întârziere se apropie de sfârșit. În locul ei, intrăm într-o perioadă de consecințe." Winston Churchill

 

"Nimic nu este imposibil, cu excepția faptului că starea minţii tale face acest lucru." Profesorul John R. R. Searl

 

„Numai cu inima poți vedea bine, lucrurile esențiale rămân ascunse ochilor“ (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Micul prinț1943)

“Pentru a fi fericit ajunge să te gândești că undeva, printre milioane de stele, există ființa iubită“ (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Micul prinț1943)

“Ceea ce conferă un sens existenței sunt relațiile dintre oameni, care implică și responsabilitatea fiecăruia pentru soarta celorlalți.” (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Micul prinț1943)

„Un individ trebuie să se sacrifice pentru salvarea unei colectivități. Nu este vorba aici de o aritmetică stupidă. E vorba de respectarea omului ca individ.“ (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: „Pilot de război“, 1942)

„O persoană știe când atinge perfecțiunea în design, nu când nu mai are ceva de adăugat, ci când nimic nu mai poate fi scos“ Antoine de Saint-Exupéry  (1900 - 1944)

 

"Noi nu moștenim Pământul de la părinții noștri, îl împrumutăm de la copiii noștri." Antoine-Marie Roger, viconte de Saint-Exupéry (n. 29 iunie 1900Lyon - d. 31 iulie 1944, deasupra Mării Mediterane)

 

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, în cursul unei excursii cu vaporul, pe un lac, în apropiere de Montréal (Canada), mai în 1942
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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
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Antoine-Marie Roger, viconte de Saint-Exupéry (n. 29 iunie 1900Lyon - d. 31 iulie 1944, deasupra Mării Mediterane) a fost romanciereseist și reporterfrancez, aviator căzut pe frontul antifascist. S-a făcut cunoscut unui cerc larg de cititori în special datorită povestirii „Le Petit Prince“ („Micul Prinț“, 1943), una din cele mai răspândite cărți din lume, tradusă în circa 110 limbi.

 

 

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Antoine de Saint-Exupéry s-a născut la 29 iunie 1900 în Lyon. În 1910 intră în colegiul din Mansși își continuă studiile la Fribourg (Elveția) . În 1921 intră în aviația franceză și, în 1926, devine pilot de linie al unei companii particulare. La începutul celui de al doilea război mondial se înrolează în aviația militară franceză și, după armistițiul din 1940, părăsește Franța și se stabilește la New York. În toamna anului 1942, odată cu debarcarea trupelor aliate în Africa de nord, Saint-Exupéry părăsește America și își reia activitatea de pilot de război.

După o perioadă de instructaj în Statele Unite ale Americii, participă, începând din 1943, la mai multe misiuni în AfricaSardinia și Corsica. În timpul unui zbor de recunoaștere deasupra Mării Mediterane la 31 iulie 1944, avionul său este doborît și Antoine de Saint-Exupéry este considerat de atunci dispărut. În 1998 s-a găsit în Marea Mediterană o brățară cu gravura numelui său și bucăți din avionul Lightning P38, cu care decolase din Corsica. În octombrie 2003, din largul mării în fața Marsiliei au fost scoase la suprafață fragmente ale avionului, care au putut să fie identificate fără îndoială ca aparținând avionului cu care zburase Saint-Exupéry.

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Primele sale romane, „Courier Sud“ („Curierul de Sud“, 1929) și „Vol de nuit“ („Zbor de noapte“, distins în 1931 cu Premiul Femina), tematizează experiența sa de aviator și se remarcă prin descrierea unor situații periculoase (risc de prăbușire, singurătatea la mare înălțime etc.). Operele ulterioare, „Terre des Hommes“ („Pământul oamenilor“, premiat în1939 de Academia Franceză cu Marele Premiu al Romanului) și „Pilote de guerre“ („Pilot de război“, 1942) redau filosofia de viață împregnată de umanism a lui Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.

Povestirea modernă „Le Petit Prince“ („Micul prinț“, 1943), având deviza: „Numai cu inima poți vedea bine, lucrurile esențiale rămân ascunse ochilor“, s-a bucurat în epoca de după război de o mare popularitate. Micul locuitor al unei planete minuscule pornește într-o lungă călătorie prin lume ca să caute adevăratul sens al vieții. În cursul peregrinărilor sale ajunge să-și dea seama că pentru a fi fericit „ajunge să te gândești că undeva, printre milioane de stele, există ființa iubită“ iar ceea ce conferă un sens existenței sunt relațiile dintre oameni, care implică și responsabilitatea fiecăruia pentru soarta celorlalți.

Notițele sale făcute cu ocazia misiunilor de luptă în timpul războiului au fost reunite și publicate postum cu titlul „La Citadelle“(„Citadela“, 1948).Alte opere ale lui Antoine de Saint-Exupéry sunt: „Lettre à un otage“ („Scrisori către un ostatec“, 1943),„Un sens à la vie“ („Să dai un sens vieții“, postum 1956). Toți biografii săi arată că aviatorul și scriitorul era pasionat și de știință. Aprofunda teoria cuantică, principiile entropiei. Citea filosofie, cu sentimentul că este învecinată cu știința.

În 2008 editura Gallimard a editat Lettre a l'inconnue(“Scrisoare catre necunoscut”, publicată în România la editura RAO în anul 2009, în traducerea Ilenei Cantuniari).
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„Un individ trebuie să se sacrifice pentru salvarea unei colectivități. Nu este vorba aici de o aritmetică stupidă. E vorba de respectarea omului ca individ.“ (A. de Saint-Exupéry: „Pilote de Guerre“)

„O persoană știe când atinge perfecțiunea în design, nu când nu mai are ceva de adăugat, ci când nimic nu mai poate fi scos“ (A. de Saint-Exupéry)

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In continuare, tot despre antigravitatie prin levitatie electromagnetica:


 

Energy Research

The online journal of Alexander S. Petty

« Comparison of Numeric Polarity in Pyramids and Torus

Geometric Derivations of the Transcendentals »

The Secrets of Edward Leedskalnin
The following was written by Michael Lawrence Morton in 1998:
There is only one man in the world who, by demonstration, has supported the claim, “I know the secret of how the pyramids of Egypt were built!” That man is now deceased and took the secret with him into the grave. Always sickly, he died at the age of 64 from malnutrition. And this man have magnetize rocks – Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati v8TbqZa8li4.










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leedskalnin and his antigravity device

Coral Castle was originally located in the town of Florida City. The site was later moved to Homestead, FL. The site consists of 10 acres completely surrounded by 8′ high coral blocks, tightly constructed without the use of cement between them. Each of these blocks weigh over 20 tons,
Edward Leedskalnin the engineer/builder did this work all by himself even though he was a very small man – 5 feet tall, weighing only 100 pounds. He did not own tall, heavy cranes which engineers use today to construct buildings. He was asked: Why did you do it? ‘Someday, my Sweet 16 will come,’ was always his response. Leedskalnin eventually quarried and sculpted over 1,100 tons of coral into a monument that would later be known as the Coral Castle. Leedskalnin gave polite, but cryptic answers to visitors’ questions regarding his construction methods, which to this day remain a mystery. In spite of his private nature, he eventually opened his monument to the public, offering tours for 10 cents. He was a surprisingly accommodating host, even cooking hot dogs for visiting children in a pressure-cooker of his own invention.
Coral Castle has attracted the international attention of professional construction engineers, astounded and mystified by the apparently impossible achievement of this diminutive wonder-worker. In the mid-1970s, for example, a large bulldozer was hired to manipulate a coral block equivalent to the Castle’s 30-ton monolith; the bulldozer could not even lift it.

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30 ton monolith at coral castle

Alternative science investigators suggest that Leedskalnin somehow learned the secret of the “world grid,” an invisible pattern of energy lines surrounding the Earth which concentrates points of telluric power where they intersect. It was here, at one of these intersections of Earth energy, that he was supposedly able to move his prodigious stone blocks using the unseen power of our planet. In fact, in The Enigma of Coral Castle, Ray Stoner suggests that Leedskalnin moved the Castle not because it was threatened by an encroaching subdivision, but because a surveying error misplaced the site ten miles from an Earth energy vortex or focal point. In order for the structures to maximize this energy, the entire complex needed to be relocated in Homestead, where the telluric forces were focused.
Bruce Cathie, in The Energy Grid, one of the most credible books on the subject, says “the site of Coral Castle is mathematically related to the world energy grid, as are the other remarkable structures which, however, date from ancient times. Ed Leedskalnin had not moved on to the Florida site by chance. This geometric position was extremely close to one that would be ideal for setting up harmonics related to gravity and light harmonics. The fact that [he] had access to secret knowledge is much more evident in the relationship of Coral Castle to the world energy grid system.”
Stoner says some fundamental conditions must be met before a structure like Coral Castle can be made to function as intended. It must be exactly situated over an energy vortex, aligned with a celestial event or events sufficiently precise to predict their recurrence, constructed in a specific shape, and built with certain materials. Finally, activities at the site may be successfully undertaken only at the moment the celestial events to which it is oriented take place.
Stoner’s prerequisites for particular shapes and building materials are reminiscent of experiments in pyramid power in the mid-1970s, when the precise angles (variants of 15.2 degrees) of the pyramid and its special construction elements (crystalline granite and non-conducting limestone) determined their success. In Using Pyramid Power, James Wyckoff writes,”The ancient Egyptians knew that the shape and angle of pyramids contained a mystical energy force.”
I think this “lot,” upon which Edward Leedskalnin built his wonders, is a sort of “Grid Point Nest” . . . with many ‘Matrix-valid’ Grid Points in relatively-close proximity. This might have something to do with Leedskalnin’s mysterious ability to lift and to precisely place those gigantic stones on the property.
Also; I found in doing the calculations above, that I initially figured the latitude as VERY close to 1/16th of an inch (on the USGS Topo map) below the ‘predicted 1983 NAD’ latitude parallel of 25 deg 30 min 00 sec, which is in fact the precise northern border of this Quad. This initial latitude figure, in terms of seconds, showed on my calculator as 1.234567901 seconds south of the 1983 NAD parallel of 25 30 00. Notice that the figure of 1.234567901 is the Square of 1.111111111 . . . to nine decimal places.
[Note also, here, that I am using a 'scale' of 0.050625 map inches per second of latitude]. The figure 1.234567901 precisely matches my calculated Grid Point Value for Dr. Bruce Cornet’s “Cydonia Face II” on the “Middletown” (New York) USGS 7.5-minute Topographical Quadrangle.
The calculated figure above for the number of W.Giza longitude seconds . . . 41.23807207 . . . is VERY close to a decimal harmonic of the Surface Area On A Sphere (formula) . . . 41.25296125.
I’m thinking that the more “nodal points of resonance” one can find, within relative proximity (of space and time), then the more that can be potentially “done” in that ‘area’ with respect to “tapping or using” that geometry. These “nodal points” would be, for example, decimal harmonics of ‘Matrix-valid’ numbers, including gematrian and gematria-related numbers. Possibly, this would ‘enable’ such things as lifting tremendous weights, or other seemingly “superhuman” feats.
After his death, a nephew living in Michigan, inherited the Castle. In 1953, shortly before his death, he sold the Castle to a family from Chicago. During the take-over, a box of Ed’s effects were found and examined. It contained a set of instructions which led to the discovery of 35 – $100 bills – his life savings.
This amazing claim to know the secret of how the pyramids of Egypt was built was made by a Latvian man named Edward Leedskalnin. He was an immigrant to the United States of America. He devised a way to single-handedly lift and move blocks of coral weighing up to 30 tons each. In Homestead, Florida, he used his closely guarded secret, and was able to quarry and construct an entire complex of monolithic blocks of coral. The weight of a single block used in the Coral Castle was greater than those that were used to build the Great Pyramid at Giza, Egypt. It took him 28 years to complete his work, which equaled about 1,100 tons of rock.
In the 1930s, a gang of thugs thought Ed had hidden riches. They beat him up and tried to rob him. Ed was shocked at this invasion into his private world. The attack motivated Leedskalnin to move Coral Castle! He picked up every megalith (some stones weighed up to 30 tons) and transported his entire castle. He hired a local trucker, but the driver was always directed to look away as Ed loaded the truck. All 3 million pounds of hard coral was moved 10 miles to its present location near Homestead Florida.
How did Ed move all of these carvings a distance of 10 miles? Ed had the chassis of an old Republic truck on which he laid two rails. He had a friend with a tractor who moved the loaded trailer from Florida City to Homestead. Many people saw the coral carvings being moved along the old Dixie Highway, but no one ever saw Ed loading or unloading the trailer. Ed did much of his work at night by lantern light. He seemed to have a sixth sense which told him when some one was trying to spy on him. The numerous lookouts along the Castle walls will attest to his suspicious nature.
Leedskalnin, had within his castle walls, coral blocks weighing approximately 15 tons each. He built a 22-ton obelisk, a 22-ton moon block, a 23-ton Jupiter block, a Saturn block, a 9-ton gate, a rocking chair that weighed 3-tons, and numerous puzzles, all made of coral. A huge, 9-ton rock that functions as a door and gate is perfectly balanced. One push from a small child can open it. On top of a huge 30-ton block, which he considered to be his major achievement, he crowned it with a gable-shaped rock.
Leedskalnin received attention not only from engineers and technologists, but from the U.S. government, who paid him a visit hoping to be enlightened. None ever were given the secret. In 1952, falling ill, Leedskalnin checked himself into the hospital and died, taking his secret with him.

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Leedskalnin's Flywheel

Leedskalnin flatly stated that all matter consists of individual magnets and it is the movement of these magnets within materials and through space that produces measurable phenomena, i.e., magnetism and electricity.
If all matter consists of individual magnets, we know that like poles repel and unlike poles attract. We also know that we can suspend one magnet above another as long as we don’t allow either of them to flip over so that the opposite poles attract each other. Magnets seek to attract and, left to themselves, will align their opposite poles to each other.
If a large magnet is suspended over a smaller magnet, depending on the ratio between them, the distance between the magnets would be diminished to the point that the smaller magnet wouldn’t be able to exert enough force to elevate it. The earth, being the largest magnet, issues forth streams of magnetic energy which follow lines of force that have been noted for centuries. If we assume, as Leedskalnin did, that all objects consist of individual magnets, we can also assume that an attraction exists between these objects due to the inherent nature of a magnet seeking to align an opposite pole to another. Perhaps Leedskalnin’s means of working with the Earth’s gravitational pull was nothing more complicated than devising a means by which the alignment of magnetic elements within his coral blocks was adjusted to face the streams of individual magnets he claims are issuing forth from the Earth with a like repelling pole.
A known method for creating magnetism in an iron bar is to align the bar with the Earth’s magnetic field and strike the bar with a hammer. This vibrates the elements in the bar and allows them to be influenced by the magnetic field they are in. The result is that when the vibration stops, a significant number of the atoms have aligned themselves within this magnetic field.
Christopher Dunn asks: “Was this the method that Leedskalnin was using? It’s a simple concept, but looking at the devices in Leedskalnin’s workshop, I can easily imagine the application of vibration and electromagnetism. His fly-wheel for creating electricity remains motionless, for the most part, until inquisitive tourists like me come along and give it a spin. After a few revolutions, I realized that something was missing. The narrative I had heard, while browsing around the castle, described Leedskalnin as using this device to create electricity to power his electric light bulbs. It was claimed that Leedskalnin didn’t have electricity, but I couldn’t imagine this device being a useful and continuing source of power, using only Leedskalnin’s right arm to turn the wheel. On closer examination of this piece, I found that the whole assembly was actually an old 4-cylinder crank case. His flywheel was mounted on the front end of the crankshaft and consisted of bar magnets that were sandwiched between two plates, the upper plate being a ring gear. Giving it weight and solidifying the entire assembly, Leedskalnin had encased the bar magnets with cement. It then occurred to me that the photo of Leedskalnin with his hand on the crank handle, which is attached to the end of the shaft, may not accurately represent his entire operation. It is possible that Leedskalnin was using the crank handle to start a reciprocating engine, now missing, which attached to one of the throws on the crankshaft. He would then be able to walk away and leave his flywheel running.
I was now mystified. I had developed a notion that the bars attached to the flywheel were actually being used to develop vibration in the piece Leedskalnin was trying to lift. This idea didn’t make sense after looking at the type of material, size and weight of the entire assembly. The crankcase was firmly attached to the coral block in his workshop, and even if it wasn’t attached, it would be quite a feat to keep moving it about. There was one factor I needed to check out, though, before I headed back to Illinois. I had tested the bar magnet with a pocket knife. The knife was attracted to each bar. I needed to know, conclusively, the arrangement of the poles in the wheel, to see, indeed, whether the assembly was capable of creating electricity.
Leaving the workshop and absorbing the penetrating rays of the Florida sunshine, I headed for the nearest strip mall to look for a hardware store so that I could buy a bar magnet. North on Route1 I found a Radio Shack. They had just what I needed, and for only $1.75. Feeling rather pleased, I swung back onto Route 1 and returned to Coral Castle.
Once there, I headed back into Leedskalnin’s workshop and put the magnet to the test. I held the magnet a short distance away from the spokes of the flywheel while giving it a spin. Sure enough, I found out what I had come for. The magnet pushed and pulled in my grasp as the wheel rotated. Looking around the room, I gazed at a jumble of various devices, lying, hanging and leaning about the room. There were radio tuners, bottles with copper wire wrapped around them, spools of copper wire and other various and sundry plastic and metal pieces that looked like they had fallen out of an old radio set.
Leedskalnin’s workshop also contained chains, blocks and tackle and other items that one might find lying around a junkyard. Some items are missing, though. Photographs of Leedskalnin at work show three tripods, made of telephone poles, that have boxes attached to the top. These objects, however, are not to be found at Coral Castle. What is striking here, is that the block of coral being moved is seen off to the side of the tripod. Perhaps Leedskalnin had moved the tripod after raising the block out of the bedrock. Though another interesting observation is that the block and tackle that can be found inside his workshop are nowhere to be seen in this photograph. There are spools of copper wire in his workshop, and there were also two wrappings of copper wire. One was round copper and the other flat copper. In a narrative that visitors can hear at various recording stations around the compound, it is stated that at one time Leedskalnin had a grid of copper wire suspended in the air. Looking at the photograph, again, one can see that there is a cable draped around the tripod and running down to the ground. Perhaps the arrangement of tripods was more related to the suspension of his copper grid than the suspension of block and tackle.
I have no doubt that Leedskalnin told the truth when he said he knew the secrets of the ancient Egyptians. Unlike those who have sought publicity for their own inadequate, though politically correct, theories, he proved it by his actions. I believe, also, that these techniques can be rediscovered and put to use for the benefit of mankind. Edward Leedskalnin, right or wrong, had a little bit of a problem with trust. This modus operandi was not unusual for a craftsman of his day. Proprietary techniques without patent disclosure assure continued employment and, therefore, it was perfectly normal that he would protect his secret from prying eyes that might steal and profit from it. I believe there are enough pieces there to put together and replicate his technique. It’s been done once (sorry, twice), and I am sure that it can be done again!”

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the unusual accomplishment of coral castle

Leedskalnin demonstrated to neighbors his strange machines. He was able to generate his own electricity. Ed wrote a total of 5 pamphlets; one called ‘Magnetic Current’ is as incomprehensible as Einstein’s Unified Field Theory. He admitted that he could produce anti-gravity and knew how the ancient pyramids were built. He wrote: “A Book In Every Home”, “Sweet Sixteen, Domestic and Political Views” . His “Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Life” contains his beliefs on life’s cycle. He also wrote 3 pamphlets on “Magnetic Current”.
A plaque was found in Ed’s bedroom after he died. It read: THE SECRET TO THE UNIVERSE IS 7129 / 6105195.
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49 Responses to “The Secrets of Edward Leedskalnin”

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1. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmAt says:

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January 6, 2010 at 5:34 pm

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It’s like you’re answering some of my most important questions……
Please allow me some time to think about it all, and I’ll probably get back to you with more questions.
THANKS!

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2. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifEllen Kamhi PhD RN says:

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April 11, 2010 at 8:32 pm

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Can you grant me permission to use information in the paper written by Michael Morton that is posted on your website? I will be doing a presetation about the Coral Castle at the United States Psychotronic Association Conference in July 2010, and am preparing slides. I would like to promote your work.
Thank you,
ELLEN KAMHI PHD RN

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3. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.jpgAlex says:

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April 11, 2010 at 9:37 pm

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You have my permission to re-produce content from my website in your upcoming conference.
Let me know how your presentation is received!
All the best,
Alex

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4. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifPedro says:

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May 6, 2010 at 11:15 pm

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Alex, I live in Miami for the past 15 years and planning to visit Coral Castle for the first time soon sometime this month. I never heard about Edward Leedskalnin up until recently when I began doing some research on in magnetic fields for one of my projects.
Most papers I read about the working habits of Edward described his preference for working at night to avoid been seen by other people. One of the reason I believed he might preferred working at night is because heat weakens magnetic fields.
I had just read the book he wrote “A Book in Every Home” what seems strange to me is how people that knew him described a person that does not correspond to the thoughts he expresses.
The book’s content in my opinion was written as a metaphor. I found some of his description on human behavior so meticulous and mechanical, that most likely he was referring to his work.
Some of the things I found interesting were; the similarities between boy, girl to the south and north poles; the meticulous “symmetry of a smile” to the V shape magnet of his alternator. Even his “16” page book, when you think about each page left-text and right-empty you even think on both north and south poles.
Thanks for posting this article and would appreciate if you let me know a group or site that studies his work.
best wishes, Pedro.

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5. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image010.jpgLeslie Schwartz says:

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June 21, 2010 at 12:48 pm

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Very interesting material.
I scanned thru Ed’s book on Magnetism, which is an attempt to understand and explain magnetism thru practical experiments, and he extends ‘magnetism’ thru to forces acting on the surface of the earth, due to the earths magnetic field. He pointed out that the magnetic direction of flow and concentration of force were not equal everywhere on the surface of the earth.
It seems he somehow used magnetic forces which he transfered from his generator to the blocks he wanted to move using induction of what we normally call alternating current, and he also made use of the earth’s ‘magnetic’ forces available at his location(s) in Florida. He used a copper or other metal distribution of energy from the generator, and he also used the normal block and tackle, chains, hoists to move the blocks in conjunction with the magnetic forces.
Ed considered magnetism and electric current as equivalent phenomena, in terms of how he applied it, he transformed one into the other.
And also in his book he seemed to carefully consider how an imbalance in these forces occurred at some particular point in the magnetic / induction current circuit.
That is we (our science of electricity and magnetism) mostly think of the entire set of electrical and magnetic forces in a complete circuit, and that there is a net conservation of force and energy.
But Ed, somehow knew how to create an imbalance of the magnetic force thru simple electrical machines, relative to the flow of energy thru the earth and this is how he moved the huge blocks.
That is (I believe) if he found that a particular point on the surface of earth was predominantly north or south, he then used his induction generator to apply the opposing force thru the block, somehow this was enough force plus his block and tackle to move the blocks.
This defies the common view of the amount of energy flowing thru any bit of non-ferromagnetic mass situated at some point on the surface of the earth.
But somehow he did it.

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6. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifrichard barnette says:

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July 12, 2010 at 12:12 pm

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more than interesting there are toys on the market that do some of the same things vectron air hog and lifter it would be very interesting to know if leedskalnin ever met tesla

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7. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifJonnyDeath says:

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September 4, 2010 at 8:31 pm

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I do get annoyed by the suggestions of magical science and using the scalar grid of the earth. It has everyone ignoring more obvious and logical answers that are still very impressive and far more believable.
It can and should be speculated that Ed found a way to produce electricity far more efficiently and, he was generating a frequency or band of frequencies that tapped into the electrical and magnetic properties of all matter.
Establish this more logical train of thought and then it’s quite believable that he was able to use coils, radio waves and other basic force principles of science to build coral castle as well as cure his tuberculosis.
Rife scope anyone?
I believe the answers are far simpler than proposed and, not nearly as extraordinary as they are effective and unconventional.

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8. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifbob ruhoy says:

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November 7, 2010 at 11:31 pm

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Forget coral castle at the site in Homestead. He moved all the giant stone carvings from his previous site in Florida City (approx 10 miles away). There is one picture from Florida City showing his crumbling home built of cinder block size stones. Next to it are all of the largest stone carvings lined up in a row. He moved them all to the new site at Homestead. The block & tackle was given to him by a farmer at the Homestead site. My Point — He had nothing at the old site !!!!!!!!!!!!!
Contact me if you have more questions, I’ll have the answers.

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9. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBen B says:

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November 18, 2010 at 3:18 pm

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Hi Bob,
It would be good to understand how ED.L. accomplished his feat of carving just even the Well.
Thanks for your help in advance – peace.
B

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10. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifPotugal, Jon says:

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November 24, 2010 at 11:58 am

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7129 / 6105195
this as already been solved and explained.
what i only need to know is if anyone as ever reproduced a 10ton lifting using this method.
the explanation derives from prime numbers ,prime quadruplets, angles, north and south poles of mgnetism,and the pyramidal force field, i have the knowledge about all this, but i repeat, i only know the theorys, i have not seen it put to pratice, should i be the one doing it???

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11. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifJonathan Bollefer says:

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January 1, 2011 at 7:22 pm

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Thank you for all the wonderful information. It is astounding to thing what magnetic forces might be at work here. I am doing some investigative research on the rock gate and am interested in the original papers that Edward wrote on magnetic current. Is it possible to have you send me the copies of these works for research purposes.
Thanks if you think there is any other pertinent information please email me and I will get back with you asap.

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12. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifRobert says:

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February 15, 2011 at 1:20 am

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Gentlemen
I would like to say some of the remarks and theories made in this articial are not far from the truth. Ed Leedskalnin did in fact discover a form of anti gravity. I’ve been able to duplicate his feat with ease and I’m amazed at how simple his device was. What Ed discovered has always been known, only science has never paid any attention to it and still doesn’t. I understand why Ed never released his discovery and while I play with my device,( and it is fun) I have no intention of releasing my discovery. All I want to say is…. My hat goes off to you Mr. Leedskalnin. Your discovery is so simple and easy to understand.

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13. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifRobert says:

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February 15, 2011 at 1:35 am

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leslie
You are so close to what Ed discovered only look at it this way. What Ed produced was an absence of magnetism. When you cancel magnetism, attach that device to an object, that object becomes part of the void. A void netural to both north and south poles. Eds device was magnificent yet simple, and by applying or shifting magnetism from one part of the machine to another it enabled him to move large heavy objects from one place to another. I know this to be true because I’ve done it.

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14. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBowen says:

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February 27, 2011 at 2:11 pm

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I think I have something new on this Ed Leedskalnin accomplishment. I’ve noticed a relationship between his work and Marko Rodin’s. Used Marko’s math and Ed’s clues… I found a 16 bundle Rrodin coil could be made by putting 144 pins around a torus. 144/16 = 9 as far as I’ve found this 144 is the only workable multiple in this way… 144, 288 ect. Maybe Ed had a rodin coil in that magic box of his that he powered with his fly wheel… It seems to make the best sense to me as the Rodin coil is a man made black hole and black holes are gravity wells.

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15. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBowen says:

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February 27, 2011 at 2:21 pm

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Also, I’d like to suggest that matter is just light trapped in a singularity that we call an atom… umm… The inverse square law is a neat one… I don’t think that energy moves in straight lines but rather voxtacies. And since it would be propagating out a force must be propagating in to infinity. This strikes me as a chicken and egg situation, the answer is a simple question. How did the chicken or egg come to be without a rooster? Or in postmodern philosophy how can you define things externally with out an internal definition. both these things are non-sense. you cant have one without the other. It’s called duality.

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16. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifL.Ron says:

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April 11, 2011 at 12:35 pm

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Can anyone give an example on how to create an experiment to demonstrate ED’s principles?

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17. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifgabe says:

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April 14, 2011 at 3:16 pm

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this is very interesting, has anyone reconstruction his antigravity machine?

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18. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifgabe says:

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April 14, 2011 at 3:22 pm

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i’m only 17 but i plan for this to be my life’s work intill i understand and created edward’s device

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19. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifChris Hefti says:

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May 5, 2011 at 8:39 pm

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Hi there,
All of the above statements are somewhat true, I think the answer to all questions is a combination of factors. Wow, i really kicked-in that open door, didn’t i ? I think we have to consider the following: nothing is impossible unless our mind makes it so! For example: in moments of need, despair or if you’re threatened by something bigger than yourself, you will discover that you have much bigger powers than you ever could have imagined (your mind sets the boundries of what is possible) In an emergency you don’t pay attention to those boundries and therefore they don’t exist !) In that state of mind we all can lift a car, we weren’t able to lift before.
I think we have to combine the technical knowledge with an altered state of mind, get rid of our constricting boundries and matters will become possible !
And sure I immediatly aknowledge the fact that it is much easier said than done. We all are conditioned to be inadequate, because our teachers are inadequate! We have to leave that state of mind behind and realize we are only using 10 % of our potential !
We can do anything if we only could set our minds to it!
Thanks for your inspiring ideas !
bye,
chris

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20. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifPatrick says:

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May 14, 2011 at 11:51 am

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Robert,
You say you have produced the same machine that Ed built and that you can manipulate the same anti-gravity effects due to canelling out the magnetism of an object, how long did it take you to discover this and howcome, if it is so easy, none of us here are able to figure it out with all the time we’ve put in to researching it. Could you please give some sort of a clue as to where to start or what sort of materials are all necessary so that as not revealing your secret but still helping others out on the right path?

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21. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifwilson says:

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May 17, 2011 at 12:23 am

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I would like to get my hands on the original documents that he wrote.

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22. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifquestions says:

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July 4, 2011 at 6:37 pm

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ok Robert, not to say prove it but really. You can’t just make claims and expect people to believe you. How bout some proof or a pic or plans that would help create such a device or devices. We are in a world where oil is king and dammit I want free energy that I can create. So you dont have to prove it to me becuase I know I will build one of these generators and have fun, but seriously any extra information will help. if not then your loss. Sharing is caring.

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23. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifTrevon says:

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July 19, 2011 at 5:04 am

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0 also means nothing or “Void. I punched in 7129/6105195 and it equals zero or “Nothing” which could also mean Neutrons file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image011.gif

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24. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.jpgAlex says:

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July 19, 2011 at 12:35 pm

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@ Trevon
The value for the ratio is 7129 / 6105195 is
0.0011676940703777684414666525803
but i take your point that neutrality is where vectors cancel

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25. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifVIKRAM says:

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October 14, 2011 at 10:42 am

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All the above are only talking about Ed using supposodely anti-gravity.But
more important – is to query, cut ,lift and carve these rocks.To cut the rock from ground and more importantly the bottom- how did he cut the bottom portion from the ground? One man with those primitive tools -how did he do it? After he has cut the rock and separated from the ground- then comes the lifting of rocks.Which we all think might be an anti gravity technique.But equally mysterious is the preparation of the rock. Carving,knowing centre ogf gravity of the rotating door.
Salutes to Ed .

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26. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifDennis says:

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October 21, 2011 at 6:41 am

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Does anyone know if his generator has a ground rod connection under it? It would only link it to Henry T. Moray’s device in so far as to where the power comes from but not how it was used to move the coral. It seems to me that the coral’s properties are linked to tapping the negative energy. I think the pyramids are made of stone for this reason also. It also seems odd to have concrete in the generator -tuning properties?
Robert – if you do know how to do this and plan to keep it to yourself, I would like to know your reason, out of curiousity. I can think of a few myself.

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27. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifZach says:

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October 25, 2011 at 10:57 am

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I am absolutely fascinated by Ed and his ability to construct Coral castle all by himself. One thing i noticed is Ed incorporated the stars into his construruction (including the moon). He also only worked at night. Could this have any relevance to his secrets? He seemed to have a vast knowledge not only of physics, and magnetism, but of the stars. Many ancient cultures such as the egyptians, inca, and mayans constantly go back to the stars, and they had a vast knowledge of the universe. It just intrigues me that so many different cultures around the world were able to build such large structures using primitive tools. also despite the fact that they are so far away from each other, they still have a similar structure in the pyramid. If Ed claimed to know the secrets of the pyramids, did he not only find a lost form of energy (considering he made his own electricity) but he figured out a major secret of the universe? Im just speculating and know nothing of magnetism and physic (though i wish i did) but cant we go beyond the thought that the constructions are more than just coincidence?

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28. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifAaron says:

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January 6, 2012 at 2:55 am

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Forget about Robert, he’s just lying to get our attention. If he found the secret, he would be famous already.
Forget about Ed. He’s smart but such a selfish person deserve no respect from me. However I’ll continue to study, research about these antigravity electromagnetic subjects.
I feel sorry for mankind. Still very ignorant, very selfish, very greedy. If anyone ever found any solution, it’s best to share because your children, and/or grandchildren might not live to tell the tales. 1/4 trees left, 7 billions population, continue polluting atmosphere w/ old fashion combustion engine, increase of radiation, increase sea level, increase disaster. Still using primative material and technique that doesn’t withstand disasters.

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29. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmuzza says:

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January 16, 2012 at 11:06 pm

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I know why ed and robert (if his claim is true) would keep it to themselves. Its because its one of those things that are ‘easy when you know how’ and if the secret got out everyone would build one because one thing for sure, whatever he did was very inexpensive. So robert if you just tell me I won’t tell anyone either lol ps the key to the universe is -1, 0, +1

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30. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image009.jpgAlex says:

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January 18, 2012 at 9:51 am

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@muzz
You my friend are a born Foundational Mathematician.
-1, 0, +1 — exactly right. (simpler to even say 0,1 since distance and direction are ultimately illusory)

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31. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmad mike says:

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February 18, 2012 at 8:04 am

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WHAT IF
what if the box contained steel wool, to atract magnet flow
what if the wire was steel not copper running from the box to the wheel
what if he gathered magnet flow from the ground and ran it to the wheel
what if he reveresed the flow of magnetrisity
what if the wheel ran at 7.129 Hz

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32. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifLouis says:

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March 18, 2012 at 8:14 pm

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Dear Alex,
The photo you are posting is a rotor carrying the magnets, then the missing part is the stator. Also the overall equipment is an electric generator, using a gas engine as a prime mover. Then Ed fixed a rotor carrying the magnets on the flywheel of an engine and he has destroyed completely the stator. Because all the secret is in the stator.
My assumption is: the stator consists out of 24 coils corresponding to the 24 protruding and fixed magnets. The secret will be the material of the core of these 24 coils.
According to Ed, he mentioned that all materials consists of magnets. Today we know from NMR, that what he said is true, and there is a frequency typical for each material at which each material will reach resonance.
Now let us assume that he was rotating his engine at 2100 rpm, while having 24 magnets: it means that he was working at the frequency of 24 * 2100 / 60 = 840 Hz, while his magnets are ferrite magnets having an intensity of about 0.4 Tesla. Then the core of his coils corresponds to a material which is having its resonant frequency of 840 Hz when subject to a magnetic field of 0.4 Tesla.
This is the real secret of Ed Leedskalnin: the material of the core of his coils. Some materials when subject to their resonant frequency, they will release a high energy level as we have now LASER (Light Amplification by Simulated Emission Radiation), that is we are amplifying light energy when we subject some material to their resonant frequency.

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33. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifYellow says:

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March 19, 2012 at 12:12 am

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What if he used the massive crane, pulley, levers and gears he poses for photographs with.
Nah it couldn’t be that logical…. Must be alien technology from the Bermuda Triangle and Atlantis. Really people?

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34. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifVic says:

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March 25, 2012 at 2:07 am

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Its a shame he couldn’t share his secrets, wonder why, selfish grumpy old man.
If you have the secrets pleases share with others its our duty as humans.
If people Like Robert had worked it out whats with the arrogance?

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35. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifBoyGenius says:

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April 12, 2012 at 4:14 am

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The gentleman that said he reproduced Ed machine is a fraud, because anyone who could reproduce the machine would be an instant billionaire. I know I would be, human nature is not to seek technology for fun, however to improve their specific quality of life. In short people are selfish by nature and would exploit this technology for financial gain, as it does not exist in our modern day society

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36. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmikefromspace says:

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April 17, 2012 at 12:50 am

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I have explained this entire device in sufficient enough detail so that any common person can assemble one with a little patience… it’s on youtube. Just google “mikefromspace”. The answer is a matter of tricking massive particles of magnetic current away from the energetic ones that can rerun through the copper and brass parts.
MASS is the only thing that will displace mass. I explain it all, detailed particle physics that even a child can understand. Yes you can use this tech to lift itself… make a craft.

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37. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmikefromspace says:

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April 17, 2012 at 1:05 am

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Vic; he left all important parts there when he left for the hospital but people looted copper. I explain what parts on youtube… user mikefromspace. Short version here; fw.makes 3 cycle sinewave before shorting energy through a 4 contact distributor that gives a carrier pump z wave. Two seperate iron masses continually build field charge.. one neg bias one pos bias monopolar storage of slower current particles like the theoretical bosons. Momentum comes of their charging which becomes a positronic or pos ion field that is physically heavy but without matter. Anyway… long story short; you want to make a craft that runs itself; I explain how in the videos… short of small details like number of windings on the magneto block etc… or you can just use it to play with blocks like ole’ Ed.

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38. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifJarrod says:

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April 19, 2012 at 5:45 pm

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Edward Leedskalnin may have been either a genius or a prankster where is the black box did he hide it or did someone take it so we wouldn’t know the secrets to anti-gravity these are all good questions to keep in mind but the thought that he did what Egyptians did is pure hogwash. If the Egyptians moved stones with electricity then there would be evidence such as magnets or wire or any of the other evidence like the evidence that he left behind. Stuff like iron magnets don’t just disappear or erode that fast.

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39. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifConceilia says:

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April 21, 2012 at 7:08 am

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Hi,
when I have gone through the story of Edward,even before getting into the secrets lying behind his construction,I felt his story to be very pathetic and even heart touching.How unlucky was the girl who lost his love!!!!I don’t want to see its electronic and mechanical sides but I just want to see it in his own angle of how specially he has constructed the most beautiful house to his beloved.what a commitment and what a dedication to his love!!!!really heart touching!!!

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40. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifAntanas says:

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June 25, 2012 at 4:57 pm

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Interestingly threre are so many details missing in this whole thing. And the whole thing I found very intriguing. Although advice to GABE – do not waist your time on finding gone devices which might never egsisted. I think everything in Eds writings. If I was 17 I would start rewriting magnetic and electricity theories, discover new things based on the theory rather. This would be more important. It is strange how many things learned in the school and uni were in fact not right. Even simple explanation about the seasons of the year. All people talking about climate change. but acording to my teachers explanation – inpossible. And I believe otherwise. And where to get those magnets for generator?

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41. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifAntanas says:

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June 25, 2012 at 5:15 pm

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Talking about Eds work, I can say I am very tempted to lift at least 1Kg using Eds theory. It would be so interesting! l believe there is less seacrets then we think in there. I think Eds magnetic theory is revolutional and as the whole world turned to comercional science (since sir Edison was kiling himself 2000 or so times to find only 1 way to lit the lamp); another thing – allmighty mathematics everywhere want to frame everything in formulas, so nobody interested much and the funy thing I think one day the world will have to say sorry we’ve got it wrong.
PS any current ideas about the magnets? I live in UK old Ford engine might be too expensive to get from States.

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42. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifC.C. Low says:

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July 6, 2012 at 3:26 am

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If any of you guys care to read what I have to add on here, you may be surprised to learn that vibrations and magnetism (as theorised by Leedskalnin) do have some connection. And I have proof of this. Many years back when I was doing national service for my country I discovered a secret mystifying force at work. While I was attending a Section Leader Course at Singapore Armed Forces Training Institute, one of my section mate trainees told us of a “skill” which his Shaolin master had taught him in earlier years. He said that four persons located at four ends of a square could have the ability to lift a person sitting on a chair using only one finger each (effectively meaning by the effort of 4 fingers lifting the subject at four separate points at the four corners of the chair. However, there have firstly to place (or tap) the top side of the person’s head by, firstly using the right hand of each person placing in succession (without break) and then immediately removing them (after the 4th person has done so) to be followed by the left hand of each of the participants and so forth rotating the hands each time. This can be done as many times, the more times the stronger the resultant “effect” to be produced. At an instruction given all 4 participants should remove their hands and with his right index finger only place it under each end of the chair. At the command “go” all should lift up their end of the corner of the chair up as high as possible.
Well, me and my section mates did try it on one of our guys who weighed about 70 lbs with only one finger each (index finger) and it worked, although he was about 4 feet in the air for about one or 2 seconds before earth’s gravity brought back the reality. I tried to analyse this in later years when I was in varsity, and I have come to the conclusion that by hitting the head of the subject continuously we probably had disturbed the order of magnetic fluidity in the person (probably the part affected most being his brain), creating some vibration or resonance which affected his weight (the magnetic field in his body may have been temporarily affected making him slightly “weightless”).

25]
43. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifC.C. Low says:

7]
July 6, 2012 at 3:37 am

7]
Following my narration above, there is another example you may want to experiment as well.
Stand upright about 2 feet from the wall with your arms hanging straight down in natural standing position. Curl your palm inwards towards your thigh. Then lean against the wall using the outside of your curled palm to balance against the wall. Stay in this position for about 10 minutes then return your body posture to upright position again. You will find that your subject arm will raise itself upwards without any effort or command from your brain for a temporary period. This temporal independent movement of your body part, although being part of a biological effect involving muscles, does also involve gravity, or magnetism (as defined by Leedskalnin).

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44. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifEric says:

7]
July 10, 2012 at 9:29 pm

7]
Suppose the crank mechanism mounted inside of the flywheel
contained another magnet from an old generator armature that
was somehow geared to generate a magnetic field opposing the one
created by the magnets on the flywheel. I don’t know if counter rotating fields could be tapped by Ed to help him accomplish such a difficult task
or if they would just cancel one another out. Perhaps it’s something to
ponder by minds much smarter than mine. You have an interesting site.
Keep up the good work.

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45. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifGil says:

7]
July 19, 2012 at 2:29 am

7]
It seems fairly certain that Leedskalnin had some secret to moving large stones. The pyramids also had large stones, that we have severe problems moving with modern equipment.
Several somewhat unsubstantiated reports I have read on the internet, seem to suggest that sound is the key to moving large stones, and some other objects.
I am moving toward the opinion that sound is the key.
If I get a chance to do some testing, I think I will try sound, first.
That’s what I think at this point.

25]
46. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifGil says:

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July 19, 2012 at 10:51 am

7]
I have finally found a website that proves as well as can be shown,
the secret of how the Coral Castle was constructed.
If concerned people want to know for sure, the solution can be verified with very reliable accuracy.
The only reason for not letting the proof be shown, is that people want to keep a deception alive.
They wish to believe a lie, rather then know the truth.
They wish to spread a lie, rather then understand the truth.
Either way, it can be proved.
The only question is – Will those who have the authority to
let the truth be proved either way, do so ?
http://www.world-mys...onstruction.htm
.

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47. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifbigal says:

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August 19, 2012 at 6:53 am

7]
Well… I was really enjoying the intrigue of Eds story and was fascinated with the possibilities, I still am open to levitation theories etc… But now i will get back to some real work after reading the article Gil has referenced above… it is very compelling! Cheers for the reality check…

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48. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifCoil says:

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August 31, 2012 at 5:08 pm

7]
This guy is selling a Flyweel replica in ebay –http://www.ebay.com/...=item2321a76ac7
And this man have magnetize rocks – Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati v8TbqZa8li4.

25]
49. file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image008.gifmatyelle says:

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September 17, 2012 at 2:21 pm

7]
as I stumbled upon leedskalnins coral castle through searching for information on magnetic fields, i have been humbled by such a magnificent and truely awe inspiring feat.
this redirection of energy and the manor of wich it was achieved for the period of time each instance leeds me to believe that it will be acheived again and again.
unfortunatly, for all of us who lack imagination and the drive to set such magnifincent feats for all to wonder “how did they do that”, the human condition will always prevent the progress of less formarly educated men and women, especially those who think freely and outside the box. after all it would be hard to put into text today for all manors of authoritative bodies that what we have believed for the past 4 centries is only a tenth of what we had infront of us the whole time.
i would like to add an observation, a “what if”, so to speak, what if the generator was actually energizing the coral on in the ground to create a feild and then the tripods were used to energize the stones to be moved.
to the guy who claims that he has fun with a working model of leedskalnins generator congradulation and well done. please for future refrence keep your acomplishment to your self unless you would be will to use it to create another world wonder that the world will be astonished by. to think that a person has the ability to reshape the world and sits in a garage playing with it, is as unbearible as knowing that a single man took this secret to his grave.

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file:///C:/DOCUME~1/VLADIM~1/LOCALS~1/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image016.jpgCastelul de Coral, Monument pentru Dragostea Pierduta



Cum a reusit un om de 1.5 m si 50 kg sa construiasca o gradina de stanca folosind bucati de coral ce cantaresc cateva tone fiecare? Castelul de Coral, aflat in Homestead, Florida, a fost construit de un emigrant lituanian pe nume Ed Leedskalnin in cinstea unei iubiri pierdute. A inceput sa-l construiasca in 1923 dupa ce a fost parasit de logodnica lui in Lituania cu doar cateva zile inaintea nuntii, si si-a dedicat viata finalizarii acetui monument. Constructia a continuat si dupa moartea lui in 1951.


Expertii sunt uimiti cum de a putut Leedskalnin, care avea o educatie de numai 4 clase, sa construiasca un Castel de Coral de unul singur. Un inginer sustine ca nici Albert Einstein nu si-a putut da seama.

Review:Magnetic Current by Edward Leedskalnin

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Page first featured April 22, 2009

Coral_Castle_Magnet_aparatus_250.jpg




Resources and reviews of Edward Leedskalnin's book: "Magnetic Current", Rock Gate, October 1945.

Ed Leedckalnin is famous for the Coral Castle he built in Florida in the 1920's, which contains similar mystique to the pyramids in terms of the question of how such a small man could build such a large structure by himself. The lovesick inventor said he discovered secrets of gravity. The castle was constructed of ~30 ton blocks.
Leedskalnin is also famous for his unusual theories on magnetism. The castle featured an unusual motor contraption that may have ran on magnetic forces alone, though T Lee Buyea wrote: "I have seen this motor a couple times in person. It is only 20 miles from me. It looks more like it was a hand-cranked or windmill-powered generator than a motor."
Al Witherspoon says that Leedskalnin apparently was a neighbor to Howard Johnson for a while, and may have strongly influenced Johnson's thinking about magnetism.
This book, Magnetic Current, by Leedskalnin may help explain the workings of Mylow's replication of Howard Johnson's all-magnet motor, as well as other magnet motor claims.
Wes Crosiar thinks that once people understand how Mylow's motor works, they will be able to get John Searl's anti-gravity generators to work as well, inasmuch as it works off the same core principle, involving pole switching in the magnets, or spintronics.

Contents
[hide]

Sources for Obtaining the Book

  • Magnetic Current (pdf; 3 Mb) - download from FreeEnergyNews.com
  • Magnetic Current - Book transcribed, without any images. (Keelynet)
  • Mangetic Current - Amazon.com

Paperback
Publisher: Mokelumne Hill Pr (June 1988)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0787305499
ISBN-13: 978-0787305499
Product Dimensions: 8.3 x 5.4 x 0.3 inches
Shipping Weight: 3.2 ounces (View shipping rates and policies)

Book Excerpt

The following is the commencement of reproducing Ed's book here at PESWiki, complete with text and images. Feel free to assist in the task if you are so inclined:
[Preface]
This writing is lined up so when you read it you look East, and all the description you will read about magnetic current, it will be just as good for your electricity.
Following is the result of my two years experiment with magnets at Rock Gate, seventeen miles Southwest from Miami, Florida. Between Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Latitude and Eightieth and Eighty-first Longitude West.
- - - -
Now I will tell you what magnetic current is.
Magnetic current is the same as electric current. Current is a wrong expression.
Really it is not one current, they are two currents, one current is composed of North Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams and the other is composed of South Pole individual magnets in concentrated streams, and they are running one stream against the other stream in whirling, screwlike fashion, and with high speed.
One current alone if it be North Pole magnet current or South Pole magnet current it cannot run alone.
To run one current will have to run against the other.
Leedskalnin_Mangetic_Current-diagram-spi
Reviews

  • Spintronics & Mylows magnet motor - Wes Crosiar came up with the idea that magnet polarity flipping in the magnet is part of what makes magnet motors and electromagnetic overunity systems work, such as what Bedini has in his motor. Wes also conjectured that the reason the MIB are trying to trip up Mylow is that once people understand how his motor works, they will be able to get John Searl's anti-gravity generators to work as well, inasmuch as it works off the same core principle. Al Witherspoon wonders if maybe lay lines might be part of the equation here -- that the motor would work better in some places than others, or perhaps not at all in others. (Mylow_Magmo; Apr 22, 2009)

Leedskalnin_Boneur_95x95.jpg

Experiments
Ed Leedskalnin Magnet

Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Bwws-LlBGNU.

(2:49 minutes)

  • "This is one of the experements the book says to play with. Here we are making an electromagnet into some kind of permanant magnet and then turning that back into electricity. Dont ask me how this works, i find it interesting." (
    by codygillespie; March 19, 2009)


Ed Leedskalnin Magnet 2

Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Js-zdIWRlXs.

(3:24 minutes)

  • Thank you sepheroth for that double LED idea, it has proven usefull for many things. (

Ed Leedskalnin 3


Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Wxw3QQfW79o.
(3:41 minutes)

  • Showing another way to opperate the device without a battery by using a magnet. Also showing a strange effect where supplying a flip flop dc signal(ac) and pulling off the steel bar between each phase appears to use less energy going in(turn on switch) than what is coming out(pull bar off). The led dosnt light when i turn it on, suggesting that little power is going through the circuit, however the led lights when i pull the bar off, suggesting that energy is still coming out. Strange (

Resources

See also

BEST

ENERGY TYPES

DEVICE TYPES

Edward Leedskalnin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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350px-Coral_Castle_2.jpg

magnify-clip.pngA view from within Leedskalnin's Coral Castle.
Edward Leedskalnin (Latvian: Edvards Liedskalniņš) (January 12, 1887, Stāmeriena parish, Livonia; December 7, 1951, Miami) was an eccentric Latvian emigrant to the United States and amateur sculptor who single-handedly built the monument known as Coral Castle in Florida. He was also known for his unusual theories on magnetism.


Contents
[hide]

[edit] Life

Edward Leedskalnin was born January 12, 1887, according to World War I draft registration records, in Stāmeriena parish, Latvia. Little is known of his childhood, aside from the fact that he was not wealthy and achieved only a fourth-grade education. However Edward was a sickly boy, and often spent his time inside reading books — eventually leading him to discontinue his schooling as it "bored him". For Ed, his development of a yearning to obtain knowledge became a passionate and potent driving force in many endeavours throughout his later life.[1] At the age of 26, he was engaged to marry Agnes Scuffs, a girl ten years younger.[2] However, the girl that Leedskalnin referred to as his "Sweet Sixteen" broke the engagement the night before their wedding, so he emigrated to North America[3] where he found work in various lumber camps in Canada, California, and Texas.
Then, after contracting a case of tuberculosis, Leedskalnin moved to the warmer climate of Florida around 1919, where he purchased a small piece of land in Florida City. Over the next 20 years, Leedskalnin putatively constructed and lived within a massive coral monument he called "Rock Gate Park", dedicated to the girl who had left him years before. Working alone at night, Leedskalnin eventually quarried and sculpted over 1,100 short tons (997,903 kg) of coral into a monument that would later be known as the Coral Castle. He used various basic tools, several made from timber and parts of an old Ford; first he built a house out of coral and timber, then he gradually built the monuments for which he is famous.[3] In spite of his private nature, he eventually opened his monument to the public, offering tours for 10 cents. He was a surprisingly accommodating host, even cooking hot dogs for visiting children in a pressure cooker of his own invention.[citation needed]
When people asked Leedskalnin how he had moved all of the stone by himself, he refused to give over his method and would only reply to whoever was asking with the same statement: "I understand the laws of weight and leverage and I know the secrets of the people who built the pyramids (being those at the site at Giza in Egypt)."[citation needed]
This building was originally located in Florida City in the 1920s; then in the mid-1930s Leedskalnin hired a truck and driver[3] to move it to its present location on a 10-acre (4.0 ha) site near Homestead, Florida. On November 9, 1951, he checked himself into Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami. Leedskalnin suffered a stroke at one point, either before he left for the hospital or at the hospital. He died twenty-eight days later of pyleonephritis (a kidney infection) at the age of 64. His death certificate noted that his death was a result of "uremia; failure of kidneys, as a result of the infection and abscess."[4]
[edit] Writings

During his lifetime, Leedskalnin published five pamphlets, advertising them in local newspapers.
[edit] Moral education

His first and longest booklet, a treatise on moral education, is printed on only the left-hand pages, and begins with the following preface:





Reader, if for any reason you do not like the things I say in the little book, I left just as much space as I used, so you can write your own opinion opposite it and see if you can do better.
The Author

In the first section, Leedskalnin vents his anger at his "Sweet Sixteen", arguing that girls should be kept pure, and that boys are primarily a soiling influence upon them. On page 4 of A Book in Every Home, Leedskalnin writes:


Everything we do should be for some good purpose but as everybody knows there is nothing good that can come to a girl from a fresh boy. When a girl is sixteen or seventeen years old, she is as good as she ever will be, but when a boy is sixteen years old, he is then fresher than in all his stages of development. He is then not big enough to work but he is too big to be kept in a nursery and then to allow such a fresh thing to soil a girl — it could not work on my girl. Now I will tell you about soiling. Anything that is done, if it is done with the right party it is all right, but when it is done with the wrong party, it is soiling, and concerning those fresh boys with the girls, it is wrong every time.

The second section continues along the theme of moral education, with several aphorisms aimed at parents regarding the proper way to raise children. The last, "Political" section, reveals that the reclusive Leedskalnin had strong political views. He advocates voting for property owners only (and in proportion to their holdings), and argues that "Anyone who is too weak to make his own living is not strong enough to vote."
Some writers[who?] have suggested that Leedskalnin's booklet contains further information on his electromagnetic research and philosophies encoded in its pages, and the blank pages are provided for the reader to fill in their decrypted solutions. It has also been suggested that Leedskalnin's frequent referral to his "Sweet Sixteen" may in fact refer to the numerological and/or scientific relevance of the number sixteen to his research and theories.[5]
Leedskalnin's ideas may appear unusual. He wrote that a mother's most important task is to ensure that her daughter remains "chaste and faithful":[3]


In case a girl's mamma thinks that there is a boy somewhere who needs experience then she, herself, could pose as an experimental station for that fresh boy to practise on and so save the girl. Nothing can hurt her any more. She has already gone through all the experience that can be gone through and so in her case it would be all right

[edit] Magnetism

Leedskalnin's other four pamphlets addressed his theories on the interaction of electricity, magnetism and the body; Leedskalnin also included a number of simple experiments to validate his theories.
Leedskalnin claimed that all matter was being acted upon by what he called "individual magnets". He also claimed that scientists of his time were looking in the wrong place for their understanding of electricity and that they were only observing "one half of the whole concept" with "one sided tools of measurement". For instance:






Magnets in general are indestructible. For instance you can burn wood and flesh. You can destroy the body, but you cannot destroy the magnets that hold together the body. They go somewhere else. Iron has more magnets than wood, and every different substance has a different number of magnets that hold the substance together. If I make a battery with copper for positive terminal and beef for negative terminal I get more magnets out of it than when I used copper for positive terminal and sweet potato for negative terminal. From this you can see that no two things are alike.[3]

[edit] Bibliography


[edit] Other media

Ed Leedskalnin, Coral Castle and the mystery surrounding how he built it are plot foundations of the novel Cincinnatus.
The Brooklyn-based history band, Piñataland, recorded a song about Leedskalnin entitled "Latvian Bride" for their 2003 album Songs for the Forgotten Future Vol. 1.
Billy Idol recorded the song Sweet Sixteen for his Whiplash Smile album. It was based on the love story of Leedskalnin and his runaway girl. The video was recorded in the Coral Castle of Florida. He also wrote this song there.[citation needed]
[edit] See also

[edit] References


[edit] Further reading

[edit] External links

 

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Ca bine zici :biggrin:

Din pacate nu imi ajunge timpul sa citesc un post de marimea celui de mai sus. Cred ca poate concura cu succes la categoria cel mai lung post intr-un forum. Din toate tipurile sa fie clar :laugh:

Altfel Vladisto ce mai zici cu ce te mai lauzi?

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Tehnica germană uitată: nemţii au uitat cum se asamblează motoare...

The new G650GS is essentially the 2007 single-cylinder F650GS brought back into production with some minor modifications and with the engine assembled by Loncin in China instead of Rotax in Austria, but still using parts manufactured by Rotax in Europe.[1][7][8] The finished engines are shipped back to BMW in Germany where the bikes are assembled. G650GS models with the Chinese-assembled engines can be easily identified as the engines are painted black while in the earlier European-assembled engines were finished in silver. For a short period prior to discontinuation of the bike in 2007 the engines were assembled by Kymco in Taiwan.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BMW_F800S

Aferim apreciază

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Catre R1der: pai suna-ma la 0730490165 sau 0770979487 sa mai vorbim. :to_keep_order:

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Vladisto nu stiu cand o sa am timp sa ne mai conversam sincer sa fiu. Ma astept sa fii mai activ pe forum, ca altadata de exemplu

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De dragul profitului acţionariatul BMW preferă să dea de mâncare asiaticilor şi să-şi bage conaţionalii în şomaj, probal forţaţi şi de concurenţă.

Recurgerea la forţa de muncă ieftină din Asia e la rădăcina actualei crize economice.

Aferim şi R1der apreciază

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Varianta simpla (despre tehnologia farfuriilor zburatoare germane din Al Doilea Razboi Mondial (in engleza, World War II (cifra 2 roman) = W. W. II = WWII) pe baza de energie libera, levitatie si curbarea continuumului spatiu-timp a scris si gen. de brigada arma radiolocatie Emil Strainu in colectia Secret Stranger Files (Dosare secrete stranii), editura Triumf, spre exemplu nr. 17: Baze extraterestre si OZN pe Luna, Pamant si Marte, carte aparuta in 2013, deci dupa 5 ani dupa ce am initiat aceasta tema pe pro-bike, mai inainte, in 2012, la aceeasi editura a publicat cartea Radarul vaneaza OZN-uri; Radarul, un martor incomod in dosarul OZN):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3swu_lC-7zc

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2giFGsGLft4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MwUpPwyyvLw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tydvDgVNiA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgfwJzAvQNE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3VWmNm6J09M

 

Nemtii au ajuns pe Luna si pe Marte, in 1945, unde au baze subterane, ca si in N-NE Antarcticii, cu ajutorul giroscoapelor electrogravitationale Hauneburg (prescurtat Haunebu) III de 71 m diametru si Haunebu IV de 120 m diametru (construite in fabricile subterane din Germania si Cehoslovacia), cat si navei-mama cilindrice Andromeda de 139 m lungime (construita in hangarul in care a fost construit si zepelinul Hindenburg), care continea doua discuri zburatoare Vril 1 de 11,5 m diametru, doua Vril 2 si unul Haunebu II de 23 m diametru si inaltime intre 9 si 11 m, in domul clopotului zburator sau clopotul llui Schumann fiind amplasate generatoare electromagnetice care produc rezonanta Schumann si deplasarea instantanee intre 2 puncte fixate in continumuul spatiu-timp, dar si prin intermediul rachetei in trepte al carei principiu a fost inventat in evul mediu de romanul de nationalitate svab Conrad Hass din Sibiu si dezvoltat de romanul de nationalitate svab Hermann Oberth tot din Sibiu, al carui invatacel a fost germanul Wernher von Braun, care a proiectat racheta balistica V2 cu care nemtii au bombardat Londra in WWII, si a condus proiectul rachetei Saturn, care a dus primul american pe Luna in 1969, Hermann Oberth si Wernher von Braun fiind cooptati de americani imediat dupa razboi prin Operatiunea Agrafa (Paperclip) si pusi la treaba, ca si pe romanul Henri Marie Coanda, care a inventat avionul cu reactie si aerodina lenticulara pe efect Coanda, dupa care s-a construit avionul de vanatoare cu reactie Me 109 si farfuria zburatoare cu propulsie clasica germana BMW Flugelrad (Aripa rotativa) II, avand 12 turboagregate BMW 028 si farfuria zburatoare Skoda a germanului Rudolph Schriever in Cehia.

 

Rezonanţa Schumann pe înţelesul tuturor ori de ce anul 2012 nu va aduce sfârşitul lumii printButton.png emailButton.png Scepticus: graniţele gândirii Scris de Paul Dolea    Marţi, 22 Februarie 2011 23:20

Circulă pe internet ideea cum că ziua nu mai are 24 de ore, ci doar 16 ore. Cum că timpul trece aşadar mai repede acum pe Pământ decât în trecut, iar aceasta, zice-se, din cauză că frecvenţa de rezonanţă Schumann a Pământului a crescut. Mai mult, se zice ca pe 21 decembrie 2012, frecvenţa aceasta va avea valoare infinită, iar prin urmare timpul va înceta să mai curgă! De aceea, vă invităm să explorăm împreună ce este rezonanţa Schumann din punct de vedere ştiinţific şi ce poate spune ea despre cele de mai sus.

 

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Rezonanţa Schumann pe înţelesul tuturor şi de ce nu aduce sfârşitul timpului şi lumii în 2012

Citind acest articol veţi înţelege că între sol şi atmosfera ionizată se formează o cutie rezonantă, unde undele electromagnetice de frecvenţă foarte foarte joasă rezonează la frecvenţe de cam 8 Hertzi sau multipli ai lor. Aceasta mai ales în timpul furtunilor tropicale din Asia, Africa sau America. Această rezonanţă este un fapt natural, prezis teoretic şi observat experimental. Însă nu s-a măsurat o creştere în timp a acestei frecvenţe de rezonanţă. Dar şi dacă s-ar fi observat, nu ar fi însemnat că durata zilei scade de la 24 de ore la 16 ore şi că ar continua să scadă pană la ... zero, când timpul s-ar opri şi ar veni sfârşitul lumii. Acestea sunt doar fabulaţii pseudoştiinţifice despre falsul sfârşit al lumii în 2012. Despre ce este vorba de fapt la radiaţia Schumann, vă rugăm să descoperiţi citind cele ce urmează.

 

1. Introducere

Nu demult, un zvon cutremurător dar absolut neştiinţific s-a răspândit prin intermediul mass-media pe întreg globul pământesc: că timpul a luat-o razna, că ar fi început să alunece din ce în ce mai repede, pe un tobogan imaginar al cărui sfârşit este  anul 2012. Data de 21  decembrie 2012 este prezentată în multe scrieri apocaliptice drept data în care, dintr-un motiv sau altul, civilizaţia umană va dispărea. Lăsându-i la o parte pe “vizionarii  ce prevăd viitorul” cu dispozitive bazate pe boabe de cafea sau  fasole,  să ne oprim puţin la cei ce aduc argumente pseudoştiinţifice unor astfel de afirmaţii.  Unii prognozează o posibilă coliziune catastrofală a planetei noastre cu un obiect ceresc de mari dimensiuni, alţii prevăd schimbări catastrofale datorate unei conjuncţii planetare. Toţi aceşti “vizionari” pornesc de la ideea că data de 21 decembrie 2012 este ultima dată menţionată  în calendarul maya.

Dar cea mai ciudată motivare a “sfârşitului lumii” este ipoteza că timpul, ce mai demult bătea ţăruşi alene,  pe marginea unui drum fără întoarcere, măreşte acum ritmul în mod asimptotic  spre o apropiată  dată limită: 21 decembrie 2012,  iar după această dată, totul dispare în neant.

Într-un  articol  anterior m-am referit la previziunile actuale,  fundamentate ştiinţific, referitoare la o posibilă extincţiei a civilizaţiei  în urma unei coliziuni catastrofale şi nu voi reveni acum  la acest subiect. În schimb, voi încerca să explic, pe înţelesul tuturor,  fenomenul de “rezonanţă Schumann”, mecanismul prin care se produce acest fenomen, modul în care poate fi pus în evidenţă şi efectele pe care le poate avea asupra fiinţelor vii.

Pentru început, vom discuta despre partea inferioară  a spectrului undelor electromagnetice, undele de foarte joasă frecvenţă.

 

 

 

 

 

2. Definiţii şi terminologie despre unde electromagnetice de frecvenţă foarte joasă

Conform Administraţiei Naţionale de Telecomunicaţii şi Informare a Statelor Unite ale Americii , undele electromagnetice ale căror frecvenţe sunt mai mici decât 30 kHz sunt denumite unde electromagnetice de foarte joasă  frecvenţă  (very low frequency), iar cele a căror frecvenţă  este mai mică decât 3 kHz nici nu sunt atribuite vreunei activităţi civile.

Terminologia utilizată  în lucrările ştiinţifice ce se referă la undele electromagnetice de joasă frecvenţă (şi pe care o voi folosi în cele ce urmează) le clasifică  în modul următor:

- unde electromagnetice de foarte joasă frecvenţă (very low frequency sau pe scurt, VLF), cu frecvenţe cuprinse între 30 kHz şi 3 kHz;

- unde electromagnetice de ultra joasă frecvenţă (ultra low frequency sau ULF), cu frecvenţe cuprinse între 3 kHz şi 300 Hz;

- unde electromagnetice de super joasă frecvenţă (super low frequency sau SLF), cu frecvenţe cuprinse între 300 Hz şi 30 Hz;

- unde electromagnetice de extrem de joasă frecvenţă (extreme low frequency sau ELF), ale căror frecvenţe au valori sub 30 Hz.

După cum se ştie, materialele conductoare sunt opace pentru undele electromagnetice şi din acest motiv, comunicarea între două puncte aflate în medii conductoare (de exemplu apa sărată din mări şi oceane sau subsolul Pământului) nu se poate realiza cu echipamentele uzuale şi folosind metodele clasice de comunicare radio.

Acest fenomen de "ecranare" împiedică comunicarea  radio clasică  între  o bază terestră şi submarinele aflate în submersiune. Într-o astfel de situaţie, doar undele electromagnetice din gama SLF  pot asigura legătura radio.

Pe de altă parte, în cazul unor accidente miniere, când echipamentele de telecomunicaţii prin cablu sunt distruse, apare necesitatea unei căi de comunicaţie "fără fir" între minerii blocaţi în subteran şi echipele de salvare aflate la suprafaţă sau tot în subteran. Undele electromagnetice din gama ULF pot penetra solul la adâncimi de ordinul zecilor sau  sutelor de metri, fiind singurele care  pot fi folosite în astfel de situaţii.

Undele electromagnetice de joasă frecvenţă  sunt generate şi de fenomene naturale ce au efecte la scară mare şi foarte mare. Astfel, apariţia unor unde electromagnetice de joasă frecvenţă (ULF sau ELF) poate anunţa un cutremur iminent, cu câteva zeci de minute înaintea unor mişcări telurice de suprafaţă.

De asemenea. aşa-zisele "fenomene meteorologice din spaţiul extraatmosferic" cum sunt exploziile solare, ploile de meteoriţi, fluxurile importante de particule elementare, sau radiaţiile  generate de surse extraterestre, sau chiar extragalactice, generează unde electromagnetice din domeniile ULF, SLF sau ELF. Acestea pot produce furtuni electromagnetice, perturbări ale comunicaţiilor radio sau chiar scoaterea din funcţiune a unor sateliţi artificiali ai Pământului sau a unor echipamente de radiocomunicaţii aflate pe sol. Deoarece frecvenţa undelor cerebrale este de ordinul hertzilor, există probabil şi o influenţă asupra psihicului uman cauzată de undele din aceeaşi gamă, produse natural sau artificial.

Importanţa acordată de NASA acestor aspecte ştiinţifice, tehnice sau militare legate de  generarea şi propagarea undelor electromagnetice de foarte joasă frecvenţă este subliniată  prin lansarea proiectului "INSPIRE"  (Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments).

 

3. Rezonanţa Schumann explicată simplu şi ... natural

Furtunile tropicale (care sunt caracterizate prin descărcări electrice intense şi frecvente) generează unde electromagnetice cu spectru foarte larg, iar pentru cele de foarte joasă frecvenţă spaţiul format între suprafaţa Pământului şi ionosferă devine un adevărat ghid de undă prin care acestea se propagă pe distanţe foarte mari, ajungând uneori chiar să înconjoare Pământul. Analizarea acestor unde este importantă  în climatologie deoarece se poate obţine o imagine la nivel global  a fenomenelor meteorologice locale.

Frecventele descărcări electrice ce apar în timpul unor furtuni puternice creează unde electromagnetice din domeniul ULF şi ELF care, în cavitatea rezonantă formată (la nivel global) între Pământ şi ionosferă, pot produce o rezonanţă electromagnetică ce a fost  verificată  în mod experimental. Fenomenul este cunoscut în literatură sub denumirea de "Rezonanţă Schumann" şi a fost prezis de fizicianul Winfried Otto Schumann în 1952. Prin metode experimentale, au fost puse în evidenţă frecvenţele de rezonanţă Schumann la valori de 7,83 Hz, 14,3 Hz, 20,8 Hz, 27,3 Hz şi 33,8 Hz.

Aceste valori ale frecvenţelor de rezonanţă  nu sunt fixe. Ele sunt influenţate de condiţiile atmosferice ce duc la modificarea înălţimii ionosferei şi implicit, la modificarea volumului  “cutiei de rezonanţa”. De asemenea, amplitudinea undei electromagnetice rezonante se modifică în funcţie de numărul de descărcări electrice din atmosferă în intervalul  de timp analizat. S-a constatat că în decursul unei zile pot fi puse în evidenţă trei maxime: unul corespunzător  furtunilor tropicale din Asia de sud-est, după 5 ore un maxim datorat furtunilor din Africa, iar după încă 6 ore, un maxim corespunzător  furtunilor din America de Sud. Analiza ştiinţifică a acestui fenomen poate oferi date importante referitoare la modificări climatice la nivel global, temporare sau definitive. Punând  în evidenţă descărcările atmosferice (fulgere şi trăsnete) şi analizând frecvenţa şi localizarea lor, se poate obţine o imagine globală, de real folos în climatologie.

Undele electromagnetice din gama ELF pot fi recepţionate doar cu antene şi receptoare special concepute, având în vedere că lungimea lor de undă este extrem de mare şi nivelurile de câmp extrem de mici. Un alt impediment legat de punerea lor în evidenţă este imediata lor apropiere (ca interval de  frecvenţe) de câmpurile create de reţelele de distribuţie a energiei electrice care în Europa operează pe o frecvenţă de 50 Hz iar în multe alte ţări ale lumii, pe o frecvenţă de 60 Hz. De aceea, de multe ori cercetătorii sunt obligaţi să extragă informaţiile utile din semnale ce sunt practic “înecate în zgomot”.

 

4. Fabulaţiile din presă despre "rezonanţa Schumann"

Acum voi reveni la fabulaţiile răspândite în mass-media legate de “Rezonanţa Schumann” şi aşa-zisul sfârşit iminent al lumii datorat unui colaps temporal. Promotorii unei astfel de ipoteze afirmă că frecvenţa de rezonanţă Schumann este un fel de orologiu planetar, iar organismele vii sunt influenţate de acest orologiu electromagnetic. Până aici, nimic ieşit din comun, undele cerebrale sunt de frecvenţă foarte joasă şi pot fi influenţate sau perturbate de stimuli electromagnetici externi.

Dar următoarele afirmaţii sunt total lipsite de baze reale sau motivare logică: “Frecvenţa de rezonanţă Schumann creşte neîncetat, astfel încât o zi nu mai are 24 de ore, ci doar 16 sau mai puţin. În anul 2012, frecvenţa acestui fenomen va fi atât de mare, încât natura nu va mai putea ţine pasul şi va veni sfârşitul lumii, prin dispariţia noţiunii de timp.”

Alţii, care au auzit de găuri negre, afirmă că de fapt, Pământul şi tot ce ne înconjoară este pe cale de a fi “înghiţit” de o gaură neagră iar fenomenele neliniare asociate unui astfel de eveniment pot “distorsiona” timpul fără că noi să ne dăm seama.

 

5. Concluzii

Determinările experimentale infirmă modificări ale frecvenţelor de rezonanţă  Schumann în sensul unei creşteri continue ce poate fi pusă în evidenţă. Organisme ale căror posibilităţi tehnice şi credibilitate ştiinţifică nu poate fi pusă la îndoială (vezi NASA şi altele de calibru asemănător) nu au semnalat o modificare a frecvenţei de rezonanţă Schumann. Iar dacă Pământul şi tot ce ne înconjoară este pe cale de a fi “înghiţit” de o gaură neagră, şi noi nu putem observa acest lucru, înseamnă că nu ne deranjează şi nici nu ne va deranja acest lucru.

Analizând problema din punct de vedere logic, este absurd să afirmi că ziua nu mai are 24 ore, ci doar 16, pentru că dacă ar fi aşa, ceasul meu de pe perete ar trebui să “sară” de la orele 16, direct la 24 şi aş cumpăra  alt ceas cu doar opt sau şaisprezece diviziuni orare.

Iar pentru cei ce aduc, ca argument ştiinţific, faptul că  “nu le mai ajunge timpul”, le voi spune că de fapt, cantitatea de informaţie pe care creierul nostru trebuie  să o proceseze creşte neîncetat, iar dezvoltarea societăţii şi a posibilităţilor de comunicare ne fac tot mai dependenţi unii de alţii.“Procesarea” tuturor acestor acestor informaţii şi conexiuni necesită din ce în ce mai mult timp, rămânând din ce în ce mai puţin pentru activităţile curente. Cred că această explicaţie este mai simplă şi mai aproape de adevăr.

 

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Manipuland si folosind Rezonanta Schumann – partea I  1

BY RAZVAN ON 24/11/2012STIRI

Brian David Andersen

teslapic.jpgEste oare o relaţie între Frecvenţa Fundamentală de Rezonanţă a Pământului (Rezonanţa Schumann) de aproximativ 7 şi jumătate bătăi pe secundă (7,5 Hertz), fenomenul natural al fulgerului şi un aparat simplu şi ieftin ce crează destulă electricitate pentru a alimenta o casă?

Experimentele lui Nikola Tesla de la Colorado Springs, Colorado, la sfârşitul secolului 19 l-au ajutat să facă aceste descoperiri importante şi să tragă aceste concluzii despre valurile de energii electromagnetice ce curg prin Pământ. Tesla nu a arătat exact detaliile descoperirilor sale dar acestea au fost fundaţia pentru construirea marii structuri de tip turn de la Wardenclyffe lângă Shoreham, New York în 1908. Tesla a anunţat că putea să producă electricitate gratis pentru întrega lume cu acest turn al său ce prezenta nişte mari discuri la partea superioară a structurii. Există o legendă cum că J.P. Morgan, omul care a finaţat construcţia turnului, nu a fost anunţat de intenţiile lui Tesla până când structura nu a fost aproape terminată.  Când a aflat declaraţia lui Tesla, Morgan a ordonat imediat demolarea turnului pentru a-şi proteja interesele financiare ale lui şi ale asociaţilor lui care investiseră masiv în curentul aleternativ pe care Tesla îl descoperise la sfârşitul anilor 1890.tesla.tower_.jpg

 Legenda continuă cu Tesla care pornise Turnul Wardenclyffe numai cu câteva ore înainte de a sosi echipa ce urma să îl demoleze. Totuşi, în loc de a produce electricitate pentru lume, maşinăria sa a perturbat rezonanţa Schumann pe o distanţă de mile astfel încât acestea au fost distruse într-o clipă. Cu aproximativ 10 ani înainte autorul acestui articol a scris un articol în revista Fate (Credinţă) ce a fost publicat în 1960. Autorul articolului şi sursele sale au conectat momentul experimentului lui Tesla cu turnul Wardenclyffe şi o explozie similară unei bombe atomice în Siberia cunoscut drept Misterul Tunguska. Atât experimentul lui Tesla cu Turnul Wardenclyffe care mai mult decât sigur a creat câmpurile electromagnetice perturbate, şi explozia din Tunguska, Rusia s-au întâmplat în acelaşi timp şi în aceiaşi zi conform autorului şi surselor lui. Azi, sălbăticia din Tunguska, Rusia, pare a fi o zonă afectată de o armă nucleară (vezi Raza Morţii a lui Tesla de pe viewzone).

tesla.tungusta.jpgMulte explozii neexplicate şi intense ce au creat nori de tip ciupercă similari exploziei de la Hiroshima s-au petrecut înainte, în timpul şi după cel de-al doilea război mondial. Martori oculari ai unei masive explozii similare uneia atomice pe 17 iulie 1944 în portul Chicago din Golful San Francisco au declarat că au văzut o strălucire puternică albă şi un nor de tip ciupercă ce a format un crater de 20 m adâncime, 90 m lăţime şi 210 m lungime – un fenomen care nu poate avea loc cu una sau cu o serie de bombe convenţionale explodând simultan. Portul Chicago era un loc unde se încărcau şi se transferau bombe şi muniţie şi ar fi fost locul perfect pentru testarea unei versiuni mici a unei arme de disrupere electromagnetică şi apoi să dea vina pe afro-americanii care încărcau navele şi care urmau să sufere de radiaţii ca suferinţă după explozie.

Ar putea Proiectul Manhatan şi avionul ce a cărat bomba atomică pe bază de plutoniu ce a fost aruncată asupra Japoniei în cel de-al doilea război mondial să fie un truc şi o faţadă de 60 de ani pentru publicul larg şi pentru aviatorii care au aruncat cutii de metal goale, asta ascunzând cauzele reale ale exploziilor atomice – o formă sofisticată a bruiatorului de câmp a lui Tesla ce manipulează rezonanţa Schumann? A fost Tesla primul care să manipuleze sau să controleze rezonanţa Schumann? Probabil că nu.

Venus, Pirmaidele şi Frecevenţa de Rezonanţă a Pământului

În 1950, Immanuel Velikosky a dedus logic că planeta Venus a fost o lună aruncată de către Jupiter sau Saturn, fiind aruncată acum 10,000 de ani. În timp ce capricioasa lună traversa sistemul solar, apa şi aerul de pe Marte au fost absorbite de către Venus. Apoi o planetă dintre Marte şi Jupiter s-a dezintegrat în centura de asteroizi şi schimbări geografice masive au avut loc pe Pământ. S-au întâmplat toate aceste cataclisme pentru că plimbăreaţa lună a intereferat cu Frecvenţa Fundamentală de Rezonanţă şi armonicile de pe Marte, Pământ şi alte planete?

Dar au fost schimbările geografice de pe Pământ controlate sau atenuate  de prezenţa marii Piramide din Egipt şi de o altă structură masivă construită la o altă interesecţie de longitudine şi latitudine crucială şi fundamentală de pe Pământ? Geologii ştiu că longitudinea şi latitudinea exactă a punctului marii piramide este un punct de pivotare pentru toate continentele de pe Pământ. Au funcţionat cele două piramide de pe Pământ ca nişte cardane pentru stabilizarea Frecvenţei Fundamentale de Rezonanţă şi a frecvenţelor armonice aferente? Au stabilizat Pământul de-a lungul erelor alte piramide construite pe Pământ?

Longitudinea şi latitudinea punctelor de intersecţie ale celor două piramide (sau ale unei piramide, de la Gizeh şi un dom sau obelisc) pentru a echilibra Pământul cât timp sistemul rolar era în dezechilibru creat de luna buclucaşă au fost determinate de întâmplări geologice evidente şi de traiectoria Lunii.

Întâmplările geologice specifice şi locaţia exactă a marii piramide ne oferă o hartă a unui punct exact de pe Pământ care ste o locaţie logică pentru cel de-al doilea set de pirmaide. Dacă sunt piramide mari, domuri sau obeliscuri în acea locaţie, atunci teoriile şi munca de o viaţă a lui Velikovsky ar fi demonstrate şi întregul nostru concept despre istorie, ştiinţă şi conştiinţă ar fi modificate şi înălţate.

Există veşti bune şi vesti mai puţin bune despre a doua locaţie. Vestea bună e că pentru a investiga această locaţie nu e nevoie nici de sateliţi, bocanci sau jeep-uri pentru ca echipa de cercetare să ajungă, dar trebuie să navigheze pe apă până acolo. Vestea proastă e că nivelul de călcare e mult sub apă şi ar fi nevoie de un submarin şi probabil o navă de suprafaţă. Nu numai că Tesla şi Luna plimbăreaţă au manipulat Frecvenţa de Rezonanţă a Pământului dar natura influenţează frecvenţa de 7,5 Hz şi frecvenţa armonicilor rezonante în fiecare secundă.

 Influenţa naturii

Autorul şi alţi cercetători postulează că fiecare grad şi temperatură atmosferică ridică sau coboară amplitudinea frecvenţelor  şi armonicilor rezonante ale Pământului cu cel puţin 100%. De ceea, atunci când aer rece cu amplitudine mică rezonantă vine în contact cu aerul fierbinte cu amplitudine mare, se crează spirale intense.

De exemplu un bolovan de 2,25 kg şi unul de 9kg aruncate la capete diferite într-o piscină cu adâncime constantă crează două valuri. Atunci când valurile mai mici create de bolovanul de 2,25 kg se interesectează cu cele create de bolovanul de 9 kg, se crează o trecere intensă, sau spirală la punctul de intersecţie.

Spiralele din atmosferă sunt intensificate de particulele încărcate negativ de la suprafaţa Pământului şi de cele încărate pozitiv din ionosferă pot dura o nanosecundă sau câteva minute, ore sau zile. Autorul propune logic faptul că spiralele ce ţin nanosecunde excită nitrogenul atmosferic şi ionii de hidrogn/heliu ce vin e la Soare şi saturează Pământul. Pornirea provoacă energizarea nitrogenului şi a ionilor de hidrogen/heliu, fenomen cuniscut sub numele de fulger. Spiralele de durată lungă sunt tornadele şi furtunile.

Ar putea diagrame cu forme “opuse” şi frecvenţe cu amplitudini “opuse” conţinute într-un cilindru cu domuri să reproducă ceea ce se întâmplă în natură? Ar putea oare cilindrul cu dom să fie cheia unui aparat ieftin şi  eficace pentru producerea electricităţii şi cu efecte benefice pe termen lung? În loc ca energia electrică să circule ca descărcare, scânteie sau fulger, poate energia poate fi capturată cu condensatori şi baterii ca electricitate.

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Manipuland si folosind Rezonanta Schumann – partea a II a  1
BY RAZVAN ON 26/11/2012STIRI

 

 

Din lac în puţ

Au fost nenumărate poveşti ale unor oameni care au fost foarte aproape de a fi loviţi de fulger. Afecţiuni ca de exmeplu cancer, diabet sau boli de inimă sau plămâni, care existau îniante de experienţa cu fulgerul au fost permanent şi instantaneu vindecate după lovitaura acestuia. Persoanele care nu aveau afecţiuni şi care au fost în apropierea unei lovituri de fulger au experimentat niveluri foarte mari de energie pe termen lung. Din păcate aceste rapoarte trebuie să rămână la nivel de poveşti pentru că nu există un mod de a experimenta şi reproduce un fulger în laborator.  Poate că vindecările pretinse şi energizările pe termen lung  nu au fost cauzate de curentul de voltaj înalt ale fulgerului, dar de către canalul de spirale intense cauzate de temperaturile foarte joase şi înalte ce crează amplitudini în Frecvenţa de Rezonanţă a Pământului.

Nu numai frecvenţa de rezonanţă de 7,8 şi amplitudinea frecvenţei de rezonanţă de 7,8, dar şi faza frecvenţei de rezonanţă de 7,8 şi frecveneţele armonice sunt la fel de critice. (Figura 1). Determinarea fazei Frecvenţei de Rezonanţă a Pământului a fost relevată de către zidurile marii piramide ce sunt “înclinate” (converg pe una din feţe către un punct). Cerectătorii Bill Schul şi Ed Petit au făcut experimente importante folosind lasere şi oglinzi  pe modele la scară ale marii piramide cu feţe lise şi cu feţe “concave”. Raza laser trimisă către piramida cu feţe drepte nu a avut vreo direcţie sau scop dar cea cu feţele concave a condus raza exact în camera regelui.

schuman1.gifFundaţia pentru tehnologia Tri-vortexului

Folosind un software numit Auto-Cad autorul determină formula exactă ce a fost folosită la “curbura” zidului marii piramide astfel încât structura să funcţioneze ca o prismă ce concentrează şi organizează tahionii şi particulele luminoase în elemente chimice. Formula poate fi aplicată structurilor geometrice compuse din 3 până la 288 de feţe sau ziduri astfel încât aceste modele geometrice să funcţioneze ca prisme.

Un alt experiment semnificativ a fost să aplice formula brevetată armonicilor sau frecvenţelor electromagnetice. Folosind un alt software numit Cool Edit Pro, cunoscut şi sub numele de Adobe Audition, o structură tridimensională cu un număr de “ziduri” poate fi “creată” în timp şi spaţiu folosind faze şi amplitudini precise ce au anumite faze şi amplitudini. Folosirea unei anume succesiuni de faze şi amplitudini determină dacă particula de lumină se învârte la stânga sau la dreapta. Experimentele cerecetătorilor tradiţionali demonstrează că viaţa biologică funcţionează cel mai bine într-o mişcare dextrogină (spre stânga). Ce ar fi realizat Nikola Tesla dacă avea programe precum Auto-Cad şi Adobe Audition, oferindu-i un control precis asupra fazei şi amplitudinii?

Proiectul în desfăşurare

Autorul a creat desene  cu dimensiuni diferite şi frecvenţe cu faze apecifice ce au amplitudini joase şi înalte ce crează rotaţii individuale şi colective ce “blochează” constant mişcarea particulelor luminoase. După multe experimente autorul a descoperit că cele mai intense spirale erau create de figuri cu trei şi patru laturi. Orice figură cu mai mult de patru laturi nu produce intensitatea maximă şi rezultatele ce sunt indicate de către miros, gust, întindere şi eliberare de dureri.

Noile desene cu 120 de nuanţe de culori sunt folosite pentru tratarea produselor Tri-vortex. În trecut, numai de la 6 la 8 nuanţe de culori erau folosite pentru a trata obiectele pentru a le face să ajute la absorbţia lichidelor şi solidelor şi la eliberarea rapidă a durerii. Folosirea desenelor multicolorate cu trei sau patru laturi a fost inspirată de către cercetători care au pisat elemente chimice precum cupru, argint şi aur cu un obiect bont. După 24 de ore de pisat, cuprul devine verde deschis, argintul bleu deschis şi aurul purpuriu. Culorile rezultate nu s-au datorat oxidării pentru că după şase ore de la încetarea operaţiunii metalele revin la culoarea lor normală iar aurul nu se combină cu niciun element, inclusiv oxigenul.

Acest experiment arată că fiecărui element chimic îi corespunde o particulă luminoasă cu o anumită culoare. Folosind diverse dimensiuni de grafică şi folosind cât de multe nuanţe şi culori posibil, indivizii expuşi la spirale rotitoare către stânga îşi vor alinia corect chimicalele din corp. O combinaţie de triungiuri şi pătrate întrepătrunse şi “concave” are efectul maxim faţă de o singură formă “concavă.”

schuman2.gif

Bazându-se pe aceste descoperiri, şi pe studiul piramidelor a lui Dean şi Mary Hardy, mulţi dintre noi au dedus în mod logic că marea piramidă este o piramidă “concavă” cu trei laturi închisă într-o piramidă “concavă” cu patru laturi. Camera regelui şi a reginei nu erau camere roiale de înmormântare ci funcţionau ca laboratoare ultr-sofisticate pentru prosperitate şi studiu pentru proiectele de alchimie cu mii de ani înainte ca faraonii morţi să fie introduşi în aceste camere. Laboratorul Unu (camera regelui) este punctul focal al particulelor de lumină al piramidei cu patru laturi şi Laboratorul Doi (camera reginei) este punctul focal al piramidei cu trei laturi (Figura 2). Dacă se crea aur în Laboratorul 1 atunci cel mai uşor mod de a scoate şi transporta bucăţile brute afară din piramidă ar fi fost prin împingerea acestora peste multele podele de lemn înclinate, prezente şi azi în Laboratorul 1.

Frecvenţele fundamentale ale Elementelor Chimice

Prin teste şi analize multiple, autorul a concluzionat că există un element chimic înantea hidrogenului ce are nouă feţe sau faze. Acest element chimic a fost denumit Clevebacksterum (Cb). Hidrogenul are 18 feţe sau faze. Carbonul are 144. Frecvenţa de rezonanţă a elementelor chimice se află în plaja dintre 2,000 şi 5,000 de herţi, cunsocută şi ca zgomot de fond. Totuşi, toate aceste armonici multiple ale elementelor chimicce sunt ţinute la un loc de către frecvenţa cu fază şi amplitudine precisă vibrând la Rezonanţa Schumann, la aproximativ 7,5 Hz. Diviziunea şi multiplii lui 18 aplicaţi elementelor chimice, Cb-ul şi importanţa hidratării cu apă sunt detaliate în articolele publicat la www.trivortex.com.

 

 

 

 

Winfried Otto Schumann
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
Winfried Otto Schumann 225px-Winfried_Otto_Schumann.jpeg
Winfried Otto Schumann în 1974 Născut 20 mai 1888
22px-Flagge_K%C3%B6nigreich_W%C3%BCrttem TübingenRegatul Württemberg Decedat 22 septembrie 1974
22px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png MünchenGermania Naționalitate 22px-Flag_of_Germany.svg.png German Domeniu Electrodinamicăgeofizică modifică 12px-Gtk-dialog-info.svg.png

Winfried Otto Schumann (n. 20 mai 1888, TübingenRegatul Württemberg - d. 22 septembrie 1974, München, Germania) a fost un fizician german care a presupus că existărezonanța Schumann, o serie de rezonanțe de frecvență joasă cauzate de descărcările electrice din atmosferă.

Viața[modificare | modificare sursă]

Copilăria și-a petrecut-o în Kassel și în Berndorf lângă Viena. A studiat Electrotehnica la Universitatea din Karlsruhe. A promovat în 1912 cu tema Tehnologie de Înaltă tensiune.

Înainte de Primul Război Mondial a fost șeful laboratorului de Înaltă Tensiune la Brown, Boveri & CieÎn 1920 a fost profesor la Universitatea din Stuttgart, unde a fost asistent[necesită citare]. Apoi a fost profesor de fizică la Universitatea din Jena. A fost profesor în 1924 la laboratorul de electrofizică al Universității tehnice din München, unde a rămas până la pensionare, în 1961. În 1947 i s-a decernat titlul de Membru a Academiei Bavareze pentru Stiință.

Winfried Otto Schumann a murit la vârsta de 86 de ani.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] Informații bibliotecare

 

Rezonanță Schumann
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
magnify-clip.png
Animaţie reprezentând rezonanța Schumann în atmosfera Pământului.

Rezonanța Schumann (RS) este un set de vârfuri de spectru în frecvența extrem de redusă a spectrului de câmp electromagnetic a Pământului(CEP). Rezonanțele Schumann sunt rezonanțele electromagentice globale, exercitate de descărcările fulgerelor în cavitatea formată de suprafața Pământului și ionosferă.

Acest fenomen global este numit dupa fizicianul Winfried Otto Schumann, care a prezis-o matematic în 1952. Rezonanța Schumann apare datorită faptului că spațiul dintre suprafața Pământului și ionosferă acționează ca un spațiu închis.

Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă]
30px-Nuvola_apps_kalzium.png Acest articol din domeniul științei este un ciot. Puteți ajuta Wikipedia prin completarea sa

 

Schumann resonances
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
magnify-clip.png
Animation of Schumann resonance in Earth's atmosphere.

The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic fieldspectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere.

 

 

Description[edit]

This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. Schumann resonances occur because the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acts as a closed waveguide. The limited dimensions of the Earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves in the ELF band. The cavity is naturally excited by electric currents in lightning. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the electromagnetic spectrum[1] beginning at 3 Hz and extend to 60 Hz,[2] and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.83 (fundamental),[3] 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.[1][4]

In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. This lowest-frequency (and highest-intensity) mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz, but this frequency can vary slightly from a variety of factors, such as solar-induced perturbations to the ionosphere, which comprises the upper wall of the closed cavity.[citation needed] The higher resonance modes are spaced at approximately 6.5 Hz intervals,[citation needed] a characteristic attributed to the atmosphere's spherical geometry. The peaks exhibit a spectral width of approximately 20% on account of the damping of the respective modes in the dissipative cavity. The 8th partial lies at approximately 60 Hz.[citation needed]

Observations of Schumann resonances have been used to track global lightning activity. Owing to the connection between lightning activity and the Earth's climate it has been suggested that they may also be used to monitor global temperature variations and variations of water vapor in the upper troposphere. It has been speculated that extraterrestrial lightning (on other planets) may also be detected and studied by means of their Schumann resonance signatures. Schumann resonances have been used to study the lower ionosphere on Earth and it has been suggested as one way to explore the lower ionosphere on celestial bodies. Effects on Schumann resonances have been reported following geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances. More recently, discrete Schumann resonance excitations have been linked to transient luminous events – spriteselvesjets, and other upper-atmospheric lightning. A new field of interest using Schumann resonances is related to short-term earthquake prediction.

History[edit]

In 1893, George Francis FitzGerald noted that the upper layers of the atmosphere must be fairly good conductors. Assuming that the height of these layers is about 100 km above ground, he estimated that oscillations (in this case the lowest mode of the Schumann resonances) would have a period of 0.1 second.[5] Because of this contribution, it has been suggested to rename these resonances as Schumann–FitzGerald resonances.[6] However FitzGerald's findings were not widely known as they were only presented at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, followed by a brief mention in a column in Nature.

Hence the first suggestion that an ionosphere existed, capable of trapping electromagnetic waves, is attributed to Heaviside and Kennelly (1902).[7][8] It took another twenty years before Edward Appleton and Barnett in 1925,[9]were able to prove experimentally the existence of the ionosphere.

Although some of the most important mathematical tools for dealing with spherical waveguides were developed by G. N. Watson in 1918,[10] it was Winfried Otto Schumann who first studied the theoretical aspects of the global resonances of the earth–ionosphere waveguide system, known today as the Schumann resonances. In 1952–1954 Schumann, together with H. L. König, attempted to measure the resonant frequencies.[11][12][13][14] However, it was not until measurements made by Balser and Wagner in 1960–1963[15][16][17][18][19] that adequate analysis techniques were available to extract the resonance information from the background noise. Since then there has been an increasing interest in Schumann resonances in a wide variety of fields.

Basic theory[edit]

Lightning discharges are considered to be the primary natural source of Schumann resonance excitation; lightning channels behave like huge antennas that radiate electromagnetic energy at frequencies below about 100 kHz.[20]These signals are very weak at large distances from the lightning source, but the Earth–ionosphere waveguide behaves like a resonator at ELF frequencies and amplifies the spectral signals from lightning at the resonance frequencies.[20]

In an ideal cavity, the resonant frequency of the 7b8b965ad4bca0e41ab51de7b31363a1.png-th mode db78f660ef1b6fccc6fe6cbd73974bd1.png is determined by the Earth radius 0cc175b9c0f1b6a831c399e269772661.png and the speed of light 4a8a08f09d37b73795649038408b5f33.png.[11]

a51a5c916b907118b62e89810550c077.png

The real Earth–ionosphere waveguide is not a perfect electromagnetic resonant cavity. Losses due to finite ionosphere electrical conductivity lower the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals in the cavity, resulting in a resonance frequency that is lower than would be expected in an ideal case, and the observed peaks are wide. In addition, there are a number of horizontal asymmetries – day-night difference in the height of the ionosphere, latitudinal changes in the Earth's magnetic field, sudden ionospheric disturbances, polar cap absorption, variation in the Earth radius of +/- 11 km from equator to geographic poles, etc. that produce other effects in the Schumann resonance power spectra.

Measurements[edit]

Today Schumann resonances are recorded at many separate research stations around the world. The sensors used to measure Schumann resonances typically consist of two horizontal magnetic inductive coils for measuring the north-south and east-west components of the magnetic field, and a vertical electric dipole antenna for measuring the vertical component of the electric field. A typical passband of the instruments is 3–100 Hz. The Schumann resonance electric field amplitude (~300 microvolts per meter) is much smaller than the static fair-weather electric field (~150 V/m) in the atmosphere. Similarly, the amplitude of the Schumann resonance magnetic field (~1 picotesla) is many orders of magnitude smaller than the Earth's magnetic field (~30–50 microteslas).[21] Specialized receivers and antennas are needed to detect and record Schumann resonances. The electric component is commonly measured with a ball antenna, suggested by Ogawa et al., in 1966,[22] connected to a high-impedance amplifier. The magnetic induction coils typically consist of tens- to hundreds-of-thousands of turns of wire wound around a core of very high magnetic permeability.

Dependence on global lightning activity[edit]

From the very beginning of Schumann resonance studies, it was known that they could be used to monitor global lightning activity. At any given time there are about 2000 thunderstorms around the globe.[23] Producing ~50 lightning events per second,[24] these thunderstorms create the background Schumann resonance signal.

Determining the spatial lightning distribution from Schumann resonance records is a complex problem: in order to estimate the lightning intensity from Schumann resonance records it is necessary to account for both the distance to lightning sources as well as the wave propagation between the source and the observer. The common approach is to make a preliminary assumption on the spatial lightning distribution, based on the known properties of lightning climatology. An alternative approach is placing the receiver at the North or South Pole, which remain approximately equidistant from the main thunderstorm centers during the day.[25] One method not requiring preliminary assumptions on the lightning distribution[26] is based on the decomposition of the average background Schumann resonance spectra, utilizing ratios between the average electric and magnetic spectra and between their linear combination. This technique assumes the cavity is spherically symmetric and therefore does not include known cavity asymmetries that are believed to affect the resonance and propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in the system.

Diurnal variations[edit]

The best documented and the most debated features of the Schumann resonance phenomenon are the diurnal variations of the background Schumann resonance power spectrum.

A characteristic Schumann resonance diurnal record reflects the properties of both global lightning activity and the state of the Earth–ionosphere cavity between the source region and the observer. The vertical electric field is independent of the direction of the source relative to the observer, and is therefore a measure of global lightning. The diurnal behavior of the vertical electric field shows three distinct maxima, associated with the three "hot spots" of planetary lightning activity: 9 UT (Universal Time) peak, linked to the increased thunderstorm activity from Southeast Asia; 14 UT peak associated with the peak in African lightning activity; and the 20 UT peak resulting for the increase in lightning activity in South America. The time and amplitude of the peaks vary throughout the year, reflecting the seasonal changes in lightning activity.

"Chimney" ranking[edit]

In general, the African peak is the strongest, reflecting the major contribution of the African "chimney" to the global lightning activity. The ranking of the two other peaks – Asian and American – is the subject of a vigorous dispute among Schumann resonance scientists. Schumann resonance observations made from Europe show a greater contribution from Asia than from South America. This contradicts optical satellite and climatological lightning data that show the South American thunderstorm center stronger than the Asian center.,[24] although observations made from North America indicate the dominant contribution comes from South America. The reason for such disparity remains unclear, but may have something to do with the 60 Hz cycling of electricity used in North America (60 Hz being a mode of Schumann Resonance). Williams and Sátori[27] suggest that in order to obtain "correct" Asia-America chimney ranking, it is necessary to remove the influence of the day/night variations in the ionospheric conductivity (day-night asymmetry influence) from the Schumann resonance records. On the other hand, such "corrected" records presented in the work by Sátori et al.[28] show that even after the removal of the day-night asymmetry influence from Schumann resonance records, the Asian contribution remains greater than American. Similar results were obtained by Pechony et al.[29] who calculated Schumann resonance fields from satellite lightning data. It was assumed that the distribution of lightning in the satellite maps was a good proxy for Schumann excitations sources, even though satellite observations predominantly measure in-cloud lightning rather than the cloud-to-ground lightning that are the primary exciters of the resonances. Both simulations – those neglecting the day-night asymmetry, and those taking this asymmetry into account, showed same Asia-America chimney ranking. As for today, the reason for the "invert" ranking of Asia and America chimneys in Schumann resonance records remains unclear and the subject requires further, targeted research.

Influence of the day-night asymmetry[edit]

In the early literature the observed diurnal variations of Schumann resonance power were explained by the variations in the source-receiver (lightning-observer) geometry.[15] It was concluded that no particular systematic variations of the ionosphere (which serves as the upper waveguide boundary) are needed to explain these variations.[30] Subsequent theoretical studies supported the early estimations of the small influence of the ionosphere day-night asymmetry (difference between day-side and night-side ionosphere conductivity) on the observed variations in Schumann resonance field intensities.[31]

The interest in the influence of the day-night asymmetry in the ionosphere conductivity on Schumann resonances gained new strength in the 1990s, after publication of a work by Sentman and Fraser.[32] Sentman and Fraser developed a technique to separate the global and the local contributions to the observed field power variations using records obtained simultaneously at two stations that were widely separated in longitude. They interpreted the diurnal variations observed at each station in terms of a combination of a diurnally varying global excitation modulated by the local ionosphere height. Their work, which combined both observations and energy conservation arguments, convinced many scientists of the importance of the ionospheric day-night asymmetry and inspired numerous experimental studies. However, recently it was shown that results obtained by Sentman and Fraser can be approximately simulated with a uniform model (without taking into account ionosphere day-night variation) and therefore cannot be uniquely interpreted solely in terms of ionosphere height variation.[33]

Schumann resonance amplitude records show significant diurnal and seasonal variations which in general coincide in time with the times of the day-night transition (the terminator). This time-matching seems to support the suggestion of a significant influence of the day-night ionosphere asymmetry on Schumann resonance amplitudes. There are records showing almost clock-like accuracy of the diurnal amplitude changes.[28] On the other hand there are numerous days when Schumann Resonance amplitudes do not increase at sunrise or do not decrease at sunset. There are studies showing that the general behavior of Schumann resonance amplitude records can be recreated from diurnal and seasonal thunderstorm migration, without invoking ionospheric variations.[29][31] Two recent independent theoretical studies have shown that the variations in Schumann resonance power related to the day-night transition are much smaller than those associated with the peaks of the global lightning activity, and therefore the global lightning activity plays a more important role in the variation of the Schumann resonance power.[29][34]

It is generally acknowledged that source-observer effects are the dominant source of the observed diurnal variations, but there remains considerable controversy about the degree to which day-night signatures are present in the data. Part of this controversy stems from the fact that the Schumann resonance parameters extractable from observations provide only a limited amount of information about the coupled lightning source-ionospheric system geometry. The problem of inverting observations to simultaneously infer both the lightning source function and ionospheric structure is therefore extremely underdetermined, leading to the possibility of nonunique interpretations.

The "inverse problem"[edit]

One of the interesting problems in Schumann resonances studies is determining the lightning source characteristics (the "inverse problem"). Temporally resolving each individual flash is impossible because the mean rate of excitation by lightning, ~50 lightning events per second globally, mixes up the individual contributions together. However, occasionally there occur extremely large lightning flashes which produce distinctive signatures that stand out from the background signals. Called "Q-bursts", they are produced by intense lightning strikes that transfer large amounts of charge from clouds to the ground, and often carry high peak current.[22] Q-bursts can exceed theamplitude of the background signal level by a factor of 10 or more, and appear with intervals of ~10 s,[26] which allows to consider them as isolated events and determine the source lightning location. The source location is determined with either multi-station or single-station techniques, and requires assuming a model for the Earth–ionosphere cavity. The multi-station techniques are more accurate, but require more complicated and expensive facilities.

Transient luminous events research[edit]

It is now believed that many of the Schumann resonances transients (Q bursts) are related to the transient luminous events (TLEs). In 1995 Boccippio et al.[35] showed that sprites, the most common TLE, are produced by positive cloud-to-ground lightning occurring in the stratiform region of a thunderstorm system, and are accompanied by Q-burst in the Schumann resonances band. Recent observations[35][36] reveal that occurrences of sprites and Q bursts are highly correlated and Schumann resonances data can possibly be used to estimate the global occurrence rate of sprites.[37]

Global temperature[edit]

Williams [1992][38] suggested that global temperature may be monitored with the Schumann resonances. The link between Schumann resonance and temperature is lightning flash rate, which increases nonlinearly with temperature.[38] The nonlinearity of the lightning-to-temperature relation provides a natural amplifier of the temperature changes and makes Schumann resonance a sensitive "thermometer". Moreover, the ice particles that are believed to participate in the electrification processes which result in a lightning discharge[39] have an important role in the radiative feedback effects that influence the atmosphere temperature. Schumann resonances may therefore help us to understand these feedback effects. A strong link between global lightning and global temperature has not been experimentally confirmed as of 2008.

Upper tropospheric water vapor[edit]

Tropospheric water vapor is a key element of the Earth’s climate, which has direct effects as a greenhouse gas, as well as indirect effect through interaction with cloudsaerosols and tropospheric chemistry. Upper tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) has a much greater impact on the greenhouse effect than water vapor in the lower atmosphere,[40] but whether this impact is a positive, or a negative feedback is still uncertain.[41] The main challenge in addressing this question is the difficulty in monitoring UTWV globally over long timescales. Continental deep-convective thunderstorms produce most of the lightning discharges on Earth. In addition, they transport large amount ofwater vapor into the upper troposphere, dominating the variations of global UTWV. Price [2000][42] suggested that changes in the UTWV can be derived from records of Schumann Resonances.

On other planets and moons[edit]

The existence of Schumann-like resonances is conditioned primarily by two factors:

  1. A closed, planetary-sized spherical[dubious – discuss] cavity, consisting of conducting lower and upper boundaries separated by an insulating medium. For the earth the conducting lower boundary is its surface, and the upper boundary is the ionosphere. Other planets may have similar electrical conductivity geometry, so it is speculated that they should possess similar resonant behavior.
  2. A source of electrical excitation of electromagnetic waves in the ELF range.

Within the Solar System there are five candidates for Schumann resonance detection besides the Earth: VenusMarsJupiterSaturn and its biggest moon Titan. Modeling Schumann resonances on the planets and moons of the Solar System is complicated by the lack of knowledge of the waveguide parameters. No in situ capability exists today to validate the results.

Venus[edit]

The strongest evidence for lightning on Venus comes from the impulsive electromagnetic waves detected by Venera 11 and 12 landers. Theoretical calculations of the Schumann resonances at Venus were reported by Nickolaenko and Rabinowicz [1982][43] and Pechony and Price [2004].[44] Both studies yielded very close results, indicating that Schumann resonances should be easily detectable on that planet given a lightning source of excitation and a suitably located sensor.

Mars[edit]

In the case of Mars there have been terrestrial observations of radio emission spectra that have been associated with Schumann resonances.[45] The reported radio emissions are not of the primary electromagnetic Schumann modes, but rather of secondary modulations of the nonthermal microwave emissions from the planet at approximately the expected Schumann frequencies, and have not been independently confirmed to be associated with lightning activity on Mars. There is the possibility that future lander missions could carry in situ instrumentation to perform the necessary measurements. Theoretical studies are primarily directed to parameterizing the problem for future planetary explorers.

Detection of lightning activity on Mars has been reported by Ruf et al. [2009].[45] The evidence is indirect and in the form of modulations of the nonthermal microwave spectrum at approximately the expected Schumann resonance frequencies. It has not been independently confirmed that these are associated with electrical discharges on Mars. In the event confirmation is made by direct, in situ observations, it would verify the suggestion of the possibility of charge separation and lightning strokes in the Martian dust storms made by Eden and Vonnegut [1973][46] and Renno et al. [2003].[47] Martian global resonances were modeled by Sukhorukov [1991],[48] Pechony and Price [2004][44] and Molina-Cuberos et al. [2006].[49] The results of the three studies are somewhat different, but it seems that at least the first two Schumann resonance modes should be detectable. Evidence of the first three Schumann resonance modes is present in the spectra of radio emission from the lightning detected in Martian dust storms.[45]

Titan[edit]

It was long ago suggested that lightning discharges may occur on Titan,[50] but recent data from Cassini–Huygens seems to indicate that there is no lightning activity on this largest satellite of Saturn. Due to the recent interest in Titan, associated with the Cassini–Huygens mission, its ionosphere is perhaps the most thoroughly modeled today. Schumann resonances on Titan have received more attention than on any other celestial body, in works by Besser et al. [2002],[51] Morente et al. [2003],[52] Molina-Cuberos et al. [2004],[53] Nickolaenko et al. [2003][54] and Pechony and Price [2004].[44] It appears that only the first Schumann resonance mode might be detectable on Titan.

Since the landing of the Huygens probe on Titan's surface in January 2005, there have been many reports on observations and theory of an atypical Schumann resonance on Titan. After several tens of fly-bys by Cassini, neither lightning nor thunderstorms were detected in Titan's atmosphere. Scientists therefore proposed another source of electrical excitation: induction of ionospheric currents by Saturn's co-rotating magnetosphere. All data and theoretical models comply with a Schumann resonance, the second eigenmode of which was observed by the Huygens probe. The most important result of this is the proof of existence of a buried liquid water-ammonia ocean under few tens of km the icy subsurface crust.[55][56][57][58]

Jupiter and Saturn[edit]

Jupiter is one planet where lightning activity has been optically detected. Existence of lightning activity on that planet was predicted by Bar-Nun [1975][59] and it is now supported by data from GalileoVoyagers 1 and 2, Pioneers10 and 11 and Cassini. Saturn is also confirmed to have lightning activity.[60] Though three visiting spacecraft – Pioneer 11 in 1979, Voyager 1 in 1980 and Voyager 2 in 1981, failed to provide any convincing evidence from optical observations, in July 2012 the Cassini spacecraft detected visible lightning flashes, and electromagnetic sensors aboard the spacecraft detected signatures that are characteristic of lightning. Little is known about the electrical parameters of Jupiter and Saturn interior. Even the question of what should serve as the lower waveguide boundary is a non-trivial one in case of the gaseous planets. There seem to be no works dedicated to Schumann resonances on Saturn. To date there has been only one attempt to model Schumann resonances on Jupiter.[61] Here, the electrical conductivity profile within the gaseous atmosphere of Jupiter was calculated using methods similar to those used to model stellar interiors, and it was pointed out that the same methods could be easily extended to the other gas giants Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Given the intense lightning activity at Jupiter, the Schumann resonances should be easily detectable with a sensor suitably positioned within the planetary-ionospheric cavity.

See also[edit] References[edit]
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  3. Jump up^ Rusov, V.D. (2012). "Can Resonant Oscillations of the Earth Ionosphere Influence the Human Brain Biorhythm?". arXiv:1208.4970 [physics.gen-ph]. Department of Theoretical and Experimental Nuclear Physics, Odessa National Polytechnic University, Ukraine
  4. Jump up^ Recent advances in multidisciplinary applied physics By A. Méndez-Vilas. Page 65.
  5. Jump up^ G. F. FitzGerald, “On the period of vibration of electrical disturbances upon the Earth,” Br. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Rep. 63, 682 (1893)
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  9. Jump up^ Appleton, E. V. , M. A. F. Barnett (1925). "On Some Direct Evidence for Downward Atmospheric Reflection of Electric Rays". Proceedings of the Royal Society. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character 109 (752): 621–641.Bibcode:1925RSPSA.109..621Adoi:10.1098/rspa.1925.0149.
  10. Jump up^ Watson, G.N. (1918). "The diffraction of electric waves by the Earth".Proceedings of the Royal Society. Ser.A 95: 83–99.
  11. Jump up to:a b Schumann W. O. (1952). "Über die strahlungslosen Eigenschwingungen einer leitenden Kugel, die von einer Luftschicht und einer Ionosphärenhülle umgeben ist". Zeitschrift und Naturfirschung 7a: 149–154. Bibcode:1952ZNatA...7..149S.
  12. Jump up^ Schumann W. O. (1952). "Über die Dämpfung der elektromagnetischen Eigenschwingnugen des Systems Erde – Luft – Ionosphäre". Zeitschrift und Naturfirschung 7a: 250–252. Bibcode:1952ZNatA...7..250S.
  13. Jump up^ Schumann W. O. (1952). "Über die Ausbreitung sehr Langer elektriseher Wellen um die Signale des Blitzes". Nuovo Cimento 9 (12): 1116–1138.doi:10.1007/BF02782924.
  14. Jump up^ Schumann W. O. and H. König (1954). "Über die Beobactung von Atmospherics bei geringsten Frequenzen". Naturwiss 41 (8): 183–184.Bibcode:1954NW.....41..183Sdoi:10.1007/BF00638174.
  15. Jump up to:a b Balser M. and C. Wagner (1960). "Measurement of the spectrum of radio noise from 50 to 100 c/s". J.Res. NBS 64D: 415–418.doi:10.6028/jres.064d.050.
  16. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1960). "Observations of Earth–ionosphere cavity resonances". Nature 188 (4751): 638–641.Bibcode:1960Natur.188..638Bdoi:10.1038/188638a0.
  17. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1962). "Diurnal power variations of the Earth–ionosphere cavity modes and their relationship to worldwide thunderstorm activity". J.G.R 67 (2): 619–625. Bibcode:1962JGR....67..619B.doi:10.1029/JZ067i002p00619.
  18. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1962). "On frequency variations of the Earth–ionosphere cavity modes". J.G.R 67 (10): 4081–4083.Bibcode:1962JGR....67.4081Bdoi:10.1029/JZ067i010p04081.
  19. Jump up^ Balser M. and C. Wagner (1963). "Effect of a high-altitude nuclear detonation on the Earth–ionosphere cavity". J.G.R 68: 4115–4118.doi:10.1029/jz068i013p04115.
  20. Jump up to:a b Volland, H. (1984). Atmospheric Electrodynamics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  21. Jump up^ Price, C., O. Pechony, E. Greenberg (2006). "Schumann resonances in lightning research". Journal of Lightning Research 1: 1– 15.
  22. Jump up to:a b Ogawa, T., Y. Tanka, T. Miura, and M. Yasuhara (1966). "Observations of natural ELF electromagnetic noises by using the ball antennas". J. Geomagn. Geoelectr 18: 443– 454.doi:10.5636/jgg.18.443.
  23. Jump up^ Heckman S. J., E. Williams, (1998). "Total global lightning inferred from Schumann resonance measurements". J. G. R. 103(D24): 31775–31779.Bibcode:1998JGR...10331775Hdoi:10.1029/98JD02648.
  24. Jump up to:a b Christian H. J., R.J. Blakeslee, D.J. Boccippio, W.L. Boeck, D.E. Buechler, K.T. Driscoll, S.J. Goodman, J.M. Hall, W.J. Koshak, D.M. Mach, M.F. Stewart, (2003). "Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector". J. G. R. 108(D1): 4005. Bibcode:2003JGRD..108.4005C.doi:10.1029/2002JD002347.
  25. Jump up^ Nickolaenko, A.P. (1997). "Modern aspects of Schumann resonance studies". J.a.s.t.p. 59: 806–816. doi:10.1016/s1364-6826(96)00059-4.
  26. Jump up to:a b Shvets A.V. (2001). "A technique for reconstruction of global lightning distance profile from background Schumann resonance signal". J.a.s.t.p.63: 1061–1074. doi:10.1016/s1364-6826(01)00024-4.
  27. Jump up^ Williams E. R., G. Sátori (2004). "Lightning, thermodynamic and hydrological comparison of the two tropical continental chimneys".J.a.s.t.p. 66: 1213–1231. doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2004.05.015.
  28. Jump up to:a b Sátori G., M. Neska, E. Williams, J. Szendrői (2007). "Signatures of the non-uniform Earth–ionosphere cavity in high time-resolution Schumann resonance records". Radio Science. in print.
  29. Jump up to:a b c Pechony, O., C. Price, A.P. Nickolaenko (2007). "Relative importance of the day-night asymmetry in Schumann resonance amplitude records". Radio Science. in print.
  30. Jump up^ Madden T., W. Thompson (1965). "Low-frequency electromagnetic oscillations of the Earth–ionosphere cavity". Rev. Geophys. 3 (2): 211.Bibcode:1965RvGSP...3..211Mdoi:10.1029/RG003i002p00211.
  31. Jump up to:a b Nickolaenko A. P. and M. Hayakawa (2002). Resonances in the Earth–ionosphere cavity. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht-Boston-London.
  32. Jump up^ Sentman, D.D., B. J. Fraser (1991). "Simultaneous observations of Schumann Resonances in California and Australia – Evidence for intensity modulation by the local height of the D region". Journal of geophysical research 96 (9): 15973–15984. Bibcode:1991JGR....9615973S.doi:10.1029/91JA01085.
  33. Jump up^ Pechony, O., C. Price (2006). "Schumann Resonances: interpretation of local diurnal intensity modulations". Radio Sci. 42 (2): RS2S05.Bibcode:2006RaSc...41.2S05Pdoi:10.1029/2006RS003455.
  34. Jump up^ Yang H., V. P. Pasko (2007). "Three-dimensional finite difference time domain modeling of the diurnal and seasonal variations in Schumann resonance parameters". Radio Science 41 (2): RS2S14.Bibcode:2006RaSc...41.2S14Ydoi:10.1029/2005RS003402.
  35. Jump up to:a b Boccippio, D. J., E. R. Williams, S. J. Heckman, W. A. Lyons, I. T. Baker, R. Boldi (1995). "Sprites, ELF transients, and positive ground strokes". Science 269 (5227): 1088–1091.Bibcode:1995Sci...269.1088Bdoi:10.1126/science.269.5227.1088.PMID 17755531.
  36. Jump up^ Price, C., E. Greenberg, Y. Yair, G. Sátori, J. Bór, H. Fukunishi, M. Sato, P. Israelevich, M. Moalem, A. Devir, Z. Levin, J.H. Joseph, I. Mayo, B. Ziv, A. Sternlieb (2004). "Ground-based detection of TLE-producing intense lightning during the MEIDEX mission on board the Space Shuttle Columbia". G.R.L. 31: L20107. doi:10.1029/2004GL020711.
  37. Jump up^ Hu, W., S. A. Cummer, W. A. Lyons, T. E. Nelson (2002). "Lightning charge moment changes for the initiation of sprites". G.R.L. 29 (8): 1279.Bibcode:2002GeoRL..29h.120Hdoi:10.1029/2001GL014593.
  38. Jump up to:a b Williams, E.R. (1992). "The Schumann resonance: a global tropical thermometer". Science 256 (5060): 1184–1186.Bibcode:1992Sci...256.1184Wdoi:10.1126/science.256.5060.1184.PMID 17795213.
  39. Jump up^ Williams, E.R. (1989). "The tripole structure of thunderstorms". J. G. R.94: 13151–13167. Bibcode:1989JGR....9413151W.doi:10.1029/JD094iD11p13151.
  40. Jump up^ Hansen, J., A. Lacis, D. Rind, G. Russel, P. Stone, I. Fung, R. Ruedy, J., Lerner (1984). "Climate sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms".Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity, J.,E. Hansen and T. Takahashi, eds.. AGU Geophys. Monograph 29: 130–163.doi:10.1029/gm029p0130.
  41. Jump up^ Rind, D. (1998). "Just add water vapor". Science 28 (5380): 1152–1153.doi:10.1126/science.281.5380.1152.
  42. Jump up^ Price, C. (2000). "Evidence for a link between global lightning activity and upper tropospheric water vapor". Letters to Nature 406 (6793): 290–293. doi:10.1038/35018543PMID 10917527.
  43. Jump up^ Nickolaenko A. P., L. M. Rabinowicz (1982). "On the possibility of existence of global electromagnetic resonances on the planets of Solar system". Space Res. 20: 82–89.
  44. Jump up to:a b c Pechony, O., C. Price (2004). "Schumann resonance parameters calculated with a partially uniform knee model on Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan". Radio Sci. 39 (5): RS5007. Bibcode:2004RaSc...39.5007P.doi:10.1029/2004RS003056.
  45. Jump up to:a b c Ruf, C., N. O. Renno, J. F. Kok, E. Bandelier, M. J. Sander, S. Gross, L. Skjerve, and B. Cantor (2009). "Emission of Non-thermal Microwave Radiation by a Martian Dust Storm". Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(13): L13202. Bibcode:2009GeoRL..3613202R.doi:10.1029/2009GL038715.
  46. Jump up^ Eden, H. F. and B. Vonnegut (1973). "Electrical breakdown caused by dust motion in low-pressure atmospheres: consideration for Mars".Science 180 (4089): 962–3. Bibcode:1973Sci...180..962E.doi:10.1126/science.180.4089.962PMID 17735929.
  47. Jump up^ Renno N. O., A. Wong, S. K. Atreya, I. de Pater, M. Roos-Serote (2003). "Electrical discharges and broadband radio emission by Martian dust devils and dust storms". G. R. L. 30 (22): 2140.Bibcode:2003GeoRL..30vPLA1Rdoi:10.1029/2003GL017879.
  48. Jump up^ Sukhorukov A. I. (1991). "On the Schumann resonances on Mars".Planet. Space Sci. 39 (12): 1673–1676.Bibcode:1991P&SS...39.1673Sdoi:10.1016/0032-0633(91)90028-9.
  49. Jump up^ Molina-Cuberos G. J., J. A. Morente, B. P. Besser, J. Porti, H. Lichtenegger, K. Schwingenschuh, A. Salinas, J. Margineda (2006). "Schumann resonances as a tool to study the lower ionosphere of Mars".Radio Science 41: RS1003. Bibcode:2006RaSc...41.1003M.doi:10.1029/2004RS003187.
  50. Jump up^ Lammer H., T. Tokano, G. Fischer, W. Stumptner, G. J. Molina-Cuberos, K. Schwingenschuh, H. O. Rucher (2001). "Lightning activity of Titan: can Cassiny/Huygens detect it?". Planet. Space Sci. 49 (6): 561–574. Bibcode:2001P&SS...49..561Ldoi:10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00171-9.
  51. Jump up^ Besser, B. P., K. Schwingenschuh, I. Jernej, H. U. Eichelberger, H. I. M. Lichtenegger, M. Fulchignoni, G. J. Molina-Cuberos, J. A. Morente, J. A. Porti, A. Salinas (2002). "Schumann resonances as indicators for lighting on Titan". Proceedings of the Second European Workshop on Exo/Astrobiology, Graz, Australia, September 16–19.
  52. Jump up^ Morente J. A., Molina-Cuberos G. J., Porti J. A., K. Schwingenschuh, B. P. Besser (2003). "A study of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in Titan’s atmosphere with the TLM numerical method". Icarus 162 (2): 374–384. Bibcode:2003Icar..162..374Mdoi:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00025-3.
  53. Jump up^ Molina-Cuberos G. J., J. Porti, B. P. Besser, J. A. Morente, J. Margineda, H. I. M. Lichtenegger, A. Salinas, K. Schwingenschuh, H. U. Eichelberger (2004). "Shumann resonances and electromagnetic transparence in the atmosphere of Titan". Advances in Space Research33 (12): 2309–2313. Bibcode:2004AdSpR..33.2309M.doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(03)00465-4.
  54. Jump up^ Nickolaenko A. P., B. P. Besser, K. Schwingenschuh (2003). "Model computations of Schumann resonance on Titan". Planet. Space Sci. 51(13): 853–862. Bibcode:2003P&SS...51..853Ndoi:10.1016/S0032-0633(03)00119-3.
  55. Jump up^ Béghin, C., et al., 2007. A Schumann-like resonance on Titan driven by Saturn’s magnetosphere possibly revealed by the Huygens Probe, Icarus 191, 251-266.
  56. Jump up^ Béghin, C., et al., 2009. New insights on Titan’s plasma-driven Schumann resonance inferred from Huygens and Cassini data, Planet. Space Sci., 57, 1872-1888.
  57. Jump up^ Béghin, C., Hamelin, M., Sotin, C., 2010. Titan’s native ocean revealed beneath some 45 km of ice by a Schumann-like resonance, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 342, 425-433.
  58. Jump up^ Béghin, C., and 8 colleagues. Analytic theory of Titan’s Schumann resonance: Constraints on ionospheric conductivity and buried water ocean, Icarus, 218, 1028-1042, 2012.
  59. Jump up^ Bar-Nun A. (1975). "Thunderstorms on Jupiter". Icarus 24: 86–94.Bibcode:1975Icar...24...86Bdoi:10.1016/0019-1035(75)90162-1.
  60. Jump up^ http://www.ciclops.org/view_event/178/Lightning_Flashing_in_Daylight
  61. Jump up^ Sentman D. D. (1990). "Electrical conductivity of Jupiter's Shallow interior and the formation of a resonant planetary-ionosphere cavity".Icarus 88: 73–86. Bibcode:1990Icar...88...73Sdoi:10.1016/0019-1035(90)90177-B.
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Fizicianul Bob Lazar care a lucrat in baza S4 de langa Zona 51 explica in 1989 functionarea unei farfurii zburatoare din sistemul binar Zeta Reticuli: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adugati prcc8UQW3bY. Iata si ocupanti ai farfuriilor zburatoare din acest sistem solar dublu intr-o baza din fosta URSS, in 23 aprilie 1942 (chiar arata bine extraterestra!): tastati  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati PgfwJzAvQNE

 

Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati succesiv:

3VWmNm6J09M

PgfwJzAvQNE

3swu_lC-7zc

2giFGsGLft4

MwUpPwyyvLw

5tydvDgVNiA

nuQp8OxgJrQ

e5gQ2D5St3Q

 

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Romanul Henri Marie Coanda nu e SF, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit aerodina lenticulara Coanda 9 bazata pe efectul Coanda si motoare cu reactie, cu 12 turboagregate BMW 028, nici austriacul Viktor Schauberger, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit Repulsin, un disc zburator cu impulsie magnetohidrodinamica, cu motor cu implozie (suctiune, scadere a presiunii fluidului aflat pe directia de inaintare a avehiculului) magnetohidrodinamica cu vortex de aer ionizat sub presiune intr-o spirala Nautilus, cu sectiune crescand dupa sirul lui Fibonacci si apa fierbinte sub presiune, generand automentinerea unei miscari de rotatie la 1200 rpm, si tasnirea verticala a discului, si in  nici germanul Rudolph Schriever, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit avionul rotund Rund Flugzeug (RFZ) sau elicopterul supersonic cu reactie Flugelrad (aripa rotativa) la Praga, nici aromanul (romanii de peste Dunare, din Timoc si Voivodina) Nicolae Teslea sau Nikola Tesla, dupa care capitanul de marina Hans Kohler a construit tahionator converterul sau convertizorul de energie libera folosit la crearea giroscopului electrogravitational Thule, Vril, si apoi, Haunebu (clopotul zburator Haunebu IV avea 120 m diametru) si navei mama Andromeda, de 139 m lungime, de marimea unui zepelin mare (Hindenburg avea 253 m), nici Andreas Epp, la indrumarea caruia s-a construit farfuria zburatoare Omega 8. Viktor Grebennikov si Edward Leedskalnin au dezvoltat metode de invingere a gravitatiei, Grebennikov folosinduse de proprietatile geometrice ale structurii microscopice a aripilor cheratinoase ale sacarabeului, care duc la deformarea continuumului spatiu-timp si generarea leviatiei si opririi scurgerii timpului pentru cel care leviteaza: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: _ChsZUwqTeE. Deasemenea despre bazele naziste subterane din nord-estul Antarctidei (la Polul Sud), fata nevazuta a Lunii si Marte, a scris si generalul de brigada Emil Strainu, cat si militarii rusii au comentat despre campania militara a amiralului de marina Richard Bird din 1947 pentru distrugerea bazei naziste de la Polul Sud soldata cu esec. Nu mai zic despre fizicianul Robert Lazar care a lucrat la baza S4 din apropierea Zonei 51 la retroingineria unor discuri zburatoare, inclusiv celui cazut la Roswell in 1947.   Si pe canalele de stiinta de la RDS apar unele din aceste informatii. Dar nu cred ca ai avut rabdare sa studiezi tot ce scrie la aceast topic despre ei. Nici nu e de condamnat, mai ales daca nu stai bine cu timpul liber si daca nu te pasioneaza fizica. Oricum, e parerea ta si e dreptul tau sa ti-o exprimi! Toate cele bune! :friends: 
Tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 3J_K5vHQnlQ; Y02BLG9Xek4; 1fn5_8gw6Qg; Rx6SWYT5abw; U53zCg8uFAo; gcD1h9DYitg; o2weEI1F64o; _1tkWMI-TSc; NiVROBhwHUM; VjpCKZ7cEoY; 3W94TT2eFV8; mJtKcUiWEms; GIIHzpzBErM; _6G_QDnXgx0; UBZZlM3IJ60; GP1TTwUWpg4; 9-UXJbrgIr0; 7k0OXGLC8Ok; G7Zi5i94rzs; 9-UXJbrgIr0; KMyiH-dFqfs; SqvnbgGPdmI; prcc8UQW3bY; x8npcgiNGus; dKOYzYwQ6js; dlo8IEBJaqs; 7-0iOfYF6o0; 4NLIkKl8NlY; V9-BsAUps5E; OcoPsm26RfQ; VSTaQ51stb4; eb97wVaz3Ic; rN2AhUXlcLs; HRfW7w1YoUU; sVLRKDlE8c4; 5VtYQzMvSio; _ECjO46EUp4; DRWbmiXQba0; NN09AAG94Os; xEEw3TzahVI; KBrYCUnEExA; 7hJP9ZWRXCo; 6EWpNckTqLA; gc0menDzaUE&feature=c4-overview-vl&list=PLE34B0DF38A5BD062; EeocSYQ5GnY; HRfW7w1YoUU; e5gQ2D5St3Q; 3VWmNm6J09M; nuQp8OxgJrQ; PgfwJzAvQNE; 3swu_lC-7zc; 2giFGsGLft4; MwUpPwyyvLw; 5tydvDgVNiA; hYJXE4FCm7Q; _ChsZUwqTeE.

 

Zum ersten mal in der Geschichte der Menschheit, in einem Weltweiten event, Ganz gleich, wer sie sind, Ganz egal, wo sie sind, machen Sie sich gefasst, auf eine neue Ara in der Geschichte der Menschheit.

 

http://www.vortex-world.org/repulsin.htm

 

 

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the VORTEX WORLD

 

 

 

the repulsin

It happend at 1200 rpm ...

With a snapping sound the machine broke loose from the six quarter inch bolts that connected it to the ground, and then, with a soft wining sound, it took off with a blue glowing fog emerging from the machine ...

 

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Imagine that we could control that force ....

Among Viktor Schaubergers machines there is no one like the Repulsin or the flying saucer that has created such myths and stories. The basic designs are from the mid thirties when he tried to finish the Climator. Often mysterious material acting as catalysts are used in the devices. Different light and sound phenomena are also reported from people that claim that they had been eye witnesses to these flying devices. A most peculiar thing is that they seem to be very difficult to control, as they have a habit of smashing into the ceiling, and after that, being irreparable. Viktor himself claimed that powerful diamagnetic forces were responsible for the enormous effect. However, in the literature and in Viktor's own notebooks there is no evidence, if and if so how these devices worked. The question is, are all these rumours true ? Do these devices really work ?

Well, what we can see from the few pictures that exist is that there seems to be some kind of turbine, shaped as a double flat membrane with concentric rills on it. If you compare to the wave pattern you get when you throw a stone into a small pond you will comprehend better what I mean. However, the wave pattern on the upper membrane had a small difference in the phase compared to the lower membrane. On the edge rim, turbine vanes are mounted, probably acting as a source of power for both self rotation and even for the generation of power. The double membrane was probably co-rotating as four bolts that fix them together, can be observed.

In the pictures we can also see that there is some kind of body, a bowl shaped plate that is bend over the membrane whose outlet can be found inside the rim foil. Together, the rim foil (the metal band around the lower rim) and the outlet form a Venturi "tube". An air intake can be seen on the top of the device. Unfortunately, one important component is missing on the top. This component should "pre-form" the air so it starts to twist before it enters the double membrane. This component had a similar shape as a sea shell. Viktor said that this device was never built as it is very difficult to produce a thing with such a complex geometry. In the book Living Water (by Olof Alexandersson) a colloid solution of very fine grained quartz crystal and water is mentioned as a catalyst for the process.

So, if we start to think for a while. Let's say that this device really worked, it really did
take off! How would it work ?
Consider what probably happens in the machine:

- The air is sucked through the intake where it is pre-formed into a vortice containing vortices within vortices shaped as long threads rotating around their axis.In my opinion the double membrane was not co-rotating. If they where not counter rotating, one of the was fixed, probably the upper membrane and the lower rotating on the driving axis. A description on what happens is given on the wind mill page.

- Briefly the air threads start to spin faster and faster around their axis driven by the difference in speed between the membranes. As the air reaches longer out on the membrane, the peripherical speed increases along with the radius and so does the angular speed of the air threads.

- During the passage between the double membrane the air has to pass cavities where the volume sometimes is bigger and sometimes is smaller due to the difference in phase between the upper and the lower membrane. When the air passes a narrow cavity it gets extra energy input and when it passes a larger cavity it is allowed to expand.

- The "air threads" are twisted along their axis in a smaller and smaller radius leading to an increase of the angular speed. As the air reaches further out, closer to the rim, the threads start to bend due to the increasing peripherical speed. When the air passes the different cavities it starts to pulsate in a rhythm that is depending on the angular speed of the disc. Huge forces are generated when all these degrees of freedom are harmonised into a symphony.

However, it is not necessary to use unknown theories as the diamagnetic forces to explain how the powerful lift is generated. Of course this can be the explanation, the future will show us if this is the case. As for the colloid solution of fine grained quartz and water, one can imagine that huge amounts of piezo electricity is produced between the membranes, where the pulsating and twisting air containing small amounts of the solution is passing. At a certain rotation speed we have reached the level where we have "harmony" and the air is "self pulsating" and generating electricity that "pumps" up the energy level. What actually happens in this process in certainly unknown! But, high levels of static electricity have been reported in similar devices connected to the ZPE-area. ZPE stands for zero point energy or vacuum energy which is the idea of an unknown field of energy existing in vacuum. Read more about this phenomena! In several proposals of propulsion devices, for flying saucers high electric energy levels are also used. As an example we have David Hamels flying disk. You can read about it here. It could
be that the diamagnetism that Viktor Schauberger mentioned, is the same phenomena or physical principle that is proposed in these propulsion devices. In Viktor's lessons he always talked about two important things:
"You shall always remember two things. First, remember how the rivers are meandering. Second, remember the electrophorus (or Kelvin's thunderstorm ) experiments!"

As I mentioned before there is one (at least…) more explanation on why Viktor Schaubergers machine took off with such power. It might be explained by "normal" aerodynamics and a phenomena named ‘the Coanda effect'. Very brief the Coanda effect is the phenomena when a flowing media tends to "stick" to a curved surface, You can read a biography of Henri Coanda here . If we take a closer look on the bowl shaped plate, we realise that it is a circular wing. When the air is rushing out inside the foil or the metal band that can be seen on the lower rim of the device it creates a sub pressure just over the foil.

The surrounding air is sucked inside the foil and with the air from the membranes. This generates a sub pressure over the device and the device is "hanging" in it. You could say that it is an inverted hovercraft. But instead of creating a pressure under the craft You create a sub pressure over it. Basically it is the same, it is only a matter of pressure differences. The sub pressure is modest but as we have a large area we also get a huge lifting force. There is one more way to create the sub pressure over the craft. You can let the air blow out on the top instead.

When the twisted air follows the Coanda surface it sweeps down the surrounding air and we get the sub pressure this way. If You want to read more about the Coanda effect follow this link . On this page You can read a lot about different applications and a very interesting new type of fan, the Jet Fan.

The principle of the "flats and angles" (type 1) is demonstrated in picture 1, where I have built a small (250 mm diameter, 80 mm high) prototype of the Jet Fan type (type1). I have also "rebuilt" my vacuum cleaner so it is blowing instead (my wife demanded a new one … ). The air blows out through a special nozzle so it forms a "disk" of blowing air.

Picture 2: When the nozzle with the "air disk" is placed close to the top, we can simulate what is happening on type 1. As You can see in the picture, the silk threads follow the air flow shoving the path.

Picture 3: Oh Yes, It works !

The Malmögroup will continue their work during 1998 with further testing of these ideas. We proposed a model of the membrane turbine and will continue to shape the moulds so we can multiply the membranes. A section of the body will also be designed as a test rig where it will be possible to test different profiles of the body and different types of nozzles and other things related to the device. We will also present the results on this page, please continue to check the site. I will write in the "what's new section" when there is more info.

 

 

 

 

 

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Repulsin type B, inner part of air inlet removed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Picture 1

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Picture 2

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Picture 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://davidpratt.info/gravity2.htm

 

Gravity and Antigravity

 

David Pratt

Feb 2001, last rev’d Jul 2007

 

Part 2 of 2

 

 

Contents

Part 1

Part 2
    4. Levitation and technology
    5. Human levitation
    6. Theosophical writings

 

 

4. Levitation and technology

 

Myths and megaliths

    The megalithic structures found at many sites around the world have generated endless controversy as to how they were built. Conventional archaeologists, who dismiss the possibility of highly advanced civilizations in the remote past, insist that they were built solely with the use of primitive tools and brute force. Some of the structures, or parts of them, could have been built in this way. However, a number of engineers have stated that some features would be difficult if not impossible to duplicate today, even using the most advanced technology. The sheer weight and size of some of the stone blocks have prompted several researchers to wonder whether the ancient builders had mastered some form of levitation technology.*

*The acoustic and magnetic levitation techniques currently under development by mainstream scientists create a physical lifting force stronger than the force of gravity and do not modify gravity or generate an antigravitational force.

    The pre-Incan fortresses at Ollantaytambo and Sacsayhuaman in the Peruvian Andes consist of cyclopean walls constructed from tight-fitting polygonal stone blocks, some weighing 120 tonnes or more. The blocks used at Ollantaytambo were somehow transported from a quarry located on another mountaintop 11 km away, the descent from which was impeded by a river canyon with 305-metre vertical rock walls. The ruins of Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia include blocks weighing around 100 tonnes, which were transported from quarries 50 km away.1 According to the local Aymara Indians, the complex was built at the ‘beginning of time’ by the founder-god Viracocha and his followers, who caused the stones to be ‘carried through the air to the sound of a trumpet’. An alternative theme is that they created a ‘heavenly fire’ that consumed the stones and enabled large blocks to be lifted by hand ‘as if they were cork’. According to a Mayan legend, the temple complex of Uxmal in the Yucatan Peninsula was built by a race of dwarfs who were able to move heavy rocks into place by whistling.2

    Legends of occult power being employed to lift and transport stone blocks are in fact universal. For example, according to tradition the megalithic city of Nan Madol on the Micronesian island of Pohnpei was built by the god-kings Olosopa and Olosipa, who used magic spells to make the huge stones ‘fly through the air like birds’.3 Legends about the huge stone statues or moai on Easter Island, many of which are as high as a three-storey building, tell how magicians or priests used mana, or mind power, to make them ‘walk’, or float through the air.4

    According to early Greek historians, the walls of the ancient city of Thebes were built by Amphion, a son of Jupiter, who moved the large stones ‘to the music of his harp’ while his ‘songs drew even stones and beasts after him’. Another version claims that when he played ‘loud and clear on his golden lyre, rock twice as large followed in his footsteps’. The 10th-century Arab historian Mas’di wrote that, to build the pyramids, the ancient Egyptians inserted papyri inscribed with certain characters beneath the stone blocks; they were then struck by an instrument, producing a sound which caused them to rise into the air and travel for a distance of over 86 metres.5

    The achievements of the ancient Egyptian builders have caused even some fairly orthodox investigators to wonder whether levitation might have been employed.6 For instance the roof of the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid, 200 feet up, consists of huge granite beams weighing up to 70 tonnes. What’s more, the major temples on the Giza plateau – the two next to the Sphinx and those besides the Second and Third Pyramids – contain colossal limestone blocks weighing between 50 and 200 tonnes and placed on top of one another. The largest are 9 metres long, 3.6 metres wide and 3.6 metres high. It is interesting to note that there are only a few cranes in the world today capable of lifting objects weighing 200 tonnes or more.7

    The largest blocks used in any known man-made structure are found in the ancient platform beneath the Roman Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek in Lebanon.8 The foundation platform is enclosed by a cyclopean retaining wall; in the western side, on the fifth level, at a height of 10 metres, there are three colossal stones known as the Trilithon, each measuring about 19.5 metres long, 4.5 metres high and 3.5 metres deep, and weighing a staggering 1000 tonnes. The stones fit together perfectly and not even a knife blade can be pushed between them. At the quarry, half a kilometre away, there remains a fourth, even larger block, weighing as much as 1200 tonnes, the lower part of its base still attached to the bedrock. The course beneath the Trilithon contains seven mammoth stones weighing about 450 tonnes each.

    There are no traces of a roadbed leading from the quarry and no traces of any ramp. Nor are there any written records as to how the platform was built. According to local Arab legend, Baalbek’s first citadel was built before the Flood, and rebuilt afterwards by a race of giants. The Phoenician historian Sanchoniatho stated that Lebanon’s first city was Byblos, founded by the god Ouranus, who designed cyclopean structures and was able to make stones move as if they had a life of their own.


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Fig. 5.1 The massive Trilithon at Baalbek.9
(The silhouetted two-storey house has been inserted for scale.)

 

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Fig. 5.2 Another view of the Trilithon.

 

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Fig. 5.3 The ‘Stone of the South’ still in the quarry at Baalbek.10

Among the Tibetans

    Evidence that worldwide legends of acoustic levitation might have a basis in fact, was provided by the Swedish engineer Henry Kjellson, who in the 1950s recorded the experiences of two separate western travellers who had allegedly witnessed demonstrations of sonic technology in Tibet.1 Since neither of the following accounts can be verified, sceptics assume that Kjellson probably made them up himself.

    During a visit to a Tibetan monastery situated southwest of the capital Lhasa, the Swede Dr Jarl was taken to a meadow where there was a high cliff to the northwest. About 250 metres up the face of the cliff was an entrance to a cave, in front of which was a wide ledge where monks were building a stone wall. Embedded in the ground 250 metres from the foot of the cliff, was a large rock slab with a bowl-shaped depression in it. A block of stone, 1.5 metres long, 1 metre wide, and 1 metre high, was manhandled into the depression. Monks with 19 musical instruments, consisting of 13 drums and 6 very long trumpets, were arranged in an arc of about 90 degrees, 63 metres from the bowl-stone. The drums, open at one end, were aimed at the stone block. Behind each instrument was a line of monks eight to ten deep. A monk in the middle of the arc started chanting and beating out a rhythm on a small drum, and then the other instruments joined in. After four minutes, the large stone block began to wobble and floated into the air rocking from side to side. All the instruments were trained constantly on the stone as it rose upwards at an accelerating rate and finally crashed onto the ledge. The monks continued to perform this feat at the rate of 5 or 6 stones per hour. The role of the 200 or so monks behind the instruments was unclear: one suggestion is that they used some form of coordinated psychokinesis to aid the flight of the stone.

 

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Fig. 5.4 Dr Jarl’s sketch showing how Tibetan monks were able to raise stone blocks into the air using the power of sound.

    The second case involved an Austrian named Linauer, who stated that while at a remote monastery in northern Tibet during the 1930s, he had witnessed the demonstration of two curious sound instruments which could induce weightlessness in stone blocks. The first was an extremely large gong, 3.5 metres in diameter, composed of a central circular area of very soft gold, followed by a ring of pure iron, and finally a ring of extremely hard brass. When struck, it produced an extremely low dumph which ceased almost immediately. The second instrument was also composed of three different metals; it had a half-oval shape like a mussel shell, and measured 2 metres long and 1 metre wide, with strings stretched longitudinally over its hollow surface. Linauer was told that it emitted an inaudible resonance wave when the gong was struck. The two devices were used in conjunction with a pair of large screens, positioned so as to form a triangular configuration with them. When the gong was struck with a large club to produce a series of brief, low-frequency sounds, a monk was able to lift a heavy stone block with just one hand. Linauer was informed that this was how their ancestors had built protective walls around Tibet, and that such devices could also disintegrate physical matter.

Keely and Leedskalnin

    A man who appears to have gone a long way to unlocking the secrets of sound was John Ernst Worrell Keely of Philadelphia (1827-1898). He spent 50 years developing and refining a wide variety of devices that used ‘sympathetic vibratory force’ or ‘etheric force’ to levitate objects, spin large wheels, power engines, and disintegrate rock. He performed many convincing demonstrations in his laboratory for scientists and other interested observers. He attempted to put his apparatus into commercial production, but this was hampered by the fact that it had to be tuned to the bodily vibrations of the operator and also to the surroundings.1

 

keely.jpg

Fig. 5.5 John Keely.

    Keely built several devices to manipulate gravity.2 One of them was the ‘sympathetic transmitter’, a copper globe about one foot (30 cm) in diameter, containing a Chladni plate and various metal tubes, whose position could be adjusted by means of a knob. The globe was held by a metal stand, around the base of which projected small metal rods a few inches long, of different sizes and lengths, which vibrated like tuning forks when twanged by the fingers. In one experiment, the transmitter was connected by a wire made of gold, platinum, and silver to the top of a water-filled glass jar. When the right chord was sounded on the strings of a zither, metal balls, weighing 2 pounds (0.9 kg), rose from the bottom of the jar until they hit the metal cap, and remained there until a different note was played which caused them to sink again. Witnesses relate how, after further experimentation, Keely was able to make heavy steel balls move in the air by simply playing on a kind of mouth organ. Using the same combination of transmitter, connecting cord, and musical instrument, he was able to make a 3.6-kg model of an airship rise into the air, descend, or hover with a motion ‘as gentle as that of thistledown’. He was also able to lift extremely heavy weights by connecting them to vibratory appliances worn on his person; several people witnessed him levitate and move a 3-tonne cast-iron sphere in this way, and also make it heavier so that it sank into the ground as if into mud.

    Keely was able to catalyze the vibratory force necessary to make objects move using a variety of musical instruments, including trumpets, horns, harmonicas, fiddles, and zithers, and could even operate the equipment just by whistling. One sceptic, however, claimed that Keely did not play on an instrument to set up sympathetic vibration but to signal to a confederate in another part of the building when to turn on or off the compressed air that supposedly powered his ‘fraudulent’ devices!

    A man who in more recent times claimed to know the secret of how the pyramids and other megalithic structures were built was Edward Leedskalnin.3 He lived in a place called Coral Castle, near Miami, Florida, which he built himself from giant blocks of coral weighing up to 30 tons. In 28 years, working alone, without the use of modern construction machinery, he quarried and erected a total of 1100 tons. He was very secretive and usually worked at night, and died in 1952 without divulging his construction techniques, despite visits from engineers and government officials. Some teenagers spying on him one evening claimed they saw him ‘float coral blocks through the air like hydrogen balloons’. It is widely thought that he had discovered some means of locally reversing the effects of gravity. From the remaining contents of Leedskalnin’s workshop and photographic evidence, engineer Chris Dunn suggests that he generated a radio signal that caused the coral to vibrate at its resonant frequency, and then used an electromagnetic field to flip the magnetic poles of the atoms so that they were repulsed by the earth’s magnetic field.


castle.jpg

Fig. 5.6 The Nine-ton Gate at Coral Castle. Originally used as a turnstile, the 8-foot-tall gate is perfectly mounted and balanced so that a child can open it with the touch of a finger.4

 

Schauberger and nature’s levity

    According to aeronautical experts, the flight of the simple bumble bee is a mystery that defies conventional laws of physics, as its wings do not flutter rapidly enough to create sufficient lift. The rhinoceros beetle should also be unable to fly as its body mass is completely out of proportion to its wing area. Some writers have suggested that levitational forces help to explain how birds and insects fly, and fishes swim.

    Austrian scientist and inventor Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) believed that, alongside gravity, a principle of levity operated in nature, governing all upward movement of energy, all uplift and upward growth. During his early life as a forester in the Alpine wilderness, he observed how large mountain trout could lie motionless in the strongest currents, except for an occasional slight movement of their tail-fins. If alarmed, they darted at lightning speed upstream, instead of allowing the current to carry them downstream. Trout and salmon are able to jump up high waterfalls (even as much as 60 m high) with little apparent effort. Schauberger would watch trout dance in a wild spinning movement at the bottom of a waterfall, and then come out of this spinning movement and float motionlessly upwards. He developed the idea that in addition to the gravitational movement of water from the spring down to the sea, there is a flow of ‘levitational’ energy in the opposite direction.

    In one experiment Schauberger had 100 litres of hot water poured into a stream. Although it did not noticeably warm the water, a trout resting about 150 m downstream immediately became very agitated: it started to flail its tail, moving backwards all the time as it struggled to maintain its position. Finally it was swept downstream, and only returned much later. Schauberger concluded that the hot water had destroyed the upward flow of levitational energy. One moonlit winter night, he saw egg-shaped stones the size of a head rise to the surface of a deep pool, and concluded that the combined effect of the cold and the metalliferous composition of the stones (especially their silica content) was responsible for enhancing the levitational energies.

    Schauberger was surprised to find that the tips of mosses on rocks in a shaded mountain stream point upstream, somehow resisting the pressure of the fast-flowing current. He regarded this as a reliable indicator of a stream’s state of health, because it showed that the downstream gravitational flow of matter and the upstream, levitational flow of energy were in balance. However, if through deforestation a stream is exposed to direct sunlight, the water becomes warmer, less dense, and the moss-tips point downstream. Pristine wilderness is nowadays hard to find, owing to the marauding hand of man.

    Schauberger sought to develop energy-generating machines which, by the power of shape, form, and motion alone, were able to mimic nature’s processes. Whereas today’s main energy technologies use outward-moving explosion, such as fuel-burning and atom-splitting, his machines operated on the basis of inward-spiralling movements, or implosion. He wrote: ‘If water or air is rotated into a twisting form of oscillation known as “colloidal”, a buildup of energy results, which with immense power, can cause levitation.’ Vortical motion, with rotational velocities of 15-20,000 revolutions per minute, accompanied by rapid cooling, created strong vacuum effects inside his machines. Some researchers think that the transmutation of matter into more ethereal states and the production of genuine levitational forces also occurred.

    Detailed reports of his experiments with a variety of designs are generally lacking, but his efforts seem to have met with at least partial success. During the second world war, he was forced to work for the Nazis, and developed small ‘flying saucers’. One of the scientists involved was reported as saying that at the first attempt to run one of the models, it shot upwards unexpectedly, trailing a blue-green then silver-coloured glow, and was wrecked against the ceiling of the hangar. At the end of the war Schauberger’s research was investigated by the Americans and Russians, but as far as the public record is concerned, none of his models were developed further. More recently there has been a resurgence of interest in his revolutionary ideas.1

 

schauberg.jpg

Fig. 5.7 Two prototypes of Schauberger’s flying saucer, about 65 cm in diameter.

 

References

Myths and megaliths

  1. Paul LaViolette, Genesis of the Cosmos: The ancient science of continuous creation, Rochester, VE: Bear and Company, 2004, p. 343; Ian Lawton and Chris Ogilvie-Herald, Giza: The truth, London: Virgin, 1999, p. 201.
  2. Andrew Collins, Gods of Eden: Egypt’s lost legacy and the genesis of civilisation, London: Headline, 1998, pp. 58-62.
  3. Graham Hancock and Santha Faiia, Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the lost civilization, London: Michael Joseph, 1998, p. 235.
  4. Easter Island: land of mystery, section 5, davidpratt.info.
  5. Gods of Eden, pp. 35-37, 62-63.
  6. Giza: The truth, pp. 198-210.
  7. Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock, Keeper of Genesis, London: Heinemann, 1996, pp. 28-29.
  8. Andrew Collins, ‘Baalbek, Lebanon’s sacred fortress’, www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/baalbek.htm; Gods of Eden, pp. 63-64; David Hatcher Childress, Lost Cities of Atlantis, Ancient Europe & the Mediterranean, Stelle, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996, pp. 31-36, 48-50; Christian and Barbara Joy O’brien, The Shining Ones, Kemble, Cirencester: Dianthus Publishing, 2001, pp. 265-282.
  9. The Shining Ones, p. 269.
  10. www.lessing4.de/megaliths/non_europ.htm.

Among the Tibetans

  1. Collins, Gods of Eden, pp. 66-72.

Keely and Leedskalnin

  1. H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press, 1977 (1888), 1:554-566.
  2. Theo Paijmans, Free Energy Pioneer: John Worrell Keely, Lilburn, GA: IllumiNet Press, 1998, pp. 58, 144, 200, 207-212; Clara Bloomfield Moore, Keely and his Discoveries: Aerial navigation, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1893, Mokelumne Hill, CA: Health Research, 1971, pp. 106, 122-123; Dale Pond, Universal Laws Never Before Revealed: Keely’s secrets, Santa Fe, NM: Message Company, 1996, pp. 54-60, 214-217, 232-234, 257 (www.svpvril.com); Dan A. Davidson, Energy: Breakthroughs to new free energy devices, Greenville, TE: RIVAS, 1990, pp. 12-13.
  3. Christopher Dunn, The Giza Power Plant: Technologies of ancient Egypt, Santa Fe, NM: Bear & Co, 1988, pp. 109-119; Frank Joseph, ‘Mysteries of Coral Castle’, Fate, 1998, www.parascope.com/en/articles/coralCastle.htm; Kathy Doore, ‘The enigma of Coral Castle: a geomantic wonder’, www.labyrinthina.com/coral.htm.
  4. http://coralcastle.com.

Schauberger and nature’s levity

  1. Callum Coats, Living Energies: An exposition of concepts related to the theories of Viktor Schauberger, Bath: Gateway Books, 1996; Olaf Alexandersson, Living Water: Viktor Schauberger and the secrets of natural energy, Bath: Gateway Books, 1996; John Davidson, The Secret of the Creative Vacuum, Saffron Walden, Essex: Daniel Company, 1989, pp. 246-262; Nick Cook, The Hunt for Zero Point, London: Arrow, 2002, pp. 296-328; www.schauberger.co.uk.

 

5. Human levitation

 

There are reports of over 200 Christian saints levitating – usually involuntarily – during religious raptures, and some cases are supported by an impressive amount of eyewitness testimony.1 For instance, the 16th-century mystic St Teresa of Avila was observed on many occasions, typically when deep in prayer, to rise anywhere from a few feet to as high as the ceiling of the room. When she felt an ‘attack’ coming on she would beg the sisters in her convent to hold her down, though they were not always successful. Once while receiving Holy Communion from the Bishop of Avila, she felt her knees begin to leave the floor so she clutched onto the grille. But after receiving the sacrament, she let go and rose into the air.

    The 17th-century Franciscan monk St Joseph of Copertino began levitating during services and was often observed by whole congregations. Once while walking in the monastery grounds, he soared up into the branches of an olive tree and remained kneeling on a branch for half an hour, the thin stem hardly moving under his weight. Unable to glide down, after his ecstasy had passed, he had to wait for a ladder to be brought. For 35 years he was banned from all public services, but he levitated not only before the Pope and his fellow monks but also before Europe’s titled heads and the philosopher Leibnitz. The Spanish ambassador to the papal court watched him fly over the heads of a crowd to a statue of the Virgin Mary, where he briefly hovered. After giving his customary shriek, he flew back; the ambassador’s wife had to be revived with smelling salts. The duke of Brunswick hid himself in a stairway to observe one of Joseph’s levitations. After observing a second levitation, the duke renounced his Lutheran faith and became a Catholic. At Osimo, Joseph flew eight feet into the air to kiss a statue of Jesus then carried it off to his cell and floated about with it. He is also reported to have caught up another friar and carried him in the air around the room.

    The annals of 19th-century spiritualism contain many references to human levitations, as well as to tables, chairs, and other objects gaining or losing weight, levitating, and moving without human contact.2 The most famous levitator of all was the medium Daniel Dunglas Home (pronounced: Hume). His first recorded levitation took place at a seance in August 1852. He was suddenly ‘taken up into the air . . . He palpitated from head to foot with the contending emotions of joy and fear . . . Again and again he was taken from the floor, and the third time he was carried to the ceiling of the apartment, with which his hands and feet came into gentle contact.’

    He later became able to levitate at will, and believed he was lifted up by ‘spirits’. During a public career spanning 30 years, hundreds of people witnessed his levitations. The most famous incident was when in the company of Lord Adare, the Master of Lindsay, and a friend of theirs, he floated out of one window of a London house and in at another. The eminent English scientist Sir William Crookes saw him levitate on several occasions and verified that there was no trickery involved. On one occasion, Crookes’ wife, who was sitting beside Home, was raised off the ground in her chair.3

    The magician Harry Kellar, who enjoyed showing audiences how mediums did their tricks, described how during a world tour in the 1870s he was watching a Zulu witch doctor go into a trance when suddenly ‘to my intense amazement, the recumbent body slowly arose from the ground and floated upward in the air to the height of about three feet, where for a while it floated, moving up and down’. In 1882 he challenged the medium William Eglinton to perform some feat which no conjuror could repeat. Eglinton then levitated, carrying Kellar, holding his foot, into the air – an achievement which Kellar had to admit he could not explain.4

    The Italian medium Eusapia Palladino occasionally used to levitate and was also able to increase or decrease the weight of objects. Her paranormal powers were verified in investigations conducted by European scientists around the turn of the 20th century. After witnessing her demonstrations, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion stated that levitation should no longer be any more in question than the attraction of iron by a magnet.5

    In the 1920s Brazilian medium Carlos Mirabelli performed stunning phenomena under test conditions. Full-form materializations of deceased individuals known to the witnesses appeared, who were able to converse with the investigators, and to touch and be touched. He was also able to levitate and remain floating for minutes at a time. In one instance, a chair with Mirabelli in it rose into the air until it was two metres above the floor, where it remained for two minutes.6 Levitations of mediums have frequently been reported since then in spiritualist journals but, as far as is known, no medium has been able to produce them in fraud-proof conditions.


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Fig. 6.1 Mirabelli levitating.

 

    Levitation is one of the Catholic Church’s criteria for demonic possession. In 1906 a 16-year-old schoolgirl from South Africa, Clara Germana Cele, who was allegedly possessed, levitated up to 5 feet off the ground, sometimes vertically and sometimes horizontally. She fell if sprinkled with holy water.7

    In the mid-19th century, Louis Jacolliot, Chief Justice of Chandernagore, travelled all over India to learn more about wonder-working fakirs. He witnessed many extraordinary phenomena, which he tried to view in an objective and unprejudiced manner. In Varanasi (Benares) he met a fakir named Covindasamy, who performed various paranormal phenomena for him. On one occasion he crossed his arms on his chest and slowly levitated to a height of ten to twelve inches, remaining in the air more than eight minutes.8 Another of his levitations is described by Jacolliot as follows:

Leaning upon [his] cane with one hand, the Fakir rose gradually about two feet from the ground. His legs were crossed beneath him, and he made no change in his position . . .
    For more than twenty minutes I tried to see how Covindasamy could thus fly in the face and eyes of all the known laws of gravity; it was entirely beyond my comprehension; the stick gave him no visible support, and there was no apparent contact between that and his body, except through his right hand.
9

    A similar display was reported by American journalist John Keel. While travelling in Sikkim in the 1950s, he met an old lama who demonstrated his ability to levitate.

He . . . pressed one hand on top of his stick, a heavy branch about four feet long, frowned a little with effort, and then slowly lifted his legs up off the floor until he was sitting cross-legged in the air! There was nothing behind him or under him. His sole support was his stick, which he seemed to use to keep his balance. I was astounded.

The lama then conducted the rest of the conversation ‘sitting there in empty space’.10

    In July 1916, P. Muller, a German veterinarian stationed in Turkey, attended a gathering of the Rufai dervishes. He described a large hall in which white-robed dervishes wearing tall black caps ‘moved in a circle with sideways steps and curious jerking motions’. About an hour into the ceremony, the music and dancing and cries of the dancers intensified, when suddenly one of them bounded into the middle of the circle. He stood still, with his arms upraised, palms facing the sky:

And now the incomprehensible happened . . . lowly the whole tense body of this man elevated itself about eighteen inches off the floor and remained there, floating in the air with the toes pointing down.

The ecstatic man remained suspended for about a minute.11

    Tibetans speak of a power of fast-walking known as lung-gom. An eye-witness account was provided by Alexandra David-Neel, an early 20th-century explorer, journalist, and Buddhist. While in northern Tibet, she saw a man approaching with an ‘unusual gait’ and ‘extraordinary swiftness’.

I could clearly see his perfectly calm impassive face and wide-open eyes with their gaze fixed on some invisible far-distant object situated somewhere high up in space. The man did not run. He seemed to lift himself from the ground, proceeding by leaps. It looked as if he had been endowed with the elasticity of a ball and rebounded each time his feet touched the ground. His steps had the regularity of a pendulum.12

    The native American Indians apparently knew of a similar method of magical running. In the 1920s anthropologist Carobeth Laird reported on one of the last men to travel ‘the old way’: the tracks left by his feet were very faint and far apart, as if his feet had barely touched the ground.13

    On 6 June 1936, Indian yogi Subbayah Pullavar levitated for four minutes in front of 150 witnesses. He was in a state of deep trance and, once back on the ground, his limbs could not be unbent at first.14

 

levitate.jpg


Fig. 6.2 Indian yogi Subbayah Pullavar.

 

    In 1984 a German film crew filmed the levitation of an African witch-doctor, Nana Owaka, in Togo. After meditating for a full day, he placed dry leaves and twigs in a circle and sat in the middle.

Just as the sun was setting, Owaka started to stir. A villager lit the circle of twigs and flames shot up. Drums began beating wildly – then we were hardly able to believe our eyes as Owaka stood and rose straight upward! It was as if he were being lifted on a pillow of air. He simply hung as if suspended, with nothing above or below him.

After about a minute, Owaka fell back to earth. He was filmed from two angles, and no one who has examined the film has been able to detect any signs of trickery.15

    Paranormal phenomena, including levitation, are sometimes reported in connection with UFO encounters. For instance, in 1954 a man who was coming back from the fields with his horse had to let go of the bridle as the animal was lifted several feet into the air when a dark, circular object flew fast over the trail they were following. In 1968 a French doctor saw two glowing discs in the sky merge into a single object, and during the sighting he was hit by a beam of light. A few days later he and his baby son each developed a strange, reddish, triangular mark on the abdomen, and this mark recurred in successive years. Strange paranormal phenomena began to take place, including poltergeist activity, unexplained disturbances in electrical circuits, meetings with a mysterious, nameless man, and on at least one occasion uncontrolled levitation.16

 

References

  1. Rodney Charles and Anna Jordan, Lighter than Air: Miracles of human flight from Christian saints to native American spirits, Fairfield, IO: Sunstar Publishing, 1995, pp. 155-180; Stuart Gordon, The Paranormal: An illustrated encyclopedia, London: Headline, 1992, p. 395; Brian Inglis, The Paranormal: An encyclopedia of psychic phenomena, London: Paladin, 1985, pp. 159-160; Richard S. Broughton, Parapsychology: The controversial science, New York: Ballantine Books, 1991, pp. 52-53.
  2. William Crookes, Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism, London: J. Burns, 1874, Pomeroy, WA: Health Research, n.d., pp. 9-19, 21-43, 88-91; H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press, 1972 (1877), 1:202-204, 358-359.
Researches in the Phenomena of Spiritualism, pp. 89-90; Gordon, The Paranormal, pp. 395-396; Inglis, The Paranormal, p. 161. Inglis, The Paranormal, pp. 161-162. Brian Inglis, Natural and Supernatural: A history of the paranormal, Bridport, Dorset: Prism Press, Lindfield, NSW: Unity Press, 1992, p. 425. Brian Inglis, Science and Parascience: A history of the paranormal, 1914-1939, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1984, p. 224. Rosemary Ellen Guiley, The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits, New York: Checkmark Books, 2nd ed., 2000, p. 221. Louis Jacolliot, Occult Science in India and Among the Ancients, NY: University Books, 1971, p. 257. Ibid., pp. 237-238. Lighter than Air, pp. 64-65. Ibid., p. 132. Alexandra David-Neel, With Mystics and Magicians in Tibet, London: Penguin Books, 1937, p. 186. Lighter than Air, pp. 98-99. Gordon, The Paranormal, pp. 358/9. D. Hatcher Childress (ed.), The Anti-Gravity Handbook, Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1993, p. 171. UFOs: the psychic dimension, section 6, davidpratt.info.

 

6. Theosophical writings

 

As mentioned in section 1, Kepler believed that the rotation of the sun generated its gravitational force. A disciple of Pythagoras and Plato, he believed in an ether of subtler matter and that stars and planets were animated by souls. He took the view that it was solar magnetism that held the planets in their orbits, and he conceived magnetism to be a form of vortical motion. More recent theosophical writers such as H.P. Blavatsky, W.Q. Judge, and G. de Purucker have also highlighted the link between gravity and electromagnetism, the bipolar nature of gravity, and the etheric origin of force, as the following quotations show.

[A]ether is the source and cause . . . of cohesive, chemical, thermal, electric, and magnetic forces . . .1

[T]he Occultists . . . consider all the forces of Nature as veritable, though supersensuous, states of Matter; and as possible objects of perception to Beings endowed with the requisite senses.2

[T]here is no gravitation in the Newtonian sense, but only magnetic attraction and repulsion; . . . it is by their magnetism that the planets of the solar system have their motions regulated in their respective orbits by the still more powerful magnetism of the sun, not by their weight or gravitation.3

Gravitation . . . depends entirely on electrical law, and not on weight or density.4

[The theosophical adepts] reject gravity as at present explained. They deny that the so-called ‘impact theory’* is the only one that is tenable in the gravitation hypothesis. They say that if all efforts made by the physicists to connect it with Ether, in order to explain electric and magnetic distance-action have hitherto proved complete failures, it is again due to the race ignorance of the ultimate states of matter in nature, foremost of all the real nature of the solar stuff. Believing but in the law of mutual magneto-electric attraction and repulsion, they agree with those who have come to the conclusion that ‘Universal gravitation is a weak force,’ utterly incapable of accounting for even one small portion of the phenomena of motion.5

*The theory that gravity is caused by bombardment of material objects with tiny particles.

[G]ravitation [is] the same fundamentally as cosmic electro-magnetism.6

[G]ravitation is: Vital Cosmic Magnetism; the efflux or outflow of cosmic vitality from the heart of the celestial bodies . . . It is this Vital Electricity or Vital Magnetism in the Cosmic Structure which attracts in all directions, thus uniting all things into the vast body corporate of the Cosmos. Furthermore, some day it will be discovered that this Cosmic Magnetic Vitality contains or includes in itself as powerful and as greatly functional an element of repulsion as it does of attraction; and that behind all its phenomenal workings, in fact, behind and within itself, lie the still higher and incomparably more potent principles or elements of the inner and invisible Universe which thus infallibly guide its activities everywhere.7

[Einstein’s] ideas with regard to the nature of gravitation as being . . . a warping or distortion of space in the proximity of material bodies seem to be a mathematical pipe-dream, purely and simply, although doubtless very creditable indeed to the gentleman’s mathematical ability . . .8

The earth is a magnetic body . . . It is charged with one form of electricity – let us call it positive – which it evolves continuously by spontaneous action, in its interior or centre of motion. Human bodies, in common with all other forms of matter, are charged with the opposite form of electricity – negative. That is to say, organic or inorganic bodies, if left to themselves will constantly and involuntarily charge themselves with, and evolve the form of electricity opposed to that of the earth itself. . . . [T]here is an attraction between our planet and the organisms upon it, which holds them upon the surface of the ground. But the law of gravitation has been counteracted in many instances, by levitations of persons and inanimate objects . . . [T]he action of our will . . . can produce . . . a change of this electrical polarity from negative to positive; the man’s relations with the earth-magnet would then have become repellent, and ‘gravity’ for him would have ceased to exist. It would then be as natural for him to rush into the air until the repellent force had exhausted itself, as, before, it had been for him to remain upon the ground. The altitude of his levitation would be measured by his ability, greater or less, to charge his body with positive electricity. This control over the physical forces once obtained, alteration of his levity or gravity would be as easy as breathing.9

Until gravitation is understood to be simply magnetic attraction and repulsion, and the part played by magnetism itself in the endless correlations of forces in the ether of space . . . it is neither fair nor wise to deny the levitation of either fakir or table. Bodies oppositely electrified attract each other; similarly electrified, repulse each other. Admit, therefore, that any body having weight, whether man or inanimate object, can by any cause whatever, external or internal, be given the same polarity as the spot on which it stands, and what is to prevent its rising?10

Levitation of the body in apparent defiance of gravitation is a thing to be done with ease when the process is completely mastered. It contravenes no law. Gravitation is only half of a law. The Oriental sage admits gravity, if one wishes to adopt the term; but the real term is attraction, the other half of the law being expressed by the word repulsion, and both being governed by the great laws of electrical force. Weight and stability depend on polarity, and when the polarity of an object is altered in respect to the earth immediately underneath it, then the object may rise. . . . The human body . . . will rise in the air unsupported, like a bird, when its polarity is thus changed.11

    Blavatsky says that the flight of birds and swimming of fishes, including the rapid sinking of whales, involve changes in polarity and gravity not yet admitted by science. Animals can do this instinctively, while humans can learn to do so by will.12

    Theosophy asserts that during the life-period of a planet or star, gravitational forces do not remain constant. The first half of a planet’s life (the ‘descending arc’) is said to be characterized by the condensation of matter from a primordial, ethereal state, implying a strengthening of attractive and cohesive forces. It is followed by the reverse process of etherealization and spiritualization (the ‘ascending arc’), when attractive and cohesive forces weaken and matter becomes increasingly radioactive.13

 

References

  1. H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine, Pasadena, CA: Theosophical University Press (TUP), 1977 (1888), 1:508.
  2. Ibid., 1:143fn.
H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, TUP, 1972 (1877), 1:271. William Q. Judge, Echoes of the Orient, San Diego, CA: Point Loma Publications, 1975, 1:336. H.P. Blavatsky Collected Writings, Wheaton, IL: Theosophical Publishing House, 1950-91, 5:152-153. G. de Purucker, The Esoteric Tradition, TUP, 2nd ed., 1940, p. 441. Ibid., pp. 860-861. Ibid., p. 861fn. Isis Unveiled, 1:xxiii-iv, 497-498. Blavatsky Collected Writings, 1:244. W.Q. Judge, The Ocean of Theosophy, TUP, 1973 (1893), p. 154. Blavatsky Collected Writings, 4:167-169. The Secret Doctrine, 1:159, 2:68fn, 250, 308fn; The Esoteric Tradition, pp. 324-327, 453-454, 760; G. de Purucker, Studies in Occult Philosophy, TUP, 1945, pp. 450-451; A.T. Barker (comp.), The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett, TUP, 2nd ed., 1926, pp. 98-99.

 

 

Gravity and antigravity: Contents

Aetherometry and gravity: an introduction

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Șirul lui Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă]

Articol principal: Numerele Fibonacci.

În șirul de numere al lui Fibonacci, fiecare număr reprezintă suma a două numere anterioare, începând cu 0 și 1. Astfel, șirul incepe cu 0,1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610 etc

Cu cât este mai mare valoarea unui număr din cadrul acestui șir, cu atât mai mult se apropie de corelația supremă două "numere Fibonacci" consecutive din șir, numere care se împart prin ele însele (aproximativ 1 : 1,618 sau 0,618 : 1).

Corelația supremă a fost folosită pe scară largă în timpul Renașterii, în picturi.

Despre șirul lui Fibonacci a tratat și matematicianul român Miron Nicolescu în 1933.

 

Formula matematica a existentei lui Dumnezeu ii incurca si azi pe experti

  • Joi, 2 iunie 2011 23:46
  |   12288 vizualizari   |   Teoria Conspiratiei comentariu.pngfacebook.pngym.pngprint.pngemail.png
 
formula-matematica-a-existentei-lui-dumn

In 1940, Kurt Godel, cunoscut ca matematician si ca un personaj excentric al vremurilor sale, sustinea ca a gasit dovada stiintifica a existentei lui Dumnezeu. Formula lui matematica nu a fost copiata de nimeni pana la sfarsitul anilor ’70. Godel nu a spus un cuvant despre descoperirea sa, pana cand nu a fost sigur ca va muri. Formula matematica a existentei lui Dumnezeu a fost publicata abia in 1980, la 40 de ani de cand fusese gasita.

"Nu l-am vazut pe Dumnezeu, deci nu exista". Acesta este rationamentul clasic, bazat pe observatia directa. Un matematician excentric a reusit, insa, sa demonstreze stiintific ca Dumnezeu exista, fara a se baza pe observatia directa.

Dupa gandirea lui Godel, formula “magica” arata ca mai jos:

60494472.jpg

Godel si-a bazat argumentul pornind de la cel al Sfantului Anselm. Sfantul Anselm L-a definit pe Dumnezeu ca pe cel mai impunator lucru din Univers. Nicio fiinta mai puternica nu putea fi imaginata de mintea umana. Prin umare, daca Dumnezeu nu exista, atunci trebuie sa ne gandim la o fiinta si mai puternica decat el si care, evident, exista. Cum nu a fost posibil, prin definitie, a imagina un lucru mai impozant decat cel mai impunator lucru imaginabil, atunci, Dumnezeu trebuie sa existe.

Godel a modificat un pic argumentul lui Anselm. A folosit logica modala. Logica modala face distinctia intre diferitele stadii ale supozitiilor. Unele supozitii sunt demonstrabile in cateva cuvinte, altele sunt demonstrabile numai printr-un cuvant, iar altele sunt demonstrabile in toate cuvintele. Daca sunt posibile in toate cuvintele, atunci ele sunt considerate intotdeauna “necesare”.

Dumnezeu poate fie sa existe in mod "necesar", fie sa nu existe in acelasi mod "necesar". Daca Dumnezeu este o fiinta atotputernica si el exista, atunci el exista in toate cuvintele. Daca nu exista, atunci nu exista in toate cuvintele in mod necesar. Indiferent cat de mica este sansa, Dumnezeu poate exista. Asta inseamna ca Dumnezeu nu poate in mod necesar sa nu existe. Din moment ce alegerea poate fi facuta intre: “Dumnezeu exista in mod necesar” si “Dumnezeu nu exista in mod necesar”, si am eliminat posibiltatea ca el sa nu existe in mod necesar, atunci singura posibilitate este aceea ca el exista in mod necesar.

 

(infografic) Ecuația matematică a parcării paralele
 

 

infografic-ecuatia-matematica-a-parcarii
Foto: captură video 

Potrivit unu studiu al unei universități din Marea Britanie, este determinat printr-o formulă spațiul exact de care ai nevoie pentru a parca paralel. Totul depinde de capacitatea de manevrare la virajuri a automobilului, distanța de la roata din față spre centrul mașinii cât și lățimea mașinii parcate care se va afla în spate, informează UNIMEDIA. 

parking_FINAL.jpg

Cei trei pași după cum urmează: 

1. Te deplasezi paralel cu mașina aflată în față. Aliniezi capacul de la rezervor cu spatele mașinii din față, după care rotești volanul spre stânga până la maximum. 

2. Dai în spate până când roata din dreapta spate se aliniază cu mașina din față. 

3. Odată îndeplinit al doilea pas, rotești volanul până la capăt spre dreapta. 

Totuși de menționat că acești pași ar funcționa perfect în cazul traficului din Marea Britanie, unde mașinile se depasează pe partea stângă a carosabilului, iar volanul se află pe dreapta. În cazul traficului din Moldova, totul se face invers. 

Ecuația parcării laterale ar arăta cam așa: 

Formula.jpg

Sau, dacă sunteți mai profesionist/ă, puteți încerca acest procedeu: 

tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 7rBAwFD2EvQ.

208967_370685922994545_1904563968_n.jpg

 

 

How to build a Schauberger Repulsine:

Before we begin with construction of the Repulsine, this is what can happen if careful research and proper assembly, along with using quality materials for construction is not followed and adhered to:

One: the Repulsine will shred its upper power turbine! That turbine spins at a very high rpm and can, if formed from cast metal, shatter without warning.
Two: the internal thermal zone separator (wavy discs) and mechanical fluid work transmitter can shatter, as it is hollow (I will explain) and flexible and is also not capable of withstanding high centrifugal stress do to its perforated construction and wavy design. It generally will shatter first.
Three: the casing of the Repulsine is formed of copper in one device (although steel can be used) as this is for heat conduction. Copper is a brittle metal under repeated stress and can crack easily. Once again, shards will be expelled onto any unprepared researcher. 
Four: it is capable of high temperature’s (I will explain). It can scorch and burn its surroundings or a careless researcher. That temperature can easily reach 300 to 500 degrees F.
Five: it can explode if its internal vortex is suddenly quenched, venting super heated air onto any nearby observers.
Six: it must be grounded. It is best operated over hot pavement (I will explain). There is no simple way to describe its power level. It is cyclic and similar to a child’s top being spun faster and faster. It can, by a very strong suction force (as it sits in the middle of a much larger external vortex) be wrenched from the ground.
Seven: it can effect the external environment. It is highly recommended any researcher using it should precede to an area with no air or automobile traffic.
Eight: it can set fire to any dry brush present. It must be operated in a rock quarry or concrete industrial area for maximum fire safety with a fire extinguisher standing by. 
Nine: it is difficult to gain the approval of a mechanical engineer with an unproved technology; however, he or she can still verify that every precaution has been taken. The vessel is subject to high internal winds approaching 100 to 300 mph; never underestimate the harm that wind can do. That wind can amount to several static pounds pressure per square inch. It is the escaping wind that is most dangerous.
Ten: as air is ionized around the Repulsine, it can produce dangerous electrical phenomena. That is due to dust particle charging. Anytime air passes a chamber that is not grounded, at high speed it can induce charged particles! Be prepared for static electric build up if operating in a dry environment. See below for further information regarding safety issues.

A small Repulsine can easily produce 10 to 25 horsepower; a large one, in the ten to twenty foot diameter ranges, can produce well into the thousands of horsepower. This is due to its power concentrating effect. It is in a category of windmills known as dynamic flow enhancers. That is to say its passive wind flow ratting is small and no more then any similar Darrius or Savonious type. However, once the work function has begun, it can concentrate external flow from 2 times, up to 10 times. That is, it will generate the equivalent power level of a machine ten times its own size. This is similar to windmills of the “diffusion cone†type. That refers specifically to a windmill that has a large external diffuser or cone that assists in flow pressure concentration allowing even a small turbine to generate far more then its diameter is capable of without the added diffusion cone to create a down wind low pressure pocket.

The Repulsine consists of a few major parts. It has a top cone or chimney that, like the rest of the shell, must be constructed of heat conductive metal. Viktor wanted this top cone to be shaped like an elongated snail-shell. This is so external wind, in the form of a dust-devil, can enter the cone and assist the upper drive turbine’s rotation. I have found it best to use materials similar to the steel chimney pipes found in wood stove connection joints (a light steel sheet formed into a cone and riveted so that there is no turbulence on the inside of this upper chimney cone). That is the simplest part to fabricate. The taller it is; the better. It should have at least twice to five times the height of the primary plenum chamber; its upper outlet diameter is still debatable. I recommend looking at Schauberger’s water turbine arms and using that as a conical ratio. If a small aperture overly restricts the upper chimney, the flow will quench. If an oversized exit hole is used, the flow will receive too much horizontal ground wind turbulence backflow. The dynamics problem of the horizontal flow as it interferes with the vertical convection flow produced cannot be underestimated. That is the bane of all wind generator engineers who have attempted to produce energy by concentrating convection flow. That is, the horizontal wind will antagonize your Repulsine unless it has its upper cone intake aperture or snail-shell mouth directly pointed into the apparent horizontal wind. Wind is variable; it can change direction without warning, so keeping the upper snail-shell pointed can be a frustrating chore. You cannot place a guidance fin to keep the snail-shell mouth pointed, since that will break up the induced flow of the external dust-devil vortex.

Viktor simply ignored the snail-shell all together and only punched a few inlet and outlet holes in a simple conic upper chimney shell. That is not to say it is un-important. He simply could not get the correct shape fabricated. The upper chimney focuses the exhaust vortex leaving the Repulsine drive turbine. Now you have the fabrication of the upper drive turbine. That turbine must be mounted on a shaft (if using a 22-inch unit) capable of at least 10 horsepower minimal load. Shafts of this type are found on all small engines in that horsepower range. One-inch diameter shafts will ensure maximum safety. Obviously, the bearing must be of a reliable type. I recommend from personal experience the bearings used in racing go-carts wheel shafts. They have a 3-bolt mounting cup, and are very reliable.

The upper plate can be found on old centrifugal blowers. Yes, Schauberger’s design used multiple curves, but that is not set in stone. The cooling fins found on a two-cycle motor or lawn mower head can be substituted in a pinch. The plate from the centrifugal blower of a ruined engine can be used for the exhaust drive turbine. The air coming out is cyclonic so the plate is used in a reversed fin rotation. That is fairly obvious to any one building one...this plate cannot be constructed from plastics. It will melt! I realize plastic is safer and easier to fabricate however it is also worthless in a Repulsine exhaust turbine. Next, you require the shell. That shell is fabricated from a 22-inch diameter Barbecue Kettle lid piece. It has a flat region that is cut out for the upper exhaust hole. The exact plenum exhaust hole size on a unit is critical. Once again, if it is too large, the shell heat won’t build to a high temperature. Too small, and it will vent waste centrifugal air poorly and shut down the unit. Use Viktor’s photos. My ideal exhaust hole is 12 inches in diameter with a 22-inch plenum shell. I am still experimenting on the best diameter exhaust turbine.

The Repulsine has need of two active parts; the upper exhaust turbine (or reversed centrifuge blower plate) and the inner wavy discs (that use the mechanical work from the upper turbine). Theses discs are not easy to fabricate. The best material I can find is used in fireplace screening and perforated. You must locate a source of perforated steel. That perforation is to allow airflow through the wavy discs, which also prevents back conduction of heat from the outer shell or rim region (I will explain). It will be found that Hammel, used a perforated metal cone on his devices. That is the type of shell you are after. Perforating a steel sheet of that thickness with thousands of holes is difficult and imprecise. If you place too many perforations in one area, the disc may shatter!

Why do it at all? Recall that I spoke of the H-R tube. Those wavy discs serve to conduct vortex strands and transmit mechanical energy to the internal plenum chamber vortex from the upper exhaust turbine. They cannot be underestimated. They are the Repulsine...Think of the drive exhaust turbine as a simple windmill. Updrafts and convection currents power it. It is also driven off of any horizontal flow that is swirled into the upper chimney shell snail shell mouth. That is all it does! It uses waste exhaust to spin that is given maximum pressure advantage from the suction above it in the upper chimney shell vortex. There are three vortexes at work here!

One, is the external shell heat vortex or outer dust-devil,
Two, is the vortex in the upper snail shaped chimney shell,
Three, is the mechanical work vortex inside the “Repulsine†plenum or H-R tube vortex,

The novice experimenter should examine carefully the work done by vortex Wind Engineers on the web. The entire upper part of the unit is already in use at many wind turbine-generating sites! Assuming you have successfully fabricated the exhaust turbine and mounted it in a typical tri-arm mount, flush with your plenum shell, and mounted the two opposed perforated wavy discs on the long drive shaft, you now require a base shell. This shell must be as strong or stronger then the upper shell. It can be flat and still function. If it is flat steel it must be reinforced. It is always best to use shaped steel that is self-integrated structurally due to its own 3-dimensional form. For example, it can also have a wave ring shape. That is far more rigid then a simple flat piece. That is yet another reason the wavy discs are curved so they are rigid when the Repulsine tilts or lifts.

This is then bolted and sealed to the upper shell. This is critical. The outer rim is subject to great pressure and heat. The bottom hole is smaller then the exhaust hole, however the relative surface area is comparable. This is because a great deal of the upper exhaust turbine plate is sealed with only a small exit region open at its circumference. The bottom shaft bearing can be tri-arm mounted as well. These hole-sizes are critical. If the bottom axle area intake hole is too small, it will not take in enough air! The exact diameter, as compared to the upper exhaust hole is still a matter of experimentation. It is between 4 and 6 inches in diameter. In other words, its diameter in surface area approximates the exhaust outlet surface area. The entire assembly is best placed on yet another Barbecue Kettle piece - the bottom hemisphere. In this use, it is placed round side up (that is its rim on the ground). Several metal posts now go to your bottom plenum. The plenum or H-R work chamber is mounted 6 to 12 inches above the inverted kettle hemisphere. Those posts will later have metal fins on them, which will be twisted to guide air into the single intake hole, placed concentric with the drive shaft.

Now, with all in place, you can do a first spin test. Instead of an attached motor, you can use the pressure exhaust of a large tank-type vacuum cleaner. It requires precise aim. Place the hose near the exhaust turbine and push air against the curved blades the same direction the air is meant to leave the plenum chamber. This is a simple reaction effect. The snail-shell hole is more then large enough for you to place the start-up air jet. Recall that model pulsejets were actually started with a bicycle pump. Now your unit is spinning! What happens next? Usually, very little will happen. It will spin of course, but, until the exact exhaust ratio and intake ratio is found, you can expect no miracles. The bearing races must be low-friction units. If you do it correctly, the unit will begin to heat up at its plenum shell circumference. Why (?) - because the internal wavy perforated discs and compressions on the shell rim are spinning air centrifugally. That can be seen directly by touching the top of any large-tank vacuum cleaner with a metal flange head. In fact all centrifugal air compressors or high pressure fans heat in this manner. Inside the plenum, the air is being separated into a center, or axle region, cold-zone and outer rim region hot-zone. Mechanical work from the upper exhaust disc is being used to separate these temperature regions. This effect is no different than is seen on the H-R tube! The only difference is that air is being spun on the unit by frictional interaction with the wavy disc set. In the H-R tube, it is from the mechanical energy, released as compressed air, and is swirled into a vortex tube. The exact same thermal separation occurs. The inner region is cold, and outer region is hot. That heat now contributes to a rising updraft vortex about the Repulsine. Recall in a calorimeter experiment, paddles are spun to heat water in a closed shell . One experiment is to then spray water at various temperatures into the shell. If it is done properly, it will assist in imploding the center cold air mass and greatly increasing the RPM. of the turbine. This is a science experiment of a lifetime.

Why does it work? As the work being done on the Repulsine internal plenum increases from the exhaust turbine drive shaft, the steel shell reaches a critical temperature level. At that point the rim air approaches several hundred degrees. The wavy discs prevent heat from easily moving from the rim to the center (that is one reason they are perforated and cannot be solid). The plenum will begin to alternately heat and cool as new air is drawn in at its base. If its core air trapped in between the wavy discs is cooled, the plenum velocity will increase. If it is heated by intake air, the velocity will slow. This effect is resonant and typical of the Repulsine operation. It is very hard to explain. Viktor claims, that any time you allow the core air of his Repulsine to heat and expand, it pulls the internal vortex wider apart! Next, as you intake cooler air, it snaps back together again. This is a phenomenon of thermo-mechanical resonance. Tesla coils use the very same principle.

The point is that your plenum will be driven off of induced external updrafts (as if a campfire) and off of a resonance caused by changes in the core vortex temperature! That is to say, the plenum chamber is like a child’s top. Any temperature change will cause the internal vortex (a vertical axis vortex centered about the drive axle) to expand and contract. The temperature changes must work in resonant fashion. Think of the child’s top being spun faster and faster, as they plunge its push rod up and down. This resonant expanding and contracting vortex bounces off the wavy rings much as ball bounces on a floor. Each time a little more energy is added. It is like stretching and contracting a rubber band around your fingers. When thermal mechanical vortex resonance is achieved, the implosion motor takes off. This is not an out-dated centrifugal air compressor. It is a chamber where any intake air is being converted into rotary motion. As the air vortex enlarges, it strikes the rim and cools. This causes it to bounce and return like a wave, to the center of the chamber (much like an echo reflecting off a hard surface). This compresses the center cold air and heats it, causing the wave front to once more expand.

That is why the wavy perforated discs are so important. They guide this echoing vortex band as it bounces from the rim to center and back again. To see what Schauberger saw, go to a circular water bath or tank (it must be a perfect circle). Put a Styrofoam disc at its center with a stick attached. Start to resonantly plunge the disk up and down. If you time it right, the wave crest will work with your plunges in harmony, as it bounces off the tank’s wall. This is exactly why those disks are wavy and perforated. They allow the vortex bounces to build up energy. Yes, you can argue that it wastes power. Actually it does not. The heat leaving the rim feeds back into the exhaust turbine updraft. You are amplifying this echo effect. Now the skeptic will begin to squirm in their seat. What good is this resonance effect? Sure, a Tesla coil makes a big spark, but that uses up electrical power even at high Q.

What makes a two-cycle motorcycle tail pipe exhaust expansion chamber work? Echo! That is correct. The principle that helps back pressure a two-cycle motorcycle engine is the exact same principle that feeds back energy in a Schauberger Repulsine implosion motor. It makes no difference. We can get mechanical work either way! A Sterling engine obtains mechanical work on both its cold cycle and hot cycle! We now have two defined reservoirs; a cold rim reservoir and a hot central intake reservoir. These reservoirs are maintained by external wind and sunlight. This is not a guess; it is a fact! A Stirling engine uses a displacer to shuttle an air mass between a hot and cold reservoir! Go to the fine Japanese Stirling engine pages found all over the web and you will soon understand this principle.

In the Repulsine, it is accomplished by the natural vortex echo inside of the chamber. This echo builds up our RPM. That is why the wavy discs are perforated. They must help spin the vortex but never stop its wave front echo. Think of that as a natural air displacer. Striking the rim cools the vortex and reaching the center heats it. The center bottom is hot from intake air ramming. Think of it this way before you stop reading this material. The echo bounce places our vortex over the center and then the rim region. That takes the place of the Stirling engine displacer. The vortex acts like a flywheel that stores the bounce energy. In effect, it is a simple Stirling engine hybrid that uses the expanding and contracting vortex as both a piston and a displacer, at the same time.

This is not difficult to understand. The Schauberger Repulsine is a new class of Stirling, atmospheric-feedback, hot-air motor. Schauberger’s genius removed the complex piston and displacer. They are replaced by a bouncing and expanding vortex and contracting vortex ring. If the reader takes away nothing more about the “Repulsineâ€, consider the following. IT is not a centrifugal air compressor. It is a new class of Stirling hot air engine, that converts a captive vortex into a piston and displacer that therefore shuttles between a hot center region, and a cold outer shell. This vortex also forms the Stirling Engine hybrid’s flywheel. In one simple gesture, Viktor removed the flywheel - the displacer and the piston - of a Stirling hot air engine - its closest thermo-mechanical cousin. By combining all of these elements, he simplified the Stirling engine, and, allowed it to directly feed back energy to an updraft. In other words, its own waste heat assists in increasing a natural external flow. No Stirling engine does that!

A final purpose of the wavy internal discs is to help "bounce" the vortex. It is similar to the 90-degree phase drive rod that activates the displacer. It forces the vortex wall back out to the rim. I realize that I said the rim is hot and it is. That is because it is constantly relieving itself of heat from the internal bouncing vortex. It is also cooled by the swirling external vortex. Without that, it is no longer a useful reservoir. In effect we have discovered a dynamic feedback Stirling Engine suited to extracting energy from a stationary external tornadic convection cell. This is not free energy...but I feel it is neglected physics. Only time and a little faith in Schauberger’s genius and commitment to relieving the suffering of mankind will tell.

In the “Phillips Technical Review Notes†we found references to an Air Core Betatron containing only a few kilograms of active magnetic flux material. That is to say the Phillips engineers had found a way to avoid the entire heavy iron superstructure used on a Betatron. It relied instead, like a Tesla coil, on resonance in heavy cables. To add, therefore to the list of things to avoid when constructing a Repulsine, I must now in all fairness add the Air Core Betatron effect. This means very simply, your Repulsine is capable of hard X-ray production from an internal current imploded with the thermo-mechanical rim resonance vortex bounce. To put it simply; the Repulsine at full resonance is a radiation source. It is possible that 50 thousand to 10 million electron volt-level radiation by-products, in the form of hard X-rays, will be present during operation. Any time you contract a charged electron cloud so that its magnetic field is cut, you can, and will accelerate electrons in the defined nature of a Betatron Particle Accelerator! It can and will emit high-energy particle radiation of the class known as High Energy Electrons and Hard X-rays. The Phillips’ Air Core Betatron proves a large ferromagnetic induction mass is not required for electron volt energy levels up to 9 MEV. Prolonged X-ray exposure is a certified tissue destroying process. For those “would’be†Nuclear Physicists out there, any doubts that the Repulsine is capable of Betatron particle acceleration will be quashed after reading about the “Phillips T.R. papers on their 9 MEV “Air Core Betatronâ€â€.

The final piece of the puzzle; The Repulsine's rim is resonantly cooled by thermally induced downdraft feedback, as the internal plenum flow expands for its re-coil or implosion echo. It is a surface effect. Hot internal centrifugal air induces a cold downdraft pulse that is in effect the capacitive analogy to our thermo-mechanical vortex resonance, taking place in the unit. Hot always attracts cold ...remember that! The Repulsine is unpredictable and dangerous, and, in an evacuated condition, is capable of Hard X-ray production. It is NOT a toy. It is best left in the hands of certified engineers and physicists!

 

Fibonacci
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
Leonardo Fibonacci 225px-Leonardo_da_Pisa.jpg
Statuia lui Fibonacci. Camposanto, Pisa Născut c. 1170
Pisa Decedat c. 1250
Pisa (?) Naționalitate italian 30px-Flag_of_Italy.svg.png Domeniu matematică Cunoscut pentru Numere Fibonacci
Număr prim Fibonacci
Identitatea Brahmagupta–Fibonacci
Polinom Fibonacci
Număr pseudoprim Fibonacci
Cuvânt Fibonacci
Constanta reciprocă Fibonacci
Introducerea notației numerice în Europa
Perioada Pisano
Număr practic Religie Catolic modifică 12px-Gtk-dialog-info.svg.png

Leonardo Pisano Bogollo, (c. 1170 - c. 1250) [1] cunoscut și sub numele de Leonardo din Pisa, Leonardo Pisano, Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo Fibonacci, sau pur și simplu Fibonacci, a fost un matematician italian considerat de unii drept "cel mai talentat matematician din Occidentul Evului Mediu[2]

Fibonacci este cel mai bine cunoscut lumii moderne pentru: [3]

  • Răspândirea sistemului de numărare hindu-arab în Europa, prin publicarea în primul rând la începutul secolului al 13-lea a cărții sale denumită Cartea de calcul , sau Liber Abaci.
  • Un șir de numere, care i-a purtat ulterior numele, și anume șirul lui Fibonacci, pe care el nu l-a descoperit, dar pe care l-a folosit ca un exemplu în cartea sa, Liber Abaci. [4]

 

 

Biografie[modificare | modificare sursă]

Leonardo Fibonacci s-a născut în jurul anului 1170, tatăl lui fiind Guglielmo Fibonacci, un negustor italian înstărit. Guglielmo deținea un post de conducere în cadrul comercial (din varii motive a fost consultant pentru Pisa) în Bugia, un port la est de Alger, în sultanatul dinastiei Almohad din Africa de Nord (în prezent Bejaia, Algeria). În tinerețe, Leonardo obișnuia să călătorească cu tatăl său pentru a-l ajuta și astfel el a învățat limba arabă și despre sistemul numeral hindus-arab [5]

Numele de Fibonacci derivă din Leonardo filius Bonacci Pisano. După unii istorici, se numea Bighelone, cuvânt sinonim cu Bonacci.

Recunoscând că aritmetica cu ajutorul cifrelor hindu-arabe este mai simplă și mai eficientă decât cea cu cifrele romane, Fibonacci a călătorit prin mai toate țările de pe țărmul Mării Mediterane (EgiptSiriaBizanțSicilia și Provența) pentru a studia cu profesori de seamă de origine arabă din acele vremuri. Face cunoștință și cu algebra lui Al-Khwarizmi.

Leonardo s-a întors din călătoriile sale în jurul anului 1200. În 1202, la vârsta de 32 ani, el a publicat ceea ce a învățat în Liber Abaci (Cartea lui Abacus sau Cartea de calcul) și astfel a introdus cifrele hindu-arabe în Europa.

Leonardo a devenit un oaspete de seamă al împăratului Frederic al II-lea, căruia îi plăceau matematica și științele exacte. În 1240 Republica din Pisa l-a onorat pe Leonardo, cunoscut sub numele de Leonardo Bigollo, [6] acordându-i un salariu în acest sens.

În secolul al 19-lea, a fost ridicată o statuie a lui Fibonacci care a fost dezvelită în orașul Pisa. Astăzi statuia este găzduită de galeria occidentală din Camposanto din cimitirul istoric situat în Piazza dei Miracoli. [7]

Activitate științifică[modificare | modificare sursă]

Unul din marile merite ale lui Fibonacci constă în introducerea aritmeticii în sistemul comercial european. Astfel, a dat importanță cifrei zero și a recunoscut superioritatea sistemului de numerație arab față de cel roman.

La Fibonacci apar operații cu numere fracționare, procedeul de aducere la același numitor, procedee de rezolvarea a problemelor de aritmetică comercială, împărțirea în părți proporționale, probleme de amestecuri, operații cu numere iraționale, relații de recurență, problema păsărilor etc.

A propus un șir de numere naturale în care fiecare termen este egal cu suma celor doi precedenți, numit ulterior șirul lui Fibonacci.

În probleme de algebră, tratează teoria ecuațiilor de gradul al doilea, progresii, sume de serii.

A interpretat numerele negative și le-a introdus în algebră.

A stabilit valoarea lui π ca fiind 864/275.

Liber Abaci[modificare | modificare sursă]
Articol principal: Liber Abaci.

În cartea Liber Abaci ("Cartea abacului", 1202), Fibonacci introduce așa-numitul modus Indorum (metoda indiană), metodă cunoscută astăzi sub numele de cifrele arabe (Sigler 2003; Grimm, 1973). Cartea descrie o enumerare cu cifre cuprinse de la 0 la 9 cărora le conferă câte o valoare separată. Cartea a relevat importanța practică a noului sistem de numărare, folosind multiplicarea structurală și fracțiile egiptene, prin aplicarea sistemului în evidența contabilă la conversiile greutăților și a măsurilor, la calculul dobânzii, la schimbul valutar, precum și la alte aplicații de acest gen. Cartea a fost bine primită în întreaga Europă de către oamenii educați și a avut un impact profund asupra gândirii europene.

Cartea Liber Abaci a ridicat și a rezolvat, de asemenea, o problemă care privea creșterea populației ipotetice a iepurilor, în baza unor presupuneri idealiste. Soluția, generație de generație, a dus la o secvență de numere, cunoscută mai tarziu ca șirul lui Fibonacci. Șirul de numere era cunoscut matematicienilor indieni încă din secolul al 6-lea, însă cartea Liber Abaci a lui Fibonacci a fost cea care a introdus această secvențialitate în occident.

La scrierea acestei cărți, s-a folosit de o lucrare a lui Abraham bar Hiyya, scrisă în ebraică și tradusă în latină de Platon din Tivoli.

Șirul lui Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă]
Articol principal: Numerele Fibonacci.

În șirul de numere al lui Fibonacci, fiecare număr reprezintă suma a două numere anterioare, începând cu 0 și 1. Astfel, șirul incepe cu 0,1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610 etc

Cu cât este mai mare valoarea unui număr din cadrul acestui șir, cu atât mai mult se apropie de corelația supremă două "numere Fibonacci" consecutive din șir, numere care se împart prin ele însele (aproximativ 1 : 1,618 sau 0,618 : 1).

Corelația supremă a fost folosită pe scară largă în timpul Renașterii, în picturi.

Despre șirul lui Fibonacci a tratat și matematicianul român Miron Nicolescu în 1933.

În cultura populară[modificare | modificare sursă]
  • Numele Fibonacci a fost adoptat de o formație de muzică rock din Los Angeles numită Fibonaccis, care a cântat între anii 1981-1987.
Oamenii de la bursă studiază frecvent "Evoluția numerelor lui Fibonacci" atunci când fac estimări privind prețul acțiunilor viitoare. Un tânăr Fibonacci este unul dintre personajele principale din romanul Cruciadă în blugi (1973). În 2006 a existat și o versiune pentru film, dar filmul nu a mai fost făcut. În Codul lui Da Vinci șirul lui Fibonacci a fost folosit ca un cod, dar și pentru a introduce confuzia asupra personajelor din carte. Cărțile scrise de Fibonacci[modificare | modificare sursă]
  • 1202Liber Abaci, o carte de calcule (traducerea în limba engleză de Laurence Sigler, Springer, 2002),
1220Practica Geometriae, un compendiu de geometrie și trigonometrie. Flos (1225), soluții la problemele ridicate de Johannes din Palermo 1225Liber Quadratorum, ( "Cartea pătratelor") despre ecuațiile Diophantine, dedicată împăratului Frederick al II-lea. A se vedea, în special, Brahmagupta-identitatea Fibonacci. Această carte a fost republicată deBoncompagni sub titlul: Tre scritti inedite de Leonardo Pisano, publicati da Baltassare Boncopagni, secondo la lezione din un codice delle biblioteca Ambrosiana din Milano la Florența în perioada 1854 - 1856. Di minor guisa (despre aritmetica comercială; carte dispărută) Comentariu cu privire la Cartea X cu privire la Elementele lui Euclid (carte dispărută) Vezi și[modificare | modificare sursă] Identitatea Brahmagupta-Fibonacci Principiul de unduire al lui Elliott Expansiunea Engel Tehnica de căutare Fibonacci Corelația perfectă Hylomorphism (informatică) Perioada Pisano Numărul practic Secvența primului număr liber Verner Emil Hoggatt, Jr. Note[modificare | modificare sursă]
  1. ^ http://library.thinkquest.org/27890/biographies1.html
  2. ^ [3] ^ Howard Eves. O prezentare a istoriei matematicii. Brooks Cole, 1990: ISBN 0-03-029558-0 (6-a ed.), P 261.
^ Leonardo Pisano - pagina 3: "Contribuții la teoria numerelor". Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006. Accesat 18 septembrie 2006. ^ Parmanand Singh. "Acharya Hemachandra și (așa-numitul) Șirul lui Fibonacci". Math. Ed. Siwan, 20 (1) :28-30, 1986. ISSN 0047-6269] ^ http://www.maths.surrey.ac.uk/hosted-sites/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fibBio.html ^ [7] ^ A se vedea incipit de Flos: "Incipit flos Leonardi bigolli Pisani ..." (citat în Surse documentul MS Word, în matematică de recreere: o bibliografie adnotată de David Singmaster, 18 martie 2004 - adăugat), în limba engleză: "Aici începe "floarea" de Leonardo căutătorul din Pisa ..."
Sensuri de bază ale "bigollo" care par a fi "bunr de nimic" și "călătorul" (așa că ar putea fi tradus prin "vagabondul", "derbedeul" sau "golanul"). A.F. Horadam conține o conotație a termenului de "bigollo" însemnând "absent" (a se vedea prima notă de subsol din "Tânăr de opt sute de ani"), care este asemenea conotației din limba engleză a cuvântului "rătăcitor". Traducere "Wanderer", în citatul de mai sus încearcă să combine conotațiile diferite de cuvântul "bigollo" într-un singur cuvânt în limba română.
^ Fibonacci Statuia din Pisa
Bibliografie[modificare | modificare sursă]
  • Goetzmann, William N. și Rouwenhorst, K. Geert, Originile valorii: inovațiile financiare care au creat piețele de capital moderne (2005, Oxford University Press Inc, SUA), ISBN 0-19-517571-9.
Grimm, RE, "Autobiografia lui Leonardo Pisano", Fibonacci Quarterly, Vol.. 11, No. 1, februarie 1973, pp. 99-104. A.F. Horadam, "Tânăr de opt sute de ani," Profesorul australian de matematică 31 (1975) 123-134. Legături externe[modificare | modificare sursă] Goetzmann, William N., Fibonacci și Revoluția financiară (23 octombrie 2003), Yale School of Management din Centrul International de Finante Working Paper No. 03-28 [1] Charles Burnett, Leonard din Pisa (Fibonacci) și arabă aritmetică - Atmosfera medievală privitoare la munca lui Fibonacci Fibonacci la Convergence wallstreetcosmos.com, numerele lui Fibonacci și materialul de analiză a pieței de acțiuni, (2008). O'Connor, John J și Robertson, Edmund F. "Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci - 1170 - 1250 ", în Istoria MacTutor de arhivă matematică. Universitatea din St Andrews site-ului, Scoția, 1998. Liber Abaci și a metodele fracțiilor egiptene

 

 

 

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Tastati  si adaugati: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: u48p24utVJo; V1uZzUy7SRQ; Pzhcqd4-z3Q; LWDtuSLLjPI; vXCXXLNaYjo; o1515ujK7AI; 3J_K5vHQnlQ; cat si altul despre aterizarea unei farfurii zburatoare si contactul cu ocupantii ei: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: PgfwJzAvQNE, cat si despre aerodina lenticulara (farfuria zburatoare) facuta pentru nazisti a lui Henri Marie Coanda al nostru: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 3swu_lC-7zc; 2giFGsGLft4; MwUpPwyyvLw; 5tydvDgVNiA; -f5Y1RAo4pY; 7IvhcYnGUjU; si despre farfuria zburatoare garvito-spatio-temporala extraterestra studiata prin retroinginerie, in baza S4 de langa zona 51 de fizicianul Robert Lazar: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: prcc8UQW3bY, si despre Basarabia, parintele Arsenie Boca:  tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: 7IvhcYnGUjU si Iustin Parvu:  tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: -voq6QHgN1w, si despre testamentul Maresalului Ion Victor Antonescu:  tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati: pEhzcfuhRrg; CbhSgvYZERA; P1uv5gW_kU8; 1C6ZXlZw5To.

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 Multumesc din inima! :heart:  Ar fi bun si un finantator sa pun in aplicare cateva sisteme de producere de energie, propulsie si zbor. :hi: De tahionator convertorul capitanului de marina german Hans Kohler, construit dupa inginerul in electrotehnica aroman Nicolae Teslea (Nikola Tesla), sau convertizorul de energie libera electromagnetica ma apuc in curand, pentru ca nu presupune efort mare financiar.  :scout_en: Despre motorul cu ulei in miscare la presiuni foarte mari, in loc de combustibil, folosit ca sursa de automentinere a miscarii, prin cirulatia fortata intr-un sistem de capilare spiralate, inventat de americanul Richard Clem, nu pot spune insa acelasi lucru. Acolo trebuie finantare sau dotare tehnica corespunzatoare. :thanks: Iata un link despre implozie si impulsia magnetohidrodinamica la aerodinele lenticulare Repulsin ale lui Viktor Schauberger: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Z8HO5DGZcM0, si unul despre aparatul de levitatie al entomologului rus Viktor Grebenikov, bazat pe folosirea aripioarelor cheratinoase ale gandacului de stejar din Austria, scarabeului din Egipt, radascai sau gandacului cerb si gandacului rinocer de la noi, care au o structura spatiala microscopica care genereaza antigravitatie si distorsionarea continuumului spatiu-timp in jurul pilotului: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati hYJXE4FCm7Q; _ChsZuwqTeE. Deasemenea despre tancul german Leopard 2 si posibilul Landkreuzer (Land Cruiser) P1000 Ratte (Sobolan): tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 8h0-yfoi5PM; yL0h19ci6dw. Despre giroscoapele electrogravitationale Haunebu I, II, III si IV: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati A-p2s7ltRh0. Despre electromagnetul monopolar, care poate pune in miscare o roata, sau genera levitatie:  tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati i-dhIK2ozz0. Despre navele extraterestre vazute de cei 24 de astronauti, din care 12 au pasit pe Luna intre 1969 si 1972, preintre care si doctor E. D. Mitchell care a zburat cu racheta Saturn in misiunea Apollo 14:  tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati FkNfNUJl6dI. Despre neamul de uriasi si urmasii lor: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati gmA_lyYJLu0; -LxRtfQnzG4; b_-vWCY5lN0; _GzesvdOu6c. Despre artefacte extraterestre: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati asomHvqhYB4. Despre umanoizii cu cranii mari conice: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati Oa6nqmfEM-0. Despre Edward Leedskalnin: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati H5q-LOhBHSI. Despre nave uriase extraterestre filmate de astronomul si astrofotograful John Lenard Walson cu un telescop special: tastati  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 4buqxm1ZOys. Iata si Luna filmata de el:  tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati ohL8v_6SNjY.

 

posted on Sep, 3 2007 @ 06:01 AM

link   
Mods, bear with me, as I'm aware there have been threads on this topic in the past. However, I feel they weren't started correctly and focused on Jose Escamilla's controversial and undependable distribution methods rather than on the actual subject matter itself. I feel this thread should stand alone. I ask responders to focus on the subject, rather than on their anger for not receiving proper service from Mr. Escamilla after paying for the online download of "Interstellar", which uses Microsoft DRM and has caused some issues. I understand that Mr. Escamilla should be accountable and timely in issuing refunds, however this is not what I'm focusing on, so I politely ask that you remain on subject. I do not have first hand experience with the broken downloads or refunds; I am merely addressing the people that have posted about it to get it out of the way. I also understand that there were some copyright issues with the YouTube videos below. I don't want that to be the focus of this either. I believe this topic deserves a more focused beginning, (which the other's lacked) in order to pick up some steam; hence the reason I've started this one. I hope it doesn't get locked. Here goes: 

Amateur astronomer John Lenard Walson claims to have devised an "apparatus" composed of a common CCD camcorder and a commercial grade telescope that is capable of zooming and focusing in on deep space objects (which appear to the naked eye as regular stars) in such a way, that their shape and structure becomes clearly visible. 

In the latest release from independent UFO documentary filmmaker Jose Escamilla, titled simply, "Interstellar", Mr. Escamilla claims to provide half an hour of "live" footage recorded directly through Mr. Walson's contraption. The images are incredible and shocking, to say the least. If the footage is real, this could be the biggest discovery in history. The images show intricate and structured objects of vast proportions, clearly not of naturally occurring origin. Jose and John have taken to calling them "starships". They claim these starships are orbiting earth at varying distances; some in very deep space and others closer than I dare to imagine! I will admit that some of the objects appear to be nebulas or gas formations, but others appear more "intentional" or anomalous to be natural, at least in my opinion. Mr. Walson claims to have received attention from NASA astronomers as well as prestigious universities for his discovery and has stated that he will disclose his technique to the world at large at some point in the near future. The images below are only a tease. Watch the videos!

 
Despre nave extraterestre observate de un cosmonaut rus: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati ePHyCsLOHIo. Despre intalniri filmate cu nave extraterestre si ocupantii lor: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati iKUtmJOzNdA; 8BhJL1O7gmw; N_WLP8c0KnQ. Filmari cu sirene: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati fz1NOgrpipE;  dMaIlFyVKWM; 4Q7-qxuxmyw. Despre incidentul Roswell, New Mexico, 1947: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati IETeIi6Zuzs. Despre baza nazista actuala si orasul antic si nava-mama antica de pe Luna, mare cat Manhattanul, aflata intr-o cariera aurifera de suprafata, impreuna cu ocupanta ei, avand musculatura upgradata prin nanotehnologie: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati uF-F67OUEAw. Despre extraterestrii de 15 cm din Anzi: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati HPJA9unQFw4. Despre energia electromagnetica continuta de spatiul tridimensional si constiinta universala: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati X4HQtB_A_Tc. Despre paleoastronautica cu Erich von Daniken: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati CGCswr6qwC0. Despre nave aerospatiale cu Michael Schratt de la U. S. Air Force,  de forma triunghiulara TR-3B cu reactor nuclear si levitatie folosind bobina toroidala Marco Rodin, cu fluid feromagnetic (mercur cu particule feroase), presurizat la 250000 atmosfere si rotit la 50000 rpm, anuland 89% din gravitatie, cei 11% fiind preluati de minirachete de ghidaj cu impuls multimod amplasate in varfurile triunghiului, apoi de forma discoidala cu reactor nuclear si cu turboreactoare, apoi tot de forma discoidala, dar giroscoape electrogravitationale, apoi sub forma de clopot, pe efect Biefeld-Brown (Thomas Townsend Brown), cu propulsie ionica ascensionala de voltaj inalt (intre 25 si 200 KV), cu o bobina Tesla in jumatatea superioara si o baterie de placi capacitive plan paralele incarcate cu sarcini pozitive in jumatatea inferioara,  apoi bombardierul strategic "aripa zburatoare delta" de joasa altitudine, invizibil radar, B-2 Spirit, fratele mai mic fiind F-117 A, construit dupa aripa zburatoare H-9 a fratilor nazisti germani Reimar si Walter Horten din WWII, combinata cu antigravitatie datorata campului dielectric si polarzarii opuse a bordului de atac al aripii, incarcata cu sarcini electrostatice pozitive, respectiv a gazului de evacuare, ionizat negativ, combinata cu ionizarea aerului si generarea plasmei la botul avionului, ceea ce duce la o reducere la 60% a consumului pentru atingerea vitezei de croaziera, iar datorita antigravitatiei si modificarii campului gravitational, sub botul avionului diminuandu-se mult, respectiv sub turboreactoarele posterioare diminuandu-se putin, ducand la un randament supraunitar, deci la oprirea alimentarii cu cherosen,  aceasta fiind propulsia electrogravitica, incarcarea cu sarcini opuse a jumatatilor inferioara, respectiv superioara ale aeronavei care genereaza antigravitatie, iar datorita ionizarii aerului reduce la zero frecarea cu acesta (americanii construind de asemenea pe acest principiu avioane care prind 8 Mach (de 8 ori viteza sunetului)), fiind descoperita de Viktor Schauberger, studiind zborul gargaritei: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati xfGqINFNL40.
 
Despre nave spatiale, inclusiv nave "buchet" sau obiecte zburatoare neidentificate "tort de nunta", fotografiate de Eduard Albert Meier, contactat la varsta de 5 ani, in 1942, de pleiadieni inalti, blonzi, cu ochi albastri si piele alba, care a vorbit cu 28 de ani inainte de a avea loc, despre razboiul din golful persic, si despre marturiile lt. col. U.S.A. Force Wendelle C. Stevens, despre "clopotele" zburatoare germane Haunebu II, din 19 februarie 1945, capabile sa distruga cate 200 bombardiere "fortarete zburatoare" B-29 din WWII (Al Doilea Razboi Mondial), si despre pistolul cu laser pleiadian (din Constelatia Pleiade, aflata la 68 de ani lumina, steaua Aldebaran, cu planetele Sumer si An), din 6 iulie 1977, capabil sa traga la 37,2 km: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati CCds1GMHcHs; _82jhX-MIZc; Ekws-cCrt8g; hB2fVceXl0Q; HQO3yUA5S3Y; C53OYAST9CI; tfH2oKrvmYg; NrMxNyhBkps; sBbocB96TKMin afara de: tastati http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 3swu_lC-7zc; 
;
7IvhcYnGUjU; prcc8UQW3bY; PgfwJzAvQNE. Ciocnire razanta laterala intre automobil si giroscop electrogravitational: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati xqdKYsztBXg. Despre fiinte ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 2MX1Y9-q5vk; PLj4cw-Bz-E. Despre sunete ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati -c7hCWwTlrY. Despre Marte: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati JpNg8Z75sEs. Despre semnale ciudate: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati My02OrCHxVw. Despre lacasuri subterane: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati MSNqKVCrDJQ. Despre atac cu nave aerospatiale triunghiulare TR-3B cu levitatie folosind bobina toroidala Marco Rodin, cu fluid feromagnetictastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati YQWqiI0jlQc. Despre Blackstar, avion orbital, zburand la 480 km altitudine, cu motor racheta, apoi depre Northrop-Gruman RQ-180, cu anvergura de 39,6 m si capabilitate de 24 de ore de zbor la 17,7 km altitudine, urmasul lui RQ-170 si SR-71 Blackbird, care zbura cu de 4 ori viteza sunetului, si al carui fuzelaj se etansa la viteze supersonice, avion de spinaj care a zburat pana in 1998, apoi despre Boeing X37-B, de 8,8 m lungime, avion spatial robotic, pentru testarea tehnologiei spatiale reutilizabile, lansat in varful unei rachete Atlas 5, capabil de un an de zbor orbital, inainte de aterizare, bombardier spatial, avion de spionaj si arma antisatelit, urmasul lui X-40, apoi despre Aurora de 455 milioane dolari, nava triunghiulara hipersonica, cu motor cu detonare pulsatorie, bombardier neconventional, ale carui bombe genereaza unde seismice reperate de seismografe, zboara la 27,4 km altitudine cu Mach 4 pana la Mach 5,2 (1 Mach = viteza sunetului): tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati VJ0I773sFbw.

 

 
Thomas Townsend Brown
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 

Thomas Townsend Brown (March 18, 1905 – October 22, 1985) was an American inventor who's research into odd electrical effects led him to believe he had discovered a connection between strong electric fields and gravity, a type of antigravity effect. For most of his life he attempted to develop devices based on his ideas, trying to promote them for use by industry and the military. He came up with the name "Biefeld-Brown effect" for the phenomenon he had discovered and called the field of study electrogravitics.

Instead of being an antigravity force, what Brown observed has generally been attributed to electrohydrodynamics, the movement of charged particles that transfers their momentum to surrounding neutral particles in air, also called "ionic drift" or "ionic wind".

In recent years Brown's research has had an influence in the community of amateur experimenters who build "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage. There are still claims Brown discovered antigravity, an idea popular with theunidentified flying object (UFO) community and spawning many conspiracy theories.

 

 

Biography[edit]

Thomas Townsend Brown was born into a wealthy construction family in Zanesville, Ohio in 1905. His parents were Lewis K. and Mary Townsend Brown. Thomas was interested in electronics from early childhood and his wealthy parents indulged their sons interests, buying him his own experimental equipment. He started what would be a lifelong series of experiments with electrical phenomenon and began to investigate what he thought was an electro-gravity phenomenon while still in high school.

For two years in 1922 and 1923 Thomas Brown attended Doane Academy, a preparatory school associated withGranville, Ohio's Denison University, graduating in June of 1923. In the fall of 1923 he entered the California Institute of Technology. He struggled with the required curriculum of a freshman student and to help Thomas in his school work his parents set up a fully provisioned private laboratory in the family home in Pasadena, California. Here he demonstrated his ideas on electricity and gravity to invited guests such as the physicist and Nobel laureate, Dr. Robert A. Millikan. Millikan told the freshman student his ideas were impossible and told him to complete his college education before trying to develope such theories. Brown left Cal-Tech after his first year. In 1924 he attended Denison University but left there after a year as well.

In September 1928 Thomas Townsend Brown married Josephine Beale, daughter of the Zanesville, Ohio physician Clifford Beale.

In 1930 Brown enlisted in the United States Navy as an apprentice seaman. After completing basic training, based on his background in experimental electrical research he was ordered to report to duty at the Naval Research Laboratory in Anacostia, D.C. on March 16, 1931. He performed the dual rolls of a rank-and-file sailor and a research assistant on the Navy submarine S-48 in the the Navy Department's International Gravity Expedition to the West Indies in 1932. In 1933 he was assigned to the yacht "Caroline" (loaned to the Navy by Eldridge Reeves Johnson) which was conducting US Navy ocean surveys and research in the Johnson-Smithsonian Deep Sea Expedition of 1933. His primary duties were as sonar and radio operator with little involvement in scientific work. In 1933 Brown lost his job at the Naval Research Lab due toDepression era budget cutbacks and he joined the U.S. Naval Reserve.

Brown found a job during the 30s as a soil engineer for the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and then as an administrator for the Ohio Civilian Conservation Corps. Thomas Brown and Josephine were divorced in 1937 for a short while, re-marring in September 1940. Also in 1937 Thomas Brown re-enlisted in the US Navy.

In 1938 Brown was promoted to Lieutenant and in 1939 was assigned for a few months as a material engineer for the Navy’s flying boats being built at the Glenn L. Martin Company in Maryland. He was engaged in magnetic and acoustic mine-sweeping research and development under the Bureau of Ships in Washington D.C. From October, 1940 to March, 1941. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 he was transferred to the Atlantic Fleet Radar School in Norfolk, Virginia in May of 1942. In October 1942 Brown was discharged from navy service with Brown requesting to resign "for the good of the naval service in order to escape trial by General Court Martial" and with his official discharge exam listing "no comment" as to the reasons why.[1] After 1944 he worked as a Radar consultant to the Lockheed-Vega Aircraft Corporation.[2]

After leaving Lockheed, Brown moved to Hawaii where he was temporarily a consultant to the Pearl harbor Navy Yard due to Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet Admiral Arthur W. Radford's interest in Browns ideas on Gravitor devices, although the work was looked on more as a curiosity than any type of workable device. In 1952 Brown moved to Cleveland in hopes of selling his Gravitor device to the military establishment but there was little interest in it. In 1955 Brown went to Europe first in England and then to France. In research test for the French corporation, La Socie'te' National de Construction Aeronautique Sud Ouest (SNCASO) Brown demonstrated what he thought was an antigravity effect in a vacuum with his device but all funding was cut off when SNCASO was merged with SNCASE forcing Brown to return to the U.S. in 1956.

Brown became involved in the subject of unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and in 1956 helped found the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP) although he was forced out as director in 1957 with allegations that Brown was using funds to further his own anti-gravity research.

In 1958 Brown worked as a research and development consultant for Agnew Bahnson's Whitehall Rand Project, an anti-gravity venture at the Bahnson Company of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. That same year Brown setup his own anti-gravity corporation, Rand International Limited. He filed several patents but his ideas met with little success. In the early 1960s he worked as a physicist for Electrokinetics Inc., of Bala Cynwyd, PA. and then went into semi-retirement living in California. Thomas Townsend Brown died on October 22, 1985.

Anti-gravity research[edit]
Further information: Biefeld-Brown effect and Electrogravitics

In 1921 while experimenting in the lab his parents had set up for him while he was still in high school, Brown discovered an unusual effect while experimenting with a Coolidge tube, a type of X-ray vacuum tube with two asymmetrical electrodes. Placing it on a balance scale with the tube’s positive electrode facing up, when the power was on the tubes mass seemed to decrease. When tube's electrode was facing down the tube's mass seemed to increase.[3] Brown was convinced that he had managed to influence gravity electronically. At Caltech in 1923 Brown tried to convince his instructors about his throries via inviting them to his home laboratory but they showed little interest. He also invited the press and the May 26, 1924 edition Los Angeles Evening Express ran a story on Brown titled "Claims Gravity is a Push, not a Pull." After quitting Caltech Brown studied one year at Denison University where he claimed that he did a series of experiments with professor of astronomy Paul Alfred Biefeld although the present day Denison University claims they have no record of such experiments being carried out, or of any association between Brown and Biefeld.[4] Brown would continue to claim Biefeld as his mentor and co-experimenter, eventually calling the phenomenon the Biefeld–Brown effect.[5] The phenomenon was also given the name "Electrogravitics" by Brown based on his belief this was an electricity/gravity phenomenon.

Working in his home lab Brown developed an electrical device he called a “gravitor” or “gravitator", consisting of a block of insulating or dielectric material with electrodes at either end. He received a British patent for it in November 1928. In demonstrations Brown would mount the unit as a pendulum, apply electrical power, and the unit moves in one direction. In 1929 Brown published "How I Control Gravity," in Science and Invention where he claimed these devices were producing a mysterious force that interacted with the pull of gravity. He envisions a future where, if his device could be scaled up, "Multi-impulse gravitators weighing hundreds of tons may propel the ocean liners of the future" or even "fantastic 'space cars'" to Mars.[6]

Brown spent the rest of his life working in his spare time and sometimes in funded projects trying to prove his ideas on Electrogravity. He proposed his gravitator as a means of propulsion to General Motors executives in 1930 and as ship propulsion while he was at the Naval Research Laboratory in 1932. After World War II Brown sought to develop and sell his "Electrogravitic" effect as a means of propulsion for aircraft and spacecraft. Brown refined his invention over the years and eventually came up with designs consisting of metal plates or disks charged with 25,000 to 200,000 volts that would produce a pulpulsive force. Brown demonstrated a working apparatus to an audience of scientists and military officials in the US, England, and Fance. Research in the phenomenon was popular in the mid-1950s, at one point the Glenn L. Martin Company placed advertisements looking for scientists who were "interested in gravity", but rapidly declined in popularity thereafter (see United States gravity control propulsion research).

Most scientists who witnessed the demonstrations were skeptical, attributing the noticed motive force to the more well understood phenomenon of ionic drift or "ion wind" from the air particles, some of which still remained even when Brown's put his device inside a vacuum chamber. His association with UFOs and a 1979 book on the Philadelphia Experiment(where the Navy allegedly teleported a warship) helped to give Brown the reputation in mainstream physics of being a "crackpot".[6]

Legacy[edit]

Electrogravitics is popular with conspiracy theorists with claims that it is powering the B-2 Stealth Bomber and UFOs with claims it may have become a classified subject by 1957.[6] There are further claims that it can be used to generate "free energy".[7]

Brown's research and the "Biefeld-Brown effect" has since become something of a popular pursuit around the world, with amateur experimenters replicating his early experiments in the form of "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage.

References[edit]
  1. Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 43 - For the Good of the Service
  2. Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 43 - For the Good of the Service
  3. Jump up^ The Canonical Hamiltonian The Intersection Of Chip Design and Physics by Hamilton Carter, Thomas Townsend Brown: Part IV of the Holiday Serial
  4. Jump up^ Paul Schatzkin, Defying Gravity: The Paraellel Universe of T. Townsend Brown, 2005-2006-2007-2008 - Tanglewood Books, Chapter 13: Notes from the Rabbit Hole #3: "He Made Things Up" (online excerpts)
  5. Jump up^ alienscientist.com, Biefeld-Brown Effect Controversy, Tajmar ESA Experiments
  6. Jump up to:a b c Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground"Wired Magazine.
  7. Jump up^ Chapter Six UFOs and Electrogravity Propulsion, Did Tesla Discover the Secrets of Antigravity?
  • Farrell, Joseph P., "Covert Wars and the Clash of Civilizations" c.2013, Adventures Unimited Press, Kempton, Illinois, Chapter 9, pages 221-245 ISBN 978-1-939149-04-6
Sources for biography References and external articles[edit] Patents
  • GB300311 — A method of and an apparatus or machine for producing force or motion (accepted 1928-11-15)
  • US 1,974,483 — Electrostatic motor (1934-09-25)
  • US 2,949,550 — Electrokinetic apparatus (1960-08-16)
  • US 3,018,394 — Electrokinetic transducer (1962-01-23)
  • US 3,022,430 — Electrokinetic generator (1962-02-20)
  • US 3,187,206 — Electromagnetic apparatus (1965-06-01)
  • US 3,196,296 — Electric generator (1965-07-20)
Websites

 

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Pe 11/21/2008, 9:03:58 vladisto a scris:

Daca se trage in adevar concluzia ca nazistii au avut inca din al doilea razboi mondial tehnologia necesara calatoriilor intergalactice (disc zburator Haunebu IV de 120 m diametru sau nava-mama zburatoare tubulara Andromeda, de 139 m lungime si 30 m diametru, cu un echipaj de 130 oameni, care purta nava Haunebu II si cate doua nave Vril 1 si 2 (care aveau in compunere tahionator convertorul capitanului de marina Hans Kohler, generatorul cu banda Van de Graaff si dinamul de vortex Marconi), avand tunuri cu proiectile, dar si cu LASER (penetrau blindaj de 10,16 cm), cat si cu energie negativa, 4 levitatoare Schumann 16 blindate (care presupun si motoare pe implozie) si 4 tahionatoare Thule 11 (tahionul in vidul cosmic are viteza de 1000 de ori mai mare decat are fotonul, adica lumina), care la un moment dat creau un canal dimensional capabil sa transporte nava instantaneu, indiferent de distanta, rezolvand cu adevarat problema transportului in Univers), aceeasi concluzie o trag si americanii, cu care suntem aliati in NATO si care chiar s-au echipat precum trupele SS in al doilea razboi mondial in Ardeni, pentru a-i spiona si sabota pe germani si chiar in ziua de azi reconstituie (persoane particulare) misiuni de lupta naziste cu tehnica si echipament de epoca reconditionate de ei, asta neinsemnand ca sunt nazisti veritabili. Tot ofiterii americani recunosc ca nazistii au avut tehnica de lupta cea mai evoluata si militari antrenati extraordinar si daruiti trup si suflet cauzei lor, exprimandu-si regretul ca nu erau in fortele armate americane. Aceste lucruri se pot observa pe posturile TV: Zone Reality, Weapenology, Discovery, History, Scientific, Civilization, World, National Geographic. De ce oare crezi ca se mai poarta casti nazi de catre motociclisti cu choppere, nakede sau tourere? Pentru ca nemtii au avut cel mai cool echipament. In aceste linkuri de mai sus este vorba de motociclete BMW R 71 si Zundapp 750 Elefantkrieg (Elefant de razboi) blindate de razboi cu atas si remorca (Panzerkraftfahrrad), inclusiv de motociclete-tractor cu senile (Kettenkampfwagenmotorrad). Recunosc si eu, subsemnatul ca au avut cea mai evoluata tehnologie, care nici acum nu se poate reitera (cel putin oficial, deoarece americanii au reusit sa recupereze o parte din tehnica germana si oamenii de stiinta germani din al doile razboi mondial, vezi Area 51), pe de alta parte tot nu se stie (decat superficial) ce e cu bazele germane de farfurii zburatoare din Antarctica, Brazilia, Luna, Marte... si Aldebaran, constelatia Pleiade sau Taurus, la 68 ani-lumina de noi (de unde au venit arienii acum 500 milioane ani - se stie ca s-au gasit urme de ghete de astronaut in strat geologic contemporan cu trilobitii, de acum 500 milioane ani, trilobitii fiind crustacee care au disparut acum 400 milioane ani). Da-i Caesarului ce e al Caesarului, cum se spune, in adevar asta da tehnica si inovatie!

 

http://www.rexresearch.com/coler/coler2.htm

Tastati http://www.rexresearch.com/ si adaugati coler/coler2.htm.

 

 rexresearch.com

 

 

Han's Coler's "Free Energy" Generators

by

Robert A. Nelson

Copyright 1999

 

 

 

 

HANS COLER's GERMAN PATENT

( PDF Format )

 

Immediately after World War Two, Allied technical teams plundered all the scientific data they could find in Germany. Much of what they learned remains classified to this day. One most remarkable exception to this secrecy is the declassified British Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee (BIOS) Final Report #1043, Item #32: "The Invention of Hans Coler Relating to an Alleged New Source of Power". Coler was interviewed by R. Hurst (Ministry of Supply) and Capt. R. Sandberg (Norwegian Army):

"[Naval Captain] Hans Coler is the inventor of two devices by which it is alleged that electric energy may be derived without a chemical or mechanical source of power. Since an official interest was taken in his inventions by the German Admiralty it was felt that an investigation was warranted, although normally it would be considered that such a claim could only be fraudulent... Accordingly, Coler was visited and interrogated. He proved to be cooperative and willing to discuss all details of his devices, and consented to build and put into operation a small model of the so-called Magnetstromapparat [Magnet Current Apparatus]... With this device, consisting only of permanent magnets, copper coils and condensers in a static arrangement, he showed that he could obtain a tension of 450 mv for several hours... One model is said to have worked for three months locked in a room in the Norwegian Legation in Berlin in 1933... The greatest tension obtained was 12 volts."

Coler also invented another device called the Stromzeuger (Current Generator). He claimed that, "with an input of a few watts from a dry battery an output of 6 kW could be obtained indefinitely." The last and largest model which Coler built was destroyed by a bomb in 1945, but "Coler expressed his willingness to construct it, given the materials, the time required being about 3 weeks." The public version of the BIOS report does not state whether or not this was done. However, Bill Lehr (d. 1996) informed this writer that a close friend of his once saw a Stromzeuger in operation in the offices of MI5 in London, and a copy of the original BIOS report which was over 200 pages in length. The declassified report is a mere 30 pages long. Hurst and Sandberg also interviewed Dr. F. Modersohn, who had been collaborated with Coler and financed his research for 10 years; he corroborated every detail of Coler's story. The Magnetstromapparat was developed by Coler and von Unruh (who had died by 1945), and they were assisted by Franz Haid of Siemens-Schukert. Haid also built a working model which was seen in operation by Dr. Kurt Mie (Berlin Technische Hochschule) and Herr Fehr, who was the assistant of the renowned scientist Fritz Haber. The Magnetstromapparat was described thus:

"This device consists of 6 permanent magnets wound in a special way so that the circuit includes the magnet itself as well as the winding (Fig. 1). These 6 magnet-coils are arranged in a hexagon and connected as shown in the diagram (Figs. 2 & 3), in a circuit which includes two small condensers, a switch, and a pair of solenoid coils, one sliding inside the other. To bring the device into operation the switch is left open, the magnets are moved slightly apart, and the sliding coil set into various positions, with a wait of several minutes between adjustments. The magnets are then separated still further, and the coils moved again. This process is repeated until at a critical separation an indication appears on the voltmeter. The switch is now closed, and the procedure continued more slowly. The tension then builds up gradually to a maximum, and should then remain indefinitely. The greatest tension obtained was stated to be 12 volts...

"In our presence, Coler built an apparatus as shown in Figures 1-3. It is to be noted that some of the magnets are wound in a clockwise direction looking at the N pole (called left) and others in an anti-clockwise direction (called right). The magnets were selected to be as nearly equal in strength as possible, and the resistance of the magnet-coil combination was checked after winding to see that this also was uniform (about 0.33 ohm). The physical arrangement was as shown in Fig. 2. A mechanical arrangement of sliders and cranks for separating the magnets evenly all around was made up.

"When the magnets were at a separation of about 7 mm, the first small deflection was noted. The switch was closed and by slow adjustment of the sliding coil, and by increasing the separation of the magnets to just over 8 mm, the tension was raised to 250 millivolts. This was maintained for another 3 hours when a soldered tag became disconnected, and the meter slowly dropped back to zero. Soldering up the broken connection did not restore the tension. The magnets were closed up and left overnight, and the same procedure for adjustment was repeated on 2-7-46. After about 3 hours a deflection of 60 millivolts was obtained; this was maintained for more than 30 minutes, but then decreased to zero when further adjustments were tried.

"During all this work the model was completely open, and nothing could be hidden in it. The breadboard and meter could be picked up and moved round the room, tilted, or turned, without effect.

"The apparatus would appear to be to crude to act as a receiver of broadcast energy, or to operate by induction from the mains (the nearest cable was 6 feet away), and the result must for the moment be regarded as inexplicable"

"[Coler was of the opinion that] ferro-magnetism was an oscillating phenomenon, of frequency about 180 kilohertz. This oscillation took place in the magnetic circuit of the apparatus, and induced in the electrical circuit the frequency which of course depended on the value of the components used. These two phenomena interacted, and gradually built up the tension... Coler stated that the strength of the magnets did not decrease during the use of the apparatus, and suggested that he was tapping a new sort of energy hitherto unknown "Raumenergie" (Space-energy).

"It was judged that Coler was an honest experimenter and not a fraud... The result obtained was genuine insofar as could be tested with the facilities available, but no attempt has yet been made to find an explanation of the phenomenon."

The Stromzeuger was invented in 1925, at which time Coler showed a 10-watt model to Prof. Kloss in Berlin. Kloss tried to interest the German government in the invention, but his request was refused (as was Coler's patent application) because it was a "perpetual motion machine". The model was also seen by Prof. Schumann (of terrestial resonance fame), Pr. Bragstad (Trondheim), and Pr. Knudsen (Copenhagen). Kloss and Schumann wrote reports explaining the physics of its operation, which apparently amplified the Barkhausen Effect to a useful level. The Stromzeuger was described in the BIOS report as follows: This device consists of an arrangement of magnets, flat coils, and copper plates, with a primary circuit energized by a small dry battery. The output from the secondary was used to light a bank of lamps and was claimed to be many times the original input, and to continue indefinitely." Coler and von Unruh constructed a 70 watt model of the Stromzeuger in 1933 and demonstrated it to Dr. F. Modersohn, who subsequently financed the development of the invention and established the Coler Gmbh. for the purpose. In 1937, Coler built a 6 KW version of the Stromzeuger. In 1942, Modersohn demonstrated the device to the Research Dept. of the German Navy, which intervened and supplied them with materials, meters and tools. Thereafter the research was directed by Oberbaurat (Naval Construction Chief) Seysen, who assigned Dr. H. Frolich to assist Coler for several months. The operation of the newly developed apparatus turned out to be more complicated than they had first thought, but progress was made. The large Stromzeuger was destroyed by a bomb which struck Coler's house in Kolberg (Pomerania) in 1945. Coler had been powering his house with the unit for three years. Hurst and Sandberg gave a summary account of the Stromzeuger in their report:

"The basic principle is that an electron is to be regarded not only as a negatively charged particle but also as a South magnetic pole.

"The basic element is that of an open secondary circuit, capacity loaded, inductively coupled to a primary circuit. The novel feature is that the capacities are connected to the secondary core through permanent magnets, as shown in Figure 4.

"It is claimed that, on switching on the primary circuit, "separation of charges" takes place, i.e., Magnet 1 becomes positively charged and Magnet 2 becomes negatively charged, and that these charges are "magnetically polarized" when they are formed, owing to the presence of the magnets. On switching off the primary circuit a "reversing current" flows in the secondary, but the magnets "do not exert a polarizing effect on this reversal".

"Two of these basic elements are now placed together making a double system or stage with the plates close together in parallel planes as shown in Figure 5. The secondary windings are both exactly equal and wound in a direction such that on switching on the primary coil the electrons in the secondary coil flow from Pto P2 [P = Plate] and F1 to F[F = "Flat Spool"].

"It is then stated that system merely has an inducing effect, and the useful current comes into existence in the system.

"A single stage cannot be effective but two stages connected so that the numbers of effective North and South poles are equal will provide a basic working arrangement. More double stages can then be added to provide higher outputs.

"It is then stated that as well as the normal electrons flowing from the battery and from induction when the circuit is opened or closed, "space electron" flow from "repelling spaces" to "attracting spaces" between the plates" Professors M. Kloss and R. Franke (Technical College of Berlin) tested the Stromzeuger in March 1926; their report was included in BIOS Report 1043:

"The apparatus consists of: a double row system of copper plates, a double-row system of flat spools, and a system of electromagnets, to whose cores silver wires are attached and through which branch currents of the plate-system are conducted. For each of the three systems a 3-part accumulator battery of 6 volts/6.5 ampere-hours capacity is provided. The plate-circuit and the spool circuit are parallel so that the two batteries appertaining thereto can also be replaced by a single battery. This was ascertained by switching off the one battery while the apparatus was working.

"When asked why two batteries were used at all, Capt. Coler declared that for starting the apparatus a double battery is necessary to get a second charge-impetus after exciting with the one battery, and this for releasing the peculiar character of the apparatus. A test confirmed this assertion in as much as the mechanism could not be started with the single battery; on the contrary, the "adjustment" of the mechanism got disturbed.

"Current-indicators are built into each of the three circuits mentioned, as well as volt-meters, behind some switch resistances necessary for the "adjustment". Between the open ends of the two plate and spool-systems there are the terminal clamps for the effective circuit for whose loading 3 bulbs of 8 volts are provided. The apparatus was then put into action and above all the load was tested with the aid of the built-in instruments, that is on being loaded with [2-3] lamps…

"The consumption of energy in the external circuit is greater than the energy taken from the batteries. According to the circuit, the magnet-exciting circuit is fed by a special battery, completely separated from the other two circuits. Consequently, a direct comparison of efficiency and consumption of the apparatus would mean that only the sum of current of the plate circuit and of the spool circuit would count.

"The reception of current from the two batteries in this case was 1.7 watt while the consumption of the bulbs amounted to about 8 watt. Especially striking in this connection is the considerably higher current-power in the bulb-circuit being about 12 times bigger than the current coming from the two batteries."

Professor W.O. Schumann (Munich) also tested the Stromzeuger in 1926; his 6-page analysis was included in an appendix of the BIOS Report:

"The apparatus in question principally consists of two parallel connected spools, which being bifilarly wound in a special way, are magnetically linked together. One of these spools is composed of copper sheets (the spool is called the plate spool), the other one of a number of thin parallel connected isolated wires (called: spool winding), running parallel at small intervals to the plates. Both spools can be fed by separate batteries; at least two batteries are necessary to put the spools to work.

"The spools are arranged in two halves each, according to the bifilar winding system. The batteries are attached to the starting points, and the current-receivers to the parallel connected ends. Inter-communications are connected between parallel windings of the two halves of the plate spool which contain iron rods with silver connections. These rods are magnetized by a special battery through applied windings (called: exciter windings).

 "According to the statement of the inventor, the production of energy principally takes place in these iron rods, and the winding of the spools plays an important part in it (The form of the spool is a long small rectangle).

"The inventor stated that the apparatus in its installation was very sensitive, especially with regard to the magnetic conditions of the iron cores, and that a wrong treatment [internal measurements] would cause interferences which would be wearisome and very difficult to be eliminated.

"The exciter winding is electrically completely separated from the other windings...

"Installed in the apparatus were 3 current meters for the currents from the 3 batteries, and furthermore current and volt meters for the current receivers. One and two bulbs respectively were employed for this purpose.

"As a striking fact it should be mentioned that the spool circuit having been at first always switched on alone, received a current of 104 mA. As soon as plates and exciter circuit additionally and simultaneously were turned on, as, according to the inventor, the apparatus demands it, the current in the spool circuit comes down to about 27 mA.

"After the present examination, carried through as carefully as [possible], I must surmise that we have to face the exploitation of a new source of energy whose further developments can be of an immense importance. I believe that a further development of the apparatus will prove justified and of great importance."

In 1943, Hans Coler and Dr. Heinz Frohlich made a report to the Research Department of the Admiralty (OKM) in Berlin, in which they described the Stromzeuger:

"The apparatus consists of three principle circuits which are inter-wound and inter-coupled in a peculiar way. Some of these are divided again into single subsidiary circuits which evidently have all to be brought into resonance with one another.

"The principal circuits (called the anchor) in which the energy gain probably occurs, consists of metal plates between which transformer coils are connected, the whole being connected to one large coil plate. On each of the single windings on this is coupled a large flat coil (called field). These flat coils are interwound in two groups; these groups represent the turns of a transformer. This couples, on one hand on the flat coils of the other group (as secondary coils), and on the other hand on the anchor-plate coil, which is placed between them. The third electrically independent circuit (called the directing circuit) regulates this transference. Figure 1 [not included in the BIOS Report] shows diagramatically and in plan these interwound parts. Figure 2, the so-called basic diagram, shows the connections between these different parts. This basic diagram shows the conditions necessary for self-interruption. In consequence of this arrangement, different types of currents are created in different conductors (pulsed DC, AC, etc.).

"The transformer coils, connected between the anchor plates, are connected in a peculiar way through thin permanent magnet rods. Their main object seems to be to pre-magnetize the transformer cores; it is, however, very probable that they are also connected with the Barkhausen Effect."

In his report Coler also described the following simple, significant experiment:

"Given a solenoid consisting of two windings, one upon the other, of the same length and number of turns, enclosing a soft iron cylindrical core. Firmly attached to one end of the core is a pre-magnetized steel rod. If an alternating current is passed through one of these coils, acting as primary, the residual magnetism of the steel rod is strengthened during one half cycle, through the magnetism induced in the core, during the other half it is weakened. If now the other winding is connected in series with the pre-magnetized steel rod (as secondary coil) in such a way that the secondary current must pass through the magnet, one half cycle of the secondary current must be more or less subdued; in other words, a rectifying effect must be created. It may be remembered that according to measurement by Profs. Kloss and Schumann a high-frequency pulsed direct current ~ about 180 kc ~ is flowing in the output resistance of the apparatus, for the creation of which no other explanation is possible." Another experiment with two double-wound solenoids, connected in series, revealed that "in such a secondary circuit a considerable DC component exists which can be strengthened by means which we shall not go into here…" Experiments were conducted with the plate and flat coil unit to test their interactions: As the plates are not only charged as condensers, but also have directed currents passing through them it had to be assumed that their mutual influences not only consisted of a condenser effect, but that they also created a magnetic field… It appeared that the "Ankertrakte" AC or BD are not all to be considered as oscillating units, but that the single group systems, consisting of plate - to anchor coils - plate, already represent independent oscillation circuits. According to this the apparatus contained ten such oscillation circuits… In order to make the apparatus work the harmony of all oscillating circuits in their individual frequencies would evidently be necessary -- at least within certain limits determined by the suppression in question… The previous occasional success must be considered as due to chance. The mutual influence of the flat coils upon one another could not the other hand easily be examined because, despite the great distance between the windings (25 mm), they have remarkably great apparent resistance (about 200 ohms at 10 kc). It appeared that the power factor of both of the flat coils wound 1:1, in consequence of their peculiar interwinding have the astonishingly high value of 0.85. The value of the power factor was at a maximum at 10 kc, at which frequency the most favorable matching of the impedance… was obtained. The repeated mention of 10 kc is also found in the scientific literature on the Barkhausen Effect. After all his experiments and measurements, Coler offered the following explanation of the way in which the apparatus works:

"Due to the connecting of the batteries, a current impulse is induced in the anchor circuit which charges the plates. The discharge circuit from the plates causes electrical interruption of short duration of the battery current in the field circuit, which furthermore inductively interrupts, or changes the direction of, the battery current in the directing current for a short time. The electromagnetic field induced by this process in the directing circuit by its dissipation, induces over the field circuit a current in the anchor circuit recharging the plates, and so forth.

"Due to the influence of the Barkhausen Effect each single process has an impulse-like character, and the necessary change of phase is produced to allow the regularity of the process.

"Due to a source, up to the present not investigated, and not explainable by existing scientific theories, an additional quantity of energy is freed during each cycle which leads to a continual raising of the amplitude of the mutual processes, until the magnetic cores are saturated.

"From the fact that in the resistance of the apparatus pulsed direct current is flowing… There is possibly an up to now unknown rectifying effect, or alternatively the gain in energy is produced only during one half of the cycle, either during the charging or discharging of the plates. The activity in the apparatus must take place in the ten oscillation circuits in a phase-like manner… No technical means were available to make the necessary tuning adjustments.

"It is clear from the above that the success of the inventor up to now could only be due to chance, or happy accident. The necessity, therefore, arises to transfer the apparatus from the state of empirical development, with sufficient technical means and based on results of an exact basic research, to a state of working procedure which can be controlled." Other experiments, conducted by Frohlich with the arrangement in Figure 6, convinced Coler that his theory was correct:

"The result obtained with this experimental arrangement… was the clear proof of a considerably larger energy during opening (intake), compared with closing impulses. The [10-50%] difference is always in favor of the opening impulse… Consequently this observation can also be considered as a proof of the fact that an energy difference exists. [There is a] considerable, but extremely short, energy peak of the opening impulse. My development of the "Space Energy Receiver" was based on this and was successful."

In the 1980s, George Hathaway (Planetary Association for Clean Energy, PACE) constructed a Magnetstromapparat that produced 50 millivolts, and demonstrated it at unconventional technology conferences. There has been no news of further development. The Barkhausen Effect upon which the Coler inventions work is a low-field phenomenon that occurs when a ferromagnetic material is subjected to a change in the applied magnetic field. A series of discontinuous steps develop, corresponding to reversals in magnetization domain volumes from 10-10 to 10-8 cm3. The size of the discontinuities can be increased by stressing the magnet. Possibly the soft iron magnets which Coler used were subjected to such stress by ultrasonic magnetostriction from the coil windings at the 180 kHz resonant frequency. One can only wonder why British Intelligence (sic) declassified the Coler report, but we can be glad they did. If only they had seen fit to include more schematics of the Stromzeuger, because the available diagrams are woefully inadequate. At least we now know a few key facts, to wit: (1) Ferromagnetism resonates at 180 Khz; (2) The Barkhausen Effect can be amplified to provide useful power (10 Khz is another key frequency here); (3) "Some of the magnets are wound in a clockwise direction looking at the N pole (called left) and others in an anti-clockwise direction (called right)". The resistance of the magnet-coil combination was about 0.33 ohm; (4) "The basic principle is that an electron is to be regarded not only as a negatively charged particle but also as a South magnetic pole"; (5) "The novel feature is that the capacities are connected to the secondary core through permanent magnets"; (6) "There is a considerable, but extremely short, energy peak of the opening impulse". It is to be hoped that the Stromzeuger can be redeveloped, since it is a relatively simple, low technology device requiring no exotic components. It should not be left "to chance, or a happy accident", as it was for Hans Coler. 

 

Figure 1

 

Figure 2

 

Figure 3

 

Figure 4

 

Figure 5

 

Figure 6

 

http://www.overunity.com/index.php?PHPSESSID=e70c2a40892cdf99425bcbeb7e98729a&topic=6646.0;topicseen

Michelinho, Sr. Member 

« on: January 25, 2009, 02:12:26 AM »

Captain Hans Coler (Kohler) Magnetstromapparat (Magnet Power Apparatus)

 

Hi all,

After reading all I found about Captain Hans Coler work, I decided to replicate his Magnetstromapparat (Magnet Power Apparatus) and after I will do the Stromerzeuger. Thanks to pese for the most than welcome info on this little marvel. Don't know if it will work but if I won't know if I don't try.

Here are the first pictures of my replication of the magnetstromapparat. The setup is not finish and still a few things to do before the tests start.

Enjoy,

Michel

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Barkhausen effect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

For the occurrence of stable oscillations in a positive feedback loop, see Barkhausen stability criterion.

 

 

Magnetization (J) or flux density ( :cool: curve as a function of magnetic field intensity (H) in ferromagnetic material. The inset shows Barkhausen jumps.

 

 

Domain wall motion with a Barkhausen jump

The Barkhausen effect is a name given to the noise in the magnetic output of a ferromagnet when the magnetizing force applied to it is changed. Discovered by German physicist Heinrich Barkhausen in 1919, it is caused by rapid changes of size of magnetic domains (similarly magnetically oriented atoms in ferromagnetic materials).

Barkhausen's work in acoustics and magnetism led to the discovery, which provided evidence that magnetization affects whole domains of a ferromagnetic material, rather than individual atoms alone. The Barkhausen effect is a series of sudden changes in the size and orientation of ferromagnetic domains, or microscopic clusters of aligned atomic magnets (spins), that occurs during a continuous process of magnetization or demagnetization. The Barkhausen effect offered direct evidence for the existence of ferromagnetic domains, which previously had been postulated theoretically. Heinrich Barkhausen discovered that a slow, smooth increase of a magnetic field applied to a piece of ferromagnetic material, such as iron, causes it to become magnetized, not continuously but in minute steps.

Contents

  [hide

·                                 1 Barkhausen noise

·                                 2 Practical use

·                                 3 References

·                                 4 External links

Barkhausen noise[edit]

A coil of wire wound on the ferromagnetic material can demonstrate the sudden, discontinuous jumps in magnetization. The sudden transitions in the magnetization of the material produce current pulses in the coil. These can be amplified to produce a series of clicks in a loudspeaker. This sounds as crackle, complete with skewed pulses which sounds like candy being unwrapped, Rice Krispies, or a pine log fire. Hence the name Barkhausen noise. Similar effects can be observed by applying only mechanical stresses (e.g. bending) to the material placed in the detecting coil.

These magnetization jumps are interpreted as discrete changes in the size or rotation of ferromagnetic domains. Some microscopic clusters of atomic spins aligned with the external magnetizing field increase in size by a sudden reversal of neighbouring spins; and, especially as the magnetizing field becomes relatively strong, other whole domains suddenly turn into the direction of the external field. Simultaneously, due to exchange interactions the spins tend to align themselves with their neighbours. The tension between the various pulls creates avalanching, where a group of neighbouring domains will flip in quick succession to align with the external field. So the material magnetizes neither gradually nor all at once, but in fits and starts.

Practical use[edit]

 

 

A set-up for non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic materials: green – magnetising yoke, red – inductive sensor, grey – sample under test.

The amount of Barkhausen noise for a given material is linked with the amount of impurities, crystal dislocations, etc. and can be a good indication of mechanical properties of such a material. Therefore, the Barkhausen noise can be used as a method of non-destructive evaluation of the degradation of mechanical properties in magnetic materials subjected to cyclic mechanical stresses (e.g. in pipeline transport) or high-energy particles (e.g. nuclear reactor) or materials such as high-strength steels which may be subjected to damage from grinding. Schematic diagram of a simple non-destructive set-up for such a purpose is shown on the right.

Barkhausen noise can also indicate physical damage in a thin film structure due to various nanofabrication processes such as reactive ion etching or using an ion milling machine.[1]

References[edit]

1.                             Jump up^ Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki; Kamijo (February 2002). "Effect of Milling Depth of the Junction Pattern on Magnetic Properties and Yields in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions". Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.41: L183–L185. Bibcode:2002JaJAP..41L.183F. doi:10.1143/jjap.41.l183.

External links[edit]

·                    Barkhausen Effect Video demonstrating the effect

·                    Barkhausen Noise grinding burn and heat treat defect monitoring

Categories

·                                 Magnetic ordering

 

Despre generatorul Searl:

 

Tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati pUUvhuQtba4; tQqkHA6LWYA; sVLRKDlE8c4; GqPhwuakcLM; Mo3p_F37930.

 

Despre efectul Biefield-Brown: tastati https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= si adaugati 1Q0yxatzGAg; xfGqINFNL40 si Thomas Townsend Brown: 

 

Thomas Townsend Brown

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 

Thomas Townsend Brown (n. 18 martie 1905 - d. 22 octombrie 1985) a fost un fizician american.

În 1921, efectuând experiente pe un tub de raze X inventat de Coolidge, a descoperit ceea ce ulterior a fost denumitefectul Biefeld–Brown. În 1930 intră în United States Navy, unde își continuă cercetările fizice în domenii ca:electromagnetismradiațiespectroscopiegravitație, fizica câmpului.

În 1955 pleacă în Anglia și ulterior în Franța unde lucrează la diverse companii aeriene continuându-și cercetările, ocupându-se și de domeniul obiectelor zburătoare neidentificate.

 

Tastati https://www.google.ro/search?q=thomas+townsend+brown+gravitator&newwindow=1&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei= si adaugati BKumVMrHKIrkasz4grgP&ved=0CCcQsAQ&biw=1003&bih=617

 

https://www.google.ro/search?q=thomas+townsend+brown+gravitator&newwindow=1&site=webhp&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=BKumVMrHKIrkasz4grgP&ved=0CCcQsAQ&biw=1003&bih=617

 

 

 

John Ernst Worrell Keely din Philadelphia (1827-1898) a petrecut 50 ani în dezvoltarea și perfecționarea unei mari varietati de dispozitive care folosesc "forță vibratorie simpatica" sau "forța eterica" pentru a levita obiecte, invarti roți mari, motoare electrice, și dezintegra roci.

 

John Ernst Worrell Keely  
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
220px-John_Ernst_Worrell_Keely_%28ca._18
 
John Ernst Worrell Keely with a "Keely Engine".

John Ernst Worrell Keely (September 3, 1837 – November 18, 1898) was a USinventor from Philadelphia who claimed to have discovered a new motive power which was originally described as "vaporic" or "etheric" force, and later as an unnamed force based on "vibratory sympathy", by which he produced "interatomic ether" from water and air. Despite numerous requests from the stockholders of the Keely Motor Company, which had been established to produce a practicable motor based on his work, he consistently refused to reveal to them the principles on which his motor operated, and also repeatedly refused demands to produce a marketable product by claiming that he needed to perform more experiments.

He secured substantial investments from many people, among whom was John Jacob Astor.

 

 

Biography[edit]

Born in Chester, Pennsylvania, John Keely was orphaned in early childhood and was raised by his grandparents. Before becoming an inventor, he worked as a member of a theatrical orchestra, a painter, a carpenter, a carnival barker, and as a mechanic.

Career[edit]

In 1872, Keely invited scientists to attend a demonstration at his laboratory at 1422 North Twentieth Street Philadelphia, of a machine which he asserted was motivated by a new and hitherto unknown force. Keely announced that he had discovered a principle for power production based on the musical vibrations of tuning forks and that music could resonate with atoms or with the aether. Public interest was aroused and within a few months the Keely Motor Company was formed in New York, with a capital of $5,000,000.,[1] equivalent to $95 million in 2013.[2]

Keely's theories[edit]

Keely delivered descriptions of the supposed principles of his process on various occasions.

In 1884, following the demonstration of his "Vaporic gun":

 

 

 

Stripping the process of all technical terms, it is simply this: I take water and air, two mediums of different specific gravity, and produces from them by generation an effect under vibrations that liberates from the air and water an inter atomic ether. The energy of this ether is boundless and can hardly be comprehended. The specific gravity of the ether is about four times lighter than that of hydrogen gas, the lightest gas so far discovered.
 
New York Times
, 22 September 1884
[3]
 

 

Following a demonstration in June 1885:

 

 

 

It is an elaboration of interatomic ether by vibration. The atomic ether vibrates all around the molecules of matter. There is a magnetic force attached to it at the same time, and it assimilates with the molecular atomic aggregations - that is, assimilates with a certain attractive force that it is hard to tell what it is. I call it a vibratory negative. It don't act like a magnet drawing metals toward it. There is a certain magnetic effect about it that causes it to adhere by vibratory rotation to different forms of matter - that is the molecular, atomic, etheric, and ether-etheric. The impulse is given by metallic impulses, the rotary power that is formed by etheric vibration - that is the force that holds it in position.
 
New York Times
, 7 June 1885
[4]
 

 

In the 19th century most physicists believed that all of space was filled with a medium called the "Luminiferous aether" (or "ether"), a hypothetical substance which was thought necessary for the transmission of electromagnetic waves and to the propagation of light, which was believed to be impossible in "empty" space. In 1887, an experiment was performed byAlbert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley to attempt to confirm the existence of the ether. The experiment, named theMichelson-Morley experiment after the two scientists, shocked the scientific community by giving results which implied the ether's non-existence. This result was later used by Albert Einstein to refute the ether's existence, and to develop special relativity.

Etheric generator[edit]

On November 10, 1874, Keely gave a demonstration of an "etheric generator" to a small group of people in Philadelphia. Keely blew into a nozzle for half a minute, then poured five gallons of tap water into the same nozzle. After some adjustments a pressure gauge indicated pressures of 10,000 psi which Keely said was evidence that the water had been disintegrated and a mysterious vapor had been liberated in the generator, capable of powering machinery. In subsequent demonstrations he kept changing the terminology he used, to "vibratory-generator" to a "hydro-pneumatic-pulsating-vacu-engine" to "quadruple negative harmonics". It was later reported that the witnesses of the demonstration were so impressed that they formed a stock company, purchased patent rights for the six New England states, and paid $50,000 in cash for their share in the invention.[5]

The New York Times reported in June 1875 that Keely's new motive power was generated from cold water and air and evolved into a vapor "more powerful than steam, and considerably more economical". It reported that Keely refused to disclose what the vapor was or how it was generated until he had taken out patents in "all the countries of the globe which issue patent rights" which was estimated would cost around $30,000.[5]

Keely said that the discovery of this new energy source was accidental. He said that the apparatus by which it was generated was called a "generator" or "multiplicator", from where it was then passed into a "receiver" and from there to the cylinders of a steam engine. The "generator" was reported as being about 3 ft (0.91 m), made of Austrian gunmetalin one piece, and holding about 10 or 12 gallons of water. Its inside was made up of cylindrical chambers connected by pipes and fitted with stopcocks and valves. The "receiver" or "reservoir" was about 40 in (1,000 mm) long by 6 in (150 mm) in diameter and connected to the "generator" by a 1 in (25 mm) diameter pipe. Keely claimed that his apparatus would generate his "vapor" from water solely by mechanical means without using any chemicals and claimed to be able to produce 2,000 psi in 5 seconds.[5]

Clara Jessup Bloomfield Moore[edit]

In 1881, Keely met Clara Jessup Bloomfield Moore, the wealthy widow of a Philadelphia industrialist who had the year before established the Bloomfield Moore art collection. Mrs Moore became acquainted with Keely through her interest in scientific subjects, and remained his friend and patron up to the time of his death. She invested $100,000 plus a monthly salary of $250 (around $2.2 million and $5400/month in today's values [1]) so that he could devote his entire time and energy to the perfection of his motor and widely advocated him and his work, producing many articles and books.[6]

Her family did not approve of her assuming obligations which they believed the company should fulfill under its contract with Keely. She made an arrangement with Keely on 12 April 1890 to furnish him with an additional $2,000 a month for his household and shop expenses and for instruments of research, which was to expire when he had gained sufficient control of his unknown force to enable him to resume his work under the direction of the management of the company upon a provisional engine. This arrived in December 1890, when Mrs Bloomfield Moore handed over to the Directors bills that had been presented since the expiration of Mr. Keely's contract with her.[7]

Stockholder suit[edit]

On 14 December 1881 the stockholders of the Keely Motor Company held a meeting at which a report was read that complained that while they had faith in the merits of Keely's invention, the inventor was unreasonably secretive of the principles and operating methods of his apparatus. He had assured them that the "generator" had been perfected a year before, and that the "multiplicator" was also now perfected, and they considered it only fair and reasonable that the secrets of the machinery be revealed to them. They recommended that some intelligent and trustworthy person be taken into Keely's confidence "so that in the case of accident they would not be totally without a clue to the invention". The report complained at some length about Keely's uncommunicativeness and said that it was the experience of everyone who had come into contact with him over the previous ten years that "any attempt at a serious investigation of his operations has been met on his part with deception and misrepresentation".[8]

Keely was reluctant to reveal his secrets, and filed a demurrer on 20 January 1882 to the bill in equity presented against him by the Keely Motor Company's stockholders. The demurrer was described as entirely technical, and gave a number of reasons why the court should not afford the plaintiffs the relief they sought.[9] Argument was heard on the demurrer in Philadelphia's Court of Common Pleas on 27 March, when it was argued that the inventor "could not be made to expose that which no one knew but himself and which was hidden in his own brain".[10] However, Keely was overruled by Judge Pierce on 1 April 1882, who ordered him to "make known his process in the way indicated in the bill filed by the Keely Motor Company".[11]

On 24 May Keely filed his answer to the stockholders' equity suit. He admitted the truth of the complainants' bill regarding the contract, and added that although, due to "certain abstruse difficulties by reason of the nature and qualities of the said force", he had so far failed to bring his inventions into practical use, he believed he would ultimately succeed.[12]

In June 1882 a committee appointed by the Company's board of directors agreed that one William Boekel of Philadelphia was to be "instructed by Mr. Keely in the construction and operation of his inventions".[13]

The annual meeting of the Company's stockholders on 13 December 1882 heard a report from Boekel in which he stated that what Keely claimed to have discovered was "the fact that water in its natural state is capable of being, by vibratory motion, disintegrated so that its molecular structure is broken up, and there is evolved therefrom a permanent expansive gas or ether, which result is produced by mechanical action". Boekel said that it would be improper to describe the mechanism used, and added that Keely had discovered all that he had claimed.[14] It was later discovered by a Timesreporter in August that Boekle had not yet been entrusted with the secrets of the motor as promised by Keely, and that the inventor kept delaying matters by telling Boekle that he could explain it to him in less than two hours after it was completed, and that he had not done so already because the engine had not yet reached that state.[15]

On 28 August 1883, at the monthly meeting of the Company's directors, it was announced that Keely's engine would be ready for operation around the first week in September, and that a final inspection of it by the Trustees would be conducted on 29 August, at which the stockholders were expected to be present. When the inspection was made the following day, however, Keely said that it would not be ready for another six weeks.[16]

On 29 October 1883 it was reported that the Company's stockholders were to bring another suit against the inventor in the name of the company for "fulfilment of his many pledges".[17] At a meeting of the Board of Directors the following day, Keely made a statement explaining his progress, saying that he was constructing a street chamber to hold his vapor and that when this was complete a demonstration would be given, and his explanation was voted "very satisfactory" by the directors.[18]

At the annual stockholders' meeting on 12 December 1883 a letter from Keely was read out, in which the inventor said that he could not see why he might not fulfil the shareholders' expectations in the next two months and suggested that the stockholders' meeting be postponed to 1 February 1884. This proposal met with some disagreement from some stockholders, and it was decided to give Keely no funds for the next 60 days.[19] When the promised stockholders' meeting was held on 1 February 1884, another postponement was announced at Keely's request.[20] A board meeting which took place on 25 March 1884 reported that the vibratory engine was finished, that "the work of adjusting and focalizing is progressing rapidly", and that Keely had set the date for the demonstration of the motor to take place on or before 10 April.[21]

Vaporic gun[edit]

On 20 September 1884 Keely demonstrated a "vaporic gun" at Sandy Hook to a party of Government officials. He said that he had brought with him five gallons of "vaporic force" in a "receiver" which, if the experiments were successful, would show that no bogus aids had been used. The gun was described as a small gun with a 1.25 in (32 mm) bore, resting on wheels, with an iron "receiver" 4.5 ft (1.4 m) long containing Keely's mysterious force connected to it by "an iron wire tube" 3/16" in diameter. Keely rammed a small lead ball about 5 oz (140 g) in weight into the gun's muzzle, then tapped the iron "receiver" with a hammer. He explained that this was to stimulate the "vibratory force". He then turned a handle and the ball was fired from the gun with a short, sharp report but no smoke and very little recoil. It was reported that the projectile had been fired a distance of 300 yd (270 m). More shots were fired and their velocity measured; one attained 482 ft/s (147 m/s), another 492 ft/s (150 m/s), and yet another 523 ft/s (159 m/s). The gun was also tested by firing against three 3 in (76 mm) thick spruce planks and penetrated the first and went halfway through the second. Keely said that he had used a pressure of 7,000 psi and could use 30,000 psi.[22]

The following day Keely met with a reporter to whom he declared that his experimenting days were over and that complete success was close. He announced that his motor would be completed in less than two months and that he would then make a public exhibition of its powers.[3]

The vaporic gun failed to impress Lieutenant E.L. Zalinski, who had witnessed the demonstration. He told the President of the Keely Motor Company, A.R. Edey, that with the same apparatus he could perform the same experiments with compressed air, and go even further than Keely had gone. Edey said he would "speak about it to Mr. Keely," but offer was not accepted. Zalinski said that none of the experiments at Sandy Hook showed that Keely had discovered a new force.[23]

Zalinski later attended a demonstration at Keely's workshop in November, in place of Colonel John Hamilton. He later reported that he suggested to Keely that it would be a more complete test of his power if he would discharge a large reservoir which he showed his guests, and then recharge it using his generator. Keely declined to do this, on the grounds that it would take two hours - despite his many statements that he could generate force in a few seconds - and that the reservoir had been "carefully negatized". Keely also claimed to have achieved pressures of 50,000 psi, and that he had broken all his pressure gauges. When Zalinski produced a pressure gauge he had brought with him - capable of registering 10,000 psi - and offered it to Keely, saying "I would like to have you put it on, and break it for me", Keely was momentarily lost for words before saying, "I do not believe in pressure gauges, anyhow."[24]

June 1885 demonstration[edit]

On 6 June 1885 Keely gave what he called "an exhibition" of his motor at his workshop at North Twentieth Street, Philadelphia. Around 20 witnesses attended, including newspaper reporters, a mechanical engineer, and officers and stockholders of the Keely Motor Company. A reporter noticed a "large iron globular object" which he was told was a new engine which Keely was engaged in building.[4]

Keely assembled an apparatus on top of which was screwed a globe with several apertures to which tubes were fixed, leading to cylinders. A reporter asked if he could see the globe's contents, but Keely declined, saying that it would take too long, and that he wished to show results rather than the mechanism. Keely then proceeded by taking a violin bow and rubbing it across one of two large tuning forks which formed part of his apparatus. After making a minor adjustment to the device, he opened a stopcock leading into one of the cylinders and the witnesses heard "a hiss as of escaping air". Keely told them that it was in fact "etheric vapor", adding "It ain't compressed air or any vapor having substance." The force was then used to lift some weights, and Keely claimed that he had about 22,000 psi of pressure at his disposal.[4]

A further demonstration was given, of a rotating iron globe suspended on an axle, which was used to saw some wood. The globe was not opened, Keely saying that it was hollow and empty, and his assistants saying that it contained "some bits of mechanism". A sceptical reporter, who believed that it was in fact operating on compressed air, asked how long the engine could work. Keely replied that he had one run for 40 days, whereupon the reporter suggested he simply run it for half an hour, just making the globe rotate. Keely duly set the globe rotating, and it ran for less than 15 minutes, constantly decreasing in power, before he stopped it.[4]

On 26 March 1886 Keely performed a demonstration before a committee of scientists and engineers from New York, where he obtained a pressure of 2,700 psi apparently by using a single pint of water, and then doubled the pressure by adding more water. Keely claimed that the "etheric force" by which these results were obtained would be utilized as fully as possible in the 25,000 hp engine on which he was then working.[25]

The stockholders of the Keely Motor Company met on 14 December 1887, and expressed their confidence in Keely's ultimate success. Keely did not attend the meeting, but supplied a report in which he reviewed his efforts and experiments since 1882 and announced that he had abandoned "etheric force" in favour of a new force which was unnamed but which he said was based on "vibratory sympathy".[26]

Wilson suit[edit]

On 3 January 1888 an injunction was granted against Keely on behalf of complainant Bennett C. Wilson, who said that in 1863 he had entered into an agreement with Keely, who he had originally engaged to varnish furniture. The agreement was that Wilson was to find tools and materials and pay the expenses of inventions made by Keely, Keely agreeing that all inventions so made, and patents obtained, should be equally owned by him and Wilson. On 14 August 1869 Keely assigned a half ownership in what was referred to as the "Keely motor" to Wilson, who claimed that Keely had then assigned all rights and title to the invention later that same month in return for funds.[27]

Wilson alleged that he had only recently become aware that the machine called the "Keely motor" was the same as the one constructed in 1869 and assigned to him. He asked for an injunction restraining Keely from removing the machine or altering its construction or mode of operation, and requested that an order also be made compelling Keely to exhibit to the complainant all models, machines, and drawings of the invention referred to in the assignments to Wilson, and that an order be made compelling Keely to fully disclose the invention and the mode of constructing and operating it.[27]

On 7 April a formal order was made directing Bennett Wilson, his attorney, and four experts, to make a full and detailed inspection of the Keely motor, its mode of construction, and principle of operation within 30 days. The four experts were named as Dr. Charles M. Cresson, Analytical Chemist of City and State Boards of Health; Thomas Shaw, mechanical engineer; William D. Marks, civil engineer and Professor of Dynamical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania; and Jacob Naylor, iron founder and President of the Eighth National Bank. The result of the inspection was to make known only whether the present Keely motor was or was not the same apparatus that he was alleged to have assigned to Wilson in 1869.[28]

On 18 September it was revealed that Keely had not yet obeyed the court order, despite the time span having been increased to 60 days, and a lawyer representing Bennett Wilson said he believed Keely never would comply with the order and that he had never intended to do so.[29] Finally, on 17 November 1888, Keely was jailed in Moyamensing Prison for contempt of court for refusing the court order to "operate and explain the mode of operation" of the Keely Motor.[30] However, he was soon released on bail on 20 November by three judges of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania.[31]

Finally, on 28 January 1889, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania handed down an opinion reversing the order committing Keely to prison for contempt, and ordered his discharge. The opinion declared that the order commanding Keely to "exhibit, explain, and operate his motor" was premature, and that the court had no right to enforce the order by committing Keely to jail for contempt.[32]

On March 28, 1889 Keely's counsel announced that the inventor had the "missing link" which was needed to make the "vibratory resonator and ethereal generative evaporator" a success. It was described as a copper tube in the form of a loop, with the ends welded together so that no joint could be seen, and had been made in copper due to that metal's "resonant properties". A private demonstration of Keely's motor was promised as soon as the tube was "adjusted", and was stated as likely to occur "in a week or two".[33]

At the Keely Motor Company's stockholders' meeting in December, a report was read from Keely in which he discussed the difficulties he had had with the Board of Directors during 1889 and said that while the work of "graduating" or adjusting his provisional engine had not progressed as rapidly as he had expected, no serious obstacles had presented themselves, and there were no difficulties affecting the principle or "essence" of his work. While he could not give a timescale for when the graduation of the engine would be completed, Keely said that it would not be a protracted period, and that when it was finished, one or more engines would at once be ordered.[34]

In June 1895 the trade journal Electricity published a challenge to Keely, in which they said that they would undertake to repeat every phenomenon produced by Keely within 60 days. Keely ignored this challenge.[35]

After an absence of several years in England, Mrs Moore returned to the US to deal with litigation concerning her late husband's estate. Her advocacy of Keely and his inventions formed part of the case and she decided to strengthen her position by getting eminent physicists to examine his inventions. Among those invited were Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla, both of whom declined the opportunity for various reasons.[36]

Keely again informed the directors of his company in early November 1895 that "before the end of the year" he would "positively be all through with his work to prove conclusively that" he has devised "a practical commercial working engine" operated by his new force.[35]

On 14 November it was reported that another meeting had been arranged between Keely and Mrs Bloomfield Moore and New York capitalists headed by John Jacob Astor, who were interested in the Keely Motor Company.[37] It was reported the following week that Astor had purchased a large interest in the motor from "a person who for some years past has been an enthusiastic advocate of M. Keely".[35]

Also in November 1895, Mrs Moore invited Addison B. Burk, president of the Spring Garden Institute to make an inspection. Burk asked if electrical engineer E. Alexander Scott of the Engineers Club could accompany him, and this was agreed to. In the event, Scott took charge of the investigation as he was familiar with Keely and had talked to him in 1874.[1][36]

Scott made several visits to Keely's workshop, beginning on 9 November 1895, and was shown many demonstrations. Among these was a levitation experiment where heavy weights in sealed flasks of water were made to rise and fall in response to differently pitched sounds from a zither, to activate a "globe liberator" which then transmitted "the aetheric force" through a wire to the water container. This had been shown to many investors and investigators. Scott was accompanied by Burk on his second and third visits and when the two analysed what they had seen they concluded that compressed air had been used in nearly all the experiments, in some cases alongside another more powerful but hidden force. The demonstration with the rising and falling weights was powered by compressed air via a thin tube which Keely had assured Burk and Scott was a solid wire and which was a common feature in nearly every piece of apparatus in Keely's laboratory.[38]

Burk and Scott reported their findings to Mrs Moore, who was concerned by the negative report, and also by dismissive articles in the press. It was reported on 22 March 1896 that Mrs Bloomfield Moore had arranged with Professor Wentworth Lascelles Scott of London to investigate Keely's claims of etheric force and also to examine his other inventions. It was said that "an important series of tests will be made in the presence of the scientist".[39] Lascelles Scott was allowed to examine whatever he wanted and had complete instructions on its use from Keely. After spending a month investigating, Lascelles Scott stated to a meeting of the Franklin Institute that "Keely has demonstrated to me, in a way which is absolutely unquestionable, the existence of a force hitherto unknown."[38]

Since Lascelles Scott and Alexander Scott disagreed, they were brought together to witness more demonstrations by Keely. Mrs Moore suggested that a definitive test would be to cut the wire that Scott alleged was in fact an air pipe, but Keely flatly refused to do so and Mrs Moore, her faith shaken, reduced Keely's monthly salary.

On 24 December 1895 Mrs Bloomfield Moore said that due to the position taken by the managers of the old Keely Motor Company at the annual meeting, and the delay on the part of the stockholders in accepting his proposition for a reorganization, Keely had decided not to take out any patents on his inventions, and would instead adopt a royalty system in dealing with his inventions commercially. Mrs Moore said that at least 30 patents would be required, which would take much time and money which would be better used in developing Keely's system.[40]

On 18 June 1897 Keely demonstrated his new etheric engine to the General Manager of the Manhattan Elevated Railway, the Chief Engineer of Western Union, and a representative of the Metropolitan Traction Company. All were reported as being surprised at the force produced by Keely's new motor, but declined to express any opinion as to its value. The engine was reported as weighing about 200 lb (91 kg) and being capable of developing 10 hp.[41]

Death[edit]

Keely died at his home in Philadelphia from pneumonia on 18 November 1898.[42] His will was admitted to probate on 1 December, and bequeathed his entire estate of about $10,000 to his widow, Anna M. Keely, who was appointed his executor. The will made no reference to his motor.[43]

After his death a close friend revealed that he had once asked Keely what he wanted for an epitaph, and Keely had replied, "Keely, the greatest humbug of the nineteenth century".[44] Keely is buried in West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.

The first meeting of the Keely Motor Company's stockholders following his death was held on 20 December 1898. Charles S. Hill, his widow's attorney, stated that Keely's secret did not exist in manuscript form, but that Keely had suggested before his death that an inventor, Thomas Burton Kinraide of Boston, was the one man who could successfully carry on his work. Hill then announced that he had a secret which he would pass on to only one person. This secret, he said, was "of a nature to encourage the stockholders and to induce them to leave everything in Kinraide's hands for one year". John J. Smith, one of the Company's Directors, was appointed to confer with Hill, and later reported that the secret told to him by Hill "offered great encouragement to the stockholders" but did not divulge any further details.[45]

In January 1899 Kinraide had 20 large packing cases transported to his laboratory in Jamaica Plain, Boston, said to contain the material part of Keely's motor. Kinraide said that he had often talked with Keely about the principles of his invention and said that he felt he knew more about it than any other person. He was to continue with Keely's experiments at the request of Mr. and Mrs Keely.[46] However, on 6 May 1899 it was reported that Kinraide had abandoned all work on the Keely motor and was to return all the machines and notes to the Keely Company. He stated that he wanted nothing more to do with the motor due to the notoriety caused him by the Philadelphia Press's report and when asked whether he thought the motor was a fraud simply replied that he had not arrived at any such conclusion and had decided to make no further investigations.[47]

Philadelphia Press investigation[edit]

On 19 January 1899 The Philadelphia Press published an illustrated article detailing an investigation made by the newspaper of Keely's workshop, in which the Press contended that the investigation had clearly proven Keel's motor to have been "a delusion and deception" and that its alleged mysterious forces were the result of trickery.[48]

The investigation, which took a week, was assisted by consulting engineer Professor Carl Hering, Assistant Professor of Physics at the University of Pennsylvania Professor Arthur W. Goodspeed, Professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania Lightner Witmer, and Doctor M. G. Miller, who superintended digging operations. Electrical engineer Clarence B. Moore, the son of Mrs. Bloomfield Moore, was an observer. The scientists involved substantiated the report with signed statements.[48]

The floors of Keely's workshop were taken up and a brick wall was removed. Inside the wall they found mechanical belts linked to a silent water motor two floors below the laboratory. In the basement there was a three-ton sphere of compressed air that ran the machines through hidden high pressure tubes and switches. The walls, ceilings and even solid beams were found to have concealed tubes. Journalists documented everything photographically to leave no room for doubt. Hering and Goodspeed were of the opinion that the tubing and the large steel sphere in the basement indicated the use of normal forces and possible deception, and Hering said in his signed statement that Keely had probably lied and deceived, and was satisfied that he had used highly compressed air to power his demonstrations.[48]

At a meeting of the Keely Motor Company's board on 25 January 1899, President B. L. Ackerman issued a statement denying the Philadelphia Press report. The statement claimed that the tubes mentioned in the report had been discarded by Keely years before, and that in all his experiments since 1887 only solid wires had been used. Up to that time, it was stated, Keely had been working on a theory of etheric or vaporic force, and used the tubes to convey this force, but after 1887 he was convinced that he had discovered what he called "vibratory sympathy". A concealed electric wire discovered in Keely's workshop was described by Ackerman as the remains of the wires of a burglar alarm, and in no way connected with the force used by Keely's motor. The statement denied all assertions that Keely was an imposter, and declared that there was no trickery in any of the results that Keely had claimed to have obtained.[49]

Present day[edit]

Today, Philadelphia has forgotten all about its infamous resident. Even Keely's old house has completely disappeared and the site is now a private parking lot for the property next door.[50] A model of Keely's engine is in the collection of theFranklin Institute in Philadelphia, and an "Etheric Force Machine" of his dating from 1878 is in the American Precision Museum in Windsor, Vermont.

Keely still has supporters, who continue to claim that he was framed.

 

 

 

"Unfortunately the history books took the 
 debunking as fact and John Keely has been portrayed historically as a 
 and a 
. This is because Clarence Moore found the floor of Keeley's 'workshop' raised and saw a pressure machine that was hooked up to his machines to make them look like they actually worked. Those who have any inkling of 
 who have studied what remains of his work, know these reports to be mostly erroneous."
 
—Jerry Decker, KeelyNet.com
 

 

Keely's theories are now also incorporated in 'Sympathetic Vibratory Physics', a merging of science and new agephilosophy.

Keely's theories were featured prominently in the 1998 book 'Gods of Eden' by Andrew Collins, in relation to the theoretical use of SVP-based devices as systems of levitation.

Notes[edit]
  1. Jump up to:a b Federal Writers' Project, Philadelphia: A Guide to the Nation's Birthplace, US History Publishers, p. 119,ISBN 1-60354-058-X
  2. Jump up^ US Inflation Calculator
  3. Jump up to:a b "KEELY'S ETHERIC VAPOR; HE EXPLAINS HIS INVENTION TO A REPORTER. THE INVENTOR SATISFIED WITH HIS SANDY HOOK EXPERIMENTS--ANOTHER PUBLIC TEST PROMISED SOON." (PDF),New York Times, 22 September 1884
  4. Jump up to:a b c d "KEELY'S RED LETTER DAY; HE STARTS HIS MOTOR FOR A FEW MORE TURNS. SOME CURIOUS TRICKERY WHICH HIS STOCKHOLDERS APPLAUDED AND HIS LEARNED EXPLANATION OF IT." (PDF),New York Times, 7 June 1885
  5. Jump up to:a b c Own, Our (11 June 1875), "THE KEELY MOTOR.; WHAT IS CLAIMED FOR IT." (PDF), New York Times
  6. Jump up^ "MRS. BLOOMFIELD MOORE DEAD.; Philadelphia Woman, Interested in the Keely Motor, Dies in London -- An Eventful Life." (PDF), New York Times, 6 January 1899
  7. Jump up^ "RID OF KEELY AT LAST.; HIS GREATEST BENEFACTOR WASHES HER HANDS OF THE "INVENTOR."" (PDF), New York Times, 18 December 1890
  8. Jump up^ "KEELY'S SECRET DEMANDED.; THE STOCKHOLDERS OF THE MOTOR COMPANY WANT TO KNOW SOMETHING." (PDF), New York Times, 15 December 1881
  9. Jump up^ "KEELY WISHES TO KEEP HIS SECRET." (PDF),New York Times, 21 January 1882
  10. Jump up^ "SEEKING KEELY'S SECRET." (PDF), New York Times, 28 March 1882
  11. Jump up^ "KEELY TO DIVULGE HIS SECRET." (PDF), New York Times, 2 April 1882
  12. Jump up^ "KEELY'S ALLELGED MOTOR." (PDF), New York Times, 25 May 1882
  13. Jump up^ "ONE MAN TO KNOW KEELY'S SECRET." (PDF),New York Times, 8 June 1882
  14. Jump up^ "MR.KEELY NOT YET READY.; ANNUAL MEETING OF THE MOTOR COMPANY --REPORTS OF KEELY AND BOEKEL." (PDF), New York Times, 14 December 1882
  15. Jump up^ "THE KEELY MOTOR COMPLETED.; TO BE READY FOR OPERATION THE FIRST WEEK IN SEPTEMBER." (PDF), New York Times, 29 August 1883
  16. Jump up^ "MR. KEELY'S PERFORMANCES.; ANOTHER POSTPONEMENT OF THE MOTOR TEST ANNOUNCED." (PDF), New York Times, 30 August 1883
  17. Jump up^ "DISGUSTED KEELY MOTOR MEN." (PDF), New York Times, 30 October 1883
  18. Jump up^ "KEELY EXPLAINS AGAIN." (PDF), New York Times, 31 October 1883
  19. Jump up^ "MORE TIME FOR KEELY.; THE MOTOR MAN GRANTED TWO MONTHS TO COMPLETE HIS INVENTION." (PDF), New York Times, 13 December 1883
  20. Jump up^ "THE MOTOR STILL NOT READY." (PDF), New York Times, 2 February 1884
  21. Jump up^ "KEELY NOT YET READY." (PDF), New York Times, 26 March 1884
  22. Jump up^ "KEELY'S VAPORIC FORCE.; EXPERIMENTS WITH A MYSTERIOUS GUN AT SANDY HOOK." (PDF), New York Times, 21 September 1884
  23. Jump up^ "LIEUT. ZALINSKI AND MR. KEELY." (PDF), New York Times, 24 September 1884
  24. Jump up^ "KEELY BEARDED IN HIS DEN; TOO MUCH NECROMANCY AND TOO LITTLE SCIENCE. LIEUT. ZALINSKI'S VISIT TO THE PHILADELPHIA CONJURER UNSATISFACTORY--WHAT COMPRESSED AIR WILL DO." (PDF), New York Times, 16 November 1884
  25. Jump up^ "KEELY STILL PROMISING WONDERS." (PDF),New York Times, 27 March 1886
  26. Jump up^ "KEELY'S CHANGE OF BASE; HIS "ETHERIC FORCE" LONG SINCE ABANDONED. "VIBRATORY SYMPATHY" HIS PLEA NOW FOR EXTRACTING MONEY FROM CONFIDING STOCKHOLDERS."(PDF), New York Times, 15 December 1887
  27. Jump up to:a b "THE MOTOR GETS INTO COURT.; A SUIT WHICH MAY FORCE KEELY TO SHOW HIS HAND." (PDF),New York Times, 4 January 1888
  28. Jump up^ "THE KEELY MOTOR EXPERTS." (PDF), New York Times, 8 April 1888
  29. Jump up^ "KEELY NOT YET IN JAIL.; WHY THE COURT HESITATES TO COMMIT HIM." (PDF), New York Times, 19 September 1888
  30. Jump up^ "INVENTOR KEELY IN JAIL.; SENT TO PRISON FOR REFUSING TO OBEY THE COURT." (PDF), New York Times, 18 November 1888
  31. Jump up^ "KEELY OUT ON BAIL.; THE CONTEMPT CASE BEFORE THE SUPREME COURT." (PDF), New York Times, 21 November 1888
  32. Jump up^ "KEELY NOT IN CONTEMPT.; THE ORDER COMMITTING HIM REVERSED BY THE SUPREME COURT." (PDF), New York Times, 29 January 1889
  33. Jump up^ "KEELY'S MISSING LINK." (PDF), New York Times, 28 March 1889
  34. Jump up^ "KEELEY STILL PROMISING.; CONSOLING HIS VICTIMS WITH EMPTY WORDS. HE ADMITS THAT HIS "GRADUATING" WORK IS SADLY BEHINDS BUT CLAIMS ULTIMATE SUCCESS FOR HIS "MOTOR.""(PDF), New York Times, 18 December 1889
  35. Jump up to:a b c "KEELY'S MOTOR." (PDF), New York Times, 8 November 1895
  36. Jump up to:a b Ord-Hume, Arthur W. J. G. (2006), Perpetual Motion: The History of an Obsession, Adventures Unlimited Press, p. 143, ISBN 1-931882-51-7
  37. Jump up^ "Astor and Keely to Confer Again" (PDF), New York Times, 15 November 1895
  38. Jump up to:a b Ord-Hume, p. 144
  39. Jump up^ "To Investigate Keely's Claims." (PDF), New York Times, 22 March 1896
  40. Jump up^ "What Keely Will Do." (PDF), New York Times, 25 December 1895
  41. Jump up^ "A KEELY MOTOR TESTED.; New Etheric Engine and Its Powers Displayed in Philadelphia to Representative Railroad Men." (PDF), New York Times, 20 June 1897
  42. Jump up^ "KEELY, THE INVENTOR, DEAD.; Maker of the Famous "Motor" Expires Suddenly at His Home in Philadelphia." (PDF), The New York Times, 19 November 1898
  43. Jump up^ "INVENTOR KEELY'S WILL FILED." (PDF), The New York Times, 2 December 1898
  44. Jump up^ Ord-Hume, p. 147
  45. Jump up^ "THE KEELY MOTOR COMPANY.; Stockholders Hardly Know What to Do Now that Keely Is Dead -- Mysterious Communication." (PDF), The New York Times, 21 December 1898
  46. Jump up^ "KEELY'S MOTOR IN BOSTON.; Mr. Kinraide to Continue Experiments with the Invention." (PDF), The New York Times, 4 January 1899
  47. Jump up^ "KEELY MOTOR ABANDONED.; T. Burton Kinraide Will Have No More to Do with It." (PDF), The New York Times, 7 May 1899
  48. Jump up to:a b c "Keely's Secret Disclosed.; Scientists Examine His Laboratory and Discover Hidden Tubes in Proof of His Deception." (PDF), The New York Times, 20 January 1899
  49. Jump up^ "DENIES KEELY WAS AN IMPOSTOR; President of the Motor Company Defends the Dead Inventor." (PDF),The New York Times, 26 January 1889
  50. Jump up^ Ord-Hume, p. 150
References[edit]
  • Schadewald, Robert J. (2008), Worlds of Their Own - A Brief History of Misguided Ideas: Creationism, Flat-Earthism, Energy Scams, and the Velikovsky Affair, Xlibris, ISBN 978-1-4363-0435-1
  • Paijmans, Theo (1998), Free Energy Pioneer: John Worrell Keely, Illuminet Press, ISBN 1-881532-15-1
External links[edit] Authority control

 

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Ca bine zici :biggrin:

Din pacate nu imi ajunge timpul sa citesc un post de marimea celui de mai sus. Cred ca poate concura cu succes la categoria cel mai lung post intr-un forum. Din toate tipurile sa fie clar :laugh:

Altfel Vladisto ce mai zici cu ce te mai lauzi?

Cred ca ma insor la 16 iunie 2016. Poti intra pe facebook la Vladimir Valahul Stoica sa vorbim acolo. E valabil pentru orice pasionat de fizica. Si cred ca am gasit pe cineva dornic sa se implice in punerea in practica a tahionator convertorului capitanului de marina din al doilea razboi mondial, Hans Kohler. Toate cele bune tuturor bikerilor si celor care le place fizica!

 

Despre turbina cu gaze folosita la propulsia farfuriei zburatoare a fratilor Panait si Grigore Nica:

 

Turbină cu gaze

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liberă
 
 
400px-Turbina_cu_gaze_animata.gif
 
Schema funcţionării unei turbine cu gaze cu compresor axial.

turbină cu gaze este o turbină termică, care utilizează căderea de entalpie a unui gaz sau a unui amestec de gaze pentru a produce prin intermediul unor palete care se rotesc în jurul unui ax o cantitate de energie mecanică disponibilă la cupla turbinei.[1][2] Turbina cu gaze mai este cunoscută și sub denumirea deinstalație de turbină cu gaze (ITG).

Din punct de vedere termodinamic o turbină cu gaze funcționează destul de asemănător cu motorul unui automobil. Aerul din atmosferă este admis într-un compresor cu palete, unde este comprimat, urmează introducerea unui combustibil, aprinderea și arderea lui într-o cameră de ardere. Gazele de ardere se destind într-o turbină, care extrage din ele lucrul mecanic, iar apoi sunt evacuate în atmosferă. Procesul este continuu, iar piesele execută doar mișcări de rotație, ceea ce pentru o putere dată conduce la o masă totală a instalației mai mică. Ca urmare, turbinele cu gaze s-au dezvoltat în special ca motoare deaviație, însă își găsesc aplicații în multe alte domenii, unul dintre cele mai moderne fiind termocentralele cu cicluri combinate abur-gaz.

 

Cuprins   [ascunde

 

Istoric[modificare | modificare sursă]

Dezvoltarea turbinelor cu gaze este de dată mult mai recentă decât a turbinelor în general, și de dată mai recentă decât a turbinelor cu abur.

În 1791 englezul John Barber a brevetat prima adevărată turbină cu gaze, turbină care avea principalele elemente din turbinele cu gaze moderne.[3] În 1872 Dr. F. Stolger din Germania a construit prima turbină cu gaze, care însă n-a funcționat niciodată independent.[3]

În 1903 norvegianul Ægidius Elling a construit prima turbină cu gaze funcțională, care a produs lucru mecanic, eveniment important, luând în considerare lipsa de cunoștințe de aerodinamică a vremii. Turbina sa a reușit să producă o putere de 11 cai putere, foarte mult pentru zilele respective. Din turbina sa s-a inspirat Frank Whittle.

În 1914 Charles Curtis a realizat prima aplicație practică a unei turbine cu gaze.

În 1918 General Electric, unul din cei mai mari producători, inclusiv din zilele noastre, își începe producția de turbine cu gaze.

250px-RD-500_turbojet.jpg
 
Turboreactor RD-500, clonă a Rolls-Royce Nene, fabricat în URSS.

În 1930 englezul Frank Whittle brevetează proiectul unei turbine cu gaze pentru propulsia avioanelor (motor cu reacție).[4][5] Realizarea practică a acestui proiect s-a făcut însă abia în anul 1937. Compresorul acestui motor era de tip centrifugal, și pe baza lui s-a dezvoltat motorul Rolls-Royce Welland, care a echipat avionul Gloster Meteor.

În 1936 Hans von Ohain și Max Hahn dezvoltă în Germania un motor cu reacție bazat pe un brevet propriu.[5][6] Compresorul acestui motor era de tip axial, și pe baza lui s-a dezvoltat motorul Junkers Jumo 004 care a echipat avionul Messersmitt Me 262.

Clasificarea turbinelor cu gaze[modificare | modificare sursă]
Articol principal: Turbină cu abur.

În afară de clasificarea turbinelor termice în general, turbinele cu gaze se pot clasifica:[1][2]

După destinație[modificare | modificare sursă] După modul de recuperare a căldurii evacuate[modificare | modificare sursă]
  • turbine cu recuperator;
  • turbine fără recuperator.
După felul ciclului în care lucrează[modificare | modificare sursă]
  • cu ciclu închis;
  • cu ciclu deschis.
Principiul de funcționare[modificare | modificare sursă] Ciclul Joule[modificare | modificare sursă]

Cea mai simplă turbină cu gaze este formată dintr-un compresor, care este montat pe același ax cu o turbină. Compresorul absoarbe aerul din atmosferă și îl comprimă la presiunea de câțiva bar. Aerul comprimat ajunge într-o cameră de ardere, în care este introdus și un combustibil. Aici are loc arderea la presiune constantă, cu creșterea temperaturii și a volumului gazelor produse prin ardere. Gazele de ardere se destind în turbină, producând lucru mecanic, iar apoi sunt evacuate în atmosferă.[1][7] Ciclul termodinamic al unei astfel de turbine cu gaze este ciclul Joule,[8] cunoscut în literatura engleză de specialitate ca ciclul Brayton.

450px-Turbina_cu_gaze_ciclu.png
 
Transformările care au loc în diferitele părţi componente ale unei turbine cu gaze.

Transformările termodinamice din ciclu sunt:

  • 1 – 2 compresie izoentropică;
  • 2 - 3 încălzire izobară;
  • 3 - 4 destindere izoentropică;
  • 4 - 1 răcire izobară.

Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule ideal fără recuperator este:[9][10]

ηt=11ϵk1k

unde ϵ este raportul de compresie = p2 / p1, iar k este exponentul adiabatic al gazului.

Pentru aer, cu k = 1,4 , și pentru un raport de compresie de 15 (valoare uzuală), randamentul termic al ciclului este de 0,539. Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule ideal crește continuu cu creșterea raportului de compresie, însă creșterea acestui raport este limitată de rezistența materialelor și de pierderile din ciclul real.

250px-Ts_Real_Brayton_Cycle_2.png
 
Ciclul Joule real ( cu albastru), faţă de ciclul Joule ideal (cu negru).

Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule real fără recuperator, luând în considerare și randamentele interne ale turbinei ηT și compresorului ηC este:[11]

ηt=1T3T1ηT(11ϵk1k)1ηC(ϵk1k1)T3T111ηC(Πk1k1)

Pentru aer, un raport de compresie de 15, T1 = 300 K , T3 = 1500 K, ηT = 0,85 și ηC = 0,75 (valori uzuale) randamentul ciclului real este de 0,300 , mult mai mic decât al ciclului ideal. Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule real are un maxim pentru un anumit raport de compresie (pentru exemplul de mai sus, chiar acel 15). În practică, randamentele efective (la cuplă) sunt și mai mici decât cele termice, datorită influenței randamentului mecanic al agregatului.

Ciclul Joule cu recuperator[modificare | modificare sursă]
250px-Ts_Ideal_Brayton_Cycle_2.png
 
Ciclul Joule cu recuperarea căldurii evacuate.

Pentru mărirea randamentului termic se folosesc recuperatoare care recuperează o parte din căldura evacuată odată cu gazele arse în atmosferă q4-4' și o reintroduc în ciclu q2-2'. Randamentul termic al ciclului Joule ideal cu recuperator este:[12]

1T1T3T2T111T4T3

Pentru exemplul de mai sus cu ϵ = 15, din transformarea izoentropică se obțin T2 = 650 K , T4 = 692 K, cu care randamentul ciclului este de 0,567, ceva mai mare decât a ciclului fără recuperator. În exemplul prezentat diferența între T4 și T2 este mică, deci câștigul dat de recuperator este mic. În practică este greu de obținut o diferență de temperaturi mare, din cauza limitărilor date de materiale. În ciclul real influența recuperatorului este ceva mai mare, dar nu cu mult. Expresia matematică a randamentului termic al ciclului Joule real cu recuperator se complică foarte mult.

Ciclu cu fracționarea compresiei sau a destinderii[modificare | modificare sursă]

O altă cale de îmbunătățire a randamentului termic al ciclului este fracționarea compresiei, cu răcirea intermediară a aerului, respectiv fracționarea destinderii în turbină, cu reîncălzirea agentului termic, aspecte detaliate în ciclu termodinamic.

Realizarea practică a răcirii intermediare a aerului comprimat se poate face:

  • la turbine cu gaze de aviație, unde greutatea agregatului e critică, prin injecție de apă între treptele compresorului;
  • la celelalte turbine, prin schimbătoare de căldură montate între trepte.

Realizarea practică a reîncălzirii gazelor se poate face:

  • prin arderea unei cantități suplimentare de combustibil în camere de ardere intermediare între corpurile turbinei;
  • prin schimbătoare de căldură montate între corpurile turbinei.

Ambele metode măresc mult dimensiunile instalației și nu sunt adecvate pentru turbinele cu gaze de aviație.

Ciclu deschis și închis[modificare | modificare sursă]

La turbinele cu gaze care lucrează cu aer absorbit din atmosferă și evacuează gazele de ardere tot în atmosferă (majoritatea cazurilor), ciclul nu este efectuat complet în instalație, transformarea 4-1 efectuându-se în atmosferă. Se spune că turbina lucrează în ciclu deschis. Dacă însă se folosește un alt agent termic, diferit de aer, acesta trebuie reținut, caz în care toate transformările din ciclu se realizează în instalație, și se spune că turbina lucrează în ciclu închis. Astfel de cicluri închise se întâlnesc în centrale nucleare, iar agentul termic este uzual dioxidul de carbon sau heliul.

Poluarea cauzată[modificare | modificare sursă]

Poluanții emiși de turbinele cu gaze sunt aceiași ca în oricare alt proces de ardere: dioxizii de carbon (CO2) și de sulf (SO2), monoxidul de carbon (CO) și oxizii de azot (NOx).

Reducerea CO2 este limitată de fenomenul de ardere în sine, cantitățile emise fiind proporționale cu cantitățile de combustibil ars. Reducerea acestor emisii se poate face prin îmbunătățirea randamentului ciclului termic, îmbunătățire care, pentru o putere dată a turbinei, determină un consum de combustibil mai redus.

Reducerea SO2 se poate obține numai folosind un combustibil fără sulf. De aceea este preferat gazul natural. Dacă se folosesc combustibili lichizi (de exemplu la turbinele mobile), este preferabilă desulfurarea prealabilă a combustibilului la rafinărie.[13]

Reducerea CO se poate obține printr-o ardere completă din punct de vedere chimic (ardere perfectă) a combustibilului, lucru care necesită cantități de aer sporite în procesul de ardere, însă acest lucru nu este o problemă la turbinele cu gaze, care oricum funcționează cu cantități de aer mai mari decât strict cele necesare arderii. Eventualele urme pot fi eliminate prin metode SCR - reducere selectivă catalitică (engleză Selective Catalytic Reduction).[14]

Reducerea NOx se poate obține prin scăderea temperaturilor de ardere, ceea ce însă afectează randamentul ciclului, sau prin reducerea chimică a NOx format, de exemplu prin procedee SCR sau SNCR - reducere selectivă necatalitică (engleză Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction). Ambele procedee au dezavantaje, SCR necesită catalizatori scumpi, care se consumă, iar SNCR produce emisii de amoniac (NH3).[14]

Măsurile de reducere ale poluanților sunt costisitoare și se justifică în cazul emisiilor totale mari, în speță pentru țările industrializate.

Descrierea părților componente[modificare | modificare sursă] Compresorul[modificare | modificare sursă]
250px-Compressor_Stage_GE_J79.jpg
 
Compresorul axial cu 17 trepte al unui turboreactor GE J79.

Rolul compresorului este de a realiza comprimarea agentului termic (de obicei aerul), realizând transformarea 1 – 2 din ciclul Joule. Se folosesc exclusiv compresoare cu palete.

Compresoarele pot fi:

Compresoarele centrifugale au un raport de compresie pe treaptă mai mare, deci pentru un raport de compresie total dat trebuie mai puține trepte, deci agregatul rezultă mai ușor. Randamentul acestor compresoare este însă mai mic. Compresorul centrifugal s-a folosit la primele motoare cu reacție ale lui Frank Whittle, inclusiv la motorul Rolls-Royce Nene. Actual este folosit pe scară largă la turbinele cu gaze pentru elicoptere mici, agregate care trebuie să fie cât mai ușoare.

Compresoarele axiale au un raport de compresie pe treaptă mai mic, deci pentru un raport de compresie total dat trebuie multe trepte, deci agregatul rezultă mai lung, însă de diametru mai mic. Randamentul acestor compresoare este mai bun. Compresorul axial este folosit pe scară largă la turbinele cu gaze pentru toate turbinele pentru propulsia avioanelor, unde contează diametrul mic și randamentul bun, și toate turbinele energetice, unde contează randamentul bun.

Camera de ardere[modificare | modificare sursă]
220px-Combustion_chamber_GE_J79.jpg
 
Camerele de ardere individuale ale unui turboreactor GE J79.

Rolul camerei de ardere este de a realiza introducerea căldurii în ciclu prin arderea unui combustibil, realizând transformarea 2 – 3 din ciclul Joule. Camerele de ardere au în interior o cămașă răcită cu aerul de diluție, cămașă care ecranează flacăra și protejează astfel corpul exterior al camerei. Aprinderea inițială se face cu o bujie.

Camerele de ardere pot fi:

  • individuale;
  • inelare.

Camerele de ardere individuale sunt de formă tubulară și se montează mai multe în jurul axului agregatului. În camerele de ardere individuale este mai ușor de asigurat stabilitatea arderii, adică se evită ruperea flăcării, iar în caz de rupere, ruperea nu se propagă în celelalte camere, ba din contră, acestea, prin canalizații prevăzute special în acest scop ajută la reaprindere. Nu întotdeauna fiecare cameră de ardere are bujie proprie, deoarece, cum s-a spus, camerele comunică între ele și flacăra se transmite.

Camerele de ardere inelare au un spațiu de ardere unic, inelar. În aceste camere este mai greu de stabilizat flacăra, dozajul aer-combustibil, vitezele de introducere a aerului prin diversele secțiuni și geometria camerei fiind critice. Camerele inelare însă au mai puține repere și sunt mai ușoare, fiind din punct de vedere tehnologic mai evoluate.

Combustibilii folosiți la turbinele cu gaze sunt:

Deși camerele de ardere pot arde și combustibili solizi (cărbune sub formă de praf), cenușa conținută de acest tip de combustibili este abrazivă, astfel că ei nu sunt folosiți. Dacă totuși se dorește folosirea lor drept combustibili pentru turbine cu gaze, cea mai bună soluție este gazeificarea lor prealabilă. De asemenea, gazele care conțin praf trebuie în prealabil desprăfuite.

Turbina[modificare | modificare sursă]
150px-Turbine_Stage_GE_J79.jpg
 
Turbina cu 3 trepte a unui turboreactor GE J79.

Rolul turbinei este de a realiza destinderea agentului termic (de obicei gaze de ardere), realizând transformarea 3 – 4 din ciclul Joule. Turbina transformă entalpia a gazelor întâi în energie cinetică, prin accelerarea prin destindere a agentului termic și transformarea de către palete a acestei energii în lucru mecanic, transmis discurilor turbinei și apoi arborelui.

250px-Turbinenschaufel_RB199.jpg
 
Paleta unei turbine cu gaze Rolls-Royce/Turbo-Union RB 199. Pe bordul de atac se observă orificiile pentru obţinerea filmului de aer necesar pentru răcirea paletei.

Piesele esențiale sunt ajutajele turbinei (a nu se confunda cu ajutajul unui turboreactor) și paletele, piese supuse unor solicitări termice și mecanice extreme. De aceea ele trebuie construite din materiale speciale, rezistente la temperaturi cât mai mari și se prevăd cu sisteme de răcire. Actual, temperaturile la intrarea în turbină au depășit în unele cazuri (turbine pentru avioane militare) temperatura de 1800 °C, paletele fiind făcute în acest caz din materiale ceramice poroase, prin porii lor circulând aer provenit de la compresor, relativ rece.

Arborele[modificare | modificare sursă]
200px-Gas_Turbine_RR_Olympus593.jpg
 
Turboreactorul Rolls-RoyceOlympus 593 cu doi arbori coaxiali, folosit la motorizarea avionuluiConcorde.
200px-Gas_Turbine_RR_RB211.jpg
 
Turboventilatorul Rolls-RoyceRB 211 cu trei arbori coaxiali, folosit la motorizarea avionului Lockheed L-1011 „TriStar”.

Arborele turbinei asigură transmiterea puterii între turbină, compresor, cuplă, demaror, pompe etc. Un singur arbore nu asigură turațiile optime pentru toate componentele, așa că există construcții pe unul sau pe mai mulți arbori coaxiali.

  • Schemele cu un arbore sunt specifice primelor turbine cu gaze. Aceste scheme permit antrenarea compresorului la turația turbinei și, printr-un reductor a elicelor, pompelor sau generatoarelor electrice.
  • Schemele cu doi arbori au pe arborele exterior turbina de înaltă presiune și compresorul de înaltă presiune, iar pe arborele interior turbina de joasă presiune, compresorul de joasă presiune și eventual acționarea reductorului. Aceste scheme sunt obișnuite la turbinele de aviația actuale.
  • Schemele cu trei arbori au pe arborele exterior turbina de înaltă presiune și compresorul de înaltă presiune, pe arborele intermediar turbina de medie presiune și compresorul de joasă presiune, iar pe arborele interior turbina de joasă presiune și acționarea reductorului. La schemele cu trei arbori este foarte dificilă coordonarea lor și foarte puțini producători din lume dispun de tehnologia necesară în aceste caz.
Exemple de utilizări ale turbinelor cu gaze[modificare | modificare sursă] Turbine cu gaze pentru aviație[modificare | modificare sursă]
200px-Turbojet_operation-_centrifugal_fl
 
Turboreactor cu compresor centrifugal.
200px-Turbojet_operation-_axial_flow_%28
 
Turboreactor cu compresor axial.

Turbinele cu gaze pentru aviație sunt cunoscute și sub numele de motoare cu reacție, însă denumirea de motor cu reacție acoperă o arie mai largă, ea cuprinde și agregatele de tracțiune prin reacție care nu au turbine.

Turboreactorul[15] (engleză Turbojet) este o turbină cu gaze la care destinderea în turbină se face până la o presiune anume, peste presiunea atmosferică, astfel încât turbina extrage din fluxul de gaze arse doar puterea necesară antrenării compresorului. În continuare, gazele de ardere se destind până la presiunea atmosferică într-un ajutaj plasat după turbină, ajutaj care generează forța de propulsie pentru avion. Turboreactoarele sunt eficiente la viteze de zbor relativ mari, cu numărul Mach peste 0,8 (cca. 900 km/h la nivelul solului, respectiv cca. 800 km/h la nivelul zborului de croazieră).

200px-Turboprop_operation_%28ro%29.png
 
Turbopropulsor.

Turbopropulsorul[15] (engleză Turboprop) este o turbină cu gaze la care destinderea în turbină se face până la presiunea atmosferică, astfel că turbina extrage din fluxul de gaze arse o putere mai mare decât cea necesară antrenării compresorului. Puterea în plus este folosită la antrenarea unei elice plasată în fața motorului. Turbopropulsoarele sunt eficiente la viteze de zbor mai mici, cu numărul Mach între 0,5 și 1,0 (cca. 600 – 1200 km/h la nivelul solului, respectiv cca. 500 – 1000 km/h la nivelul zborului de croazieră).

200px-Turbofan_operation_%28ro%29.png